Correction to: Oral vaccination of dogs: a well-studied and undervalued tool for achieving human and dog rabies elimination
The original article [1] contained an error in the Author details paragraph. “5Neglected Zoonotic Diseases, World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland ” should be replaced by “5Le Grand-Saconnex, Switzerland ”. (Source: Veterinary Research)
Source: Veterinary Research - August 30, 2018 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

A G1-lineage H9N2 virus with oviduct tropism causes chronic pathological changes in the infundibulum and a long-lasting drop in egg production
In this study, we investigated the importance of the G1-lineage H9N2 A/chicken/Israel/1163/2011 virus as a primary pathogen in layers, analyzing its tropism and binding affinity for the oviduct tissues, and investigating the long-term impact on egg production. Besides causing a mild respiratory infection, the virus replicated in the oviduct of 60% of the hens causing different degrees of salpingitis throughout the organ, in particular at the level of the infundibulum, where the detection of the virus was associated with severe heterophilic infiltrate, and necrosis of the epithelium. Binding affinity assays confirmed that t...
Source: Veterinary Research - August 29, 2018 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Pathobiology of Tennessee 2017 H7N9 low and high pathogenicity avian influenza viruses in commercial broiler breeders and specific pathogen free layer chickens
AbstractIn March 2017, H7N9 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus was detected in 2 broiler breeder farms in the state of Tennessee, USA. Subsequent surveillance detected the low pathogenicity avian influenza (LPAI) virus precursor in multiple broiler breeder farms and backyard poultry in Tennessee and neighboring states. The pathogenesis of the H7N9 LPAI virus was investigated in commercial broiler breeders, the bird type mostly affected in this outbreak. Infectivity, transmissibility, and pathogenesis of the H7N9 HPAI and LPAI viruses were also studied in 4-week-old specific pathogen free (SPF) leghorn chickens....
Source: Veterinary Research - August 29, 2018 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

A G1-lineage H9N2 virus with oviduct tropism causes chronic pathological changes in the infundibulum and a long-lasting drop in egg production
In this study, we investigated the importance of the G1-lineage H9N2 A/chicken/Israel/1163/2011 virus as a primary pathogen in layers, analyzing its tropism and binding affinity for the oviduct tissues, and investigating the long-term impact on egg production. Besides causing a mild respiratory infection, the virus replicated in the oviduct of 60% of the hens causing different degrees of salpingitis throughout the organ, in particular at the level of the infundibulum, where the detection of the virus was associated with severe heterophilic infiltrate, and necrosis of the epithelium. Binding affinity assays confirmed that t...
Source: Veterinary Research - August 29, 2018 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Pathobiology of Tennessee 2017 H7N9 low and high pathogenicity avian influenza viruses in commercial broiler breeders and specific pathogen free layer chickens
AbstractIn March 2017, H7N9 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus was detected in 2 broiler breeder farms in the state of Tennessee, USA. Subsequent surveillance detected the low pathogenicity avian influenza (LPAI) virus precursor in multiple broiler breeder farms and backyard poultry in Tennessee and neighboring states. The pathogenesis of the H7N9 LPAI virus was investigated in commercial broiler breeders, the bird type mostly affected in this outbreak. Infectivity, transmissibility, and pathogenesis of the H7N9 HPAI and LPAI viruses were also studied in 4-week-old specific pathogen free (SPF) leghorn chickens....
Source: Veterinary Research - August 29, 2018 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Characterization of peritoneal cells from cats with experimentally-induced feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) using RNA-seq
AbstractLaboratory cats were infected with a serotype I cat-passaged field strain of FIP virus (FIPV) and peritoneal cells harvested 2 –3 weeks later at onset of lymphopenia, fever and serositis. Comparison peritoneal cells were collected from four healthy laboratory cats by peritoneal lavage and macrophages predominated in both populations. Differential mRNA expression analysis identified 5621 genes as deregulated in peritoneal cells from FIPV infected versus normal cats; 956 genes showed>  2.0 Log2 Fold Change (Log2FC) and 1589 genes showed
Source: Veterinary Research - August 7, 2018 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Newcastle disease virus-attenuated vaccine LaSota played a key role in the pathogenicity of contaminated exogenous virus
This study showed the interactions of FAdV, CIAV and LaSota after using contaminated NDV-attenuated vaccine, helping us to understand how the contaminated exogenous viruses cause infection and induce severe disease at a relatively low dose through the oral route. (Source: Veterinary Research)
Source: Veterinary Research - August 6, 2018 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Microbial communities and inflammatory response in the endometrium differ between normal and metritic dairy cows at 5 –10 days post-partum
AbstractPost-partum metritis is among the most prevalent disease in dairy cows affecting animal welfare and inflicting considerable economic loses. While post-partum contamination of the uterus is rife in dairy cows, only a fraction of these animals will develop metritis. Our main objective was to compare the bacterial communities and the inflammatory response in the endometrium of healthy and metritic dairy cows. Holstein –Friesian cows (n = 35) were sampled immediately following clinical classification as healthy (n = 21), suffering from metritis (n = 13) or septic metritis...
Source: Veterinary Research - August 2, 2018 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Spatio-temporal modelling of verotoxigenic Escherichia coli O157 in cattle in Sweden: exploring options for control
AbstractA spatial data-driven stochastic model was developed to explore the spread of verotoxigenicEscherichia coli O157 (VTEC O157) by livestock movements and local transmission among neighbouring holdings in the complete Swedish cattle population. Livestock data were incorporated to model the time-varying contact network between holdings and population demographics. Furthermore, meteorological data with the average temperature at the geographical location of each holding was used to incorporate season. The model was fitted against observed data and extensive numerical experiments were conducted to investigate the model &...
Source: Veterinary Research - August 2, 2018 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Molecular characterization of Trichinella spiralis galectin and its participation in larval invasion of host ’s intestinal epithelial cells
AbstractThe aim of this study was to study the molecular characteristics ofTrichinella spiralis galectin (Tsgal) and interactions between Tsgal and host ’s intestinal epithelial cells (IECs). The functional domain of Tsgal was cloned and expressed in anE. coli system. The Tsgal was 97.1% identity to the galectin ofT. nativa and 20.8% identity to the galectin-8 of humans. Conserved domain analysis revealed that Tsgal belongs to TR-type galectin and has two carbon recognized domain. The rTsgal with 29.1  kDa could be recognized byT. spiralis-infected mice at 42  days post-infection (dpi). The transcription an...
Source: Veterinary Research - August 2, 2018 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Innovative drugs, chemicals, and enzymes within the animal production chain
AbstractThe alarming number of recently reported human illnesses with bacterial infections resistant to multiple antibacterial agents has become a serious concern in recent years. This phenomenon is a core challenge for both the medical and animal health communities, since the use of antibiotics has formed the cornerstone of modern medicine for treating bacterial infections. The empirical benefits of using antibiotics to address animal health issues in animal agriculture (using therapeutic doses) and increasing the overall productivity of animals (using sub-therapeutic doses) are well established. The use of antibiotics to...
Source: Veterinary Research - July 31, 2018 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Microbial-derived products as potential new antimicrobials
The objectives of the 2nd International Symposium on Alternatives to Antibiotics were to highlight promising research results and novel technologies that can provide alternatives to antibiotics for use in animal health and production, assess challenges associated with their authorization and commercialization for use, and provide actionable strategies to support their development. The session on microbial-derived products was directed at presenting novel technologies that included exploiting CRISPR-Cas nucleases to produce sequence-specific antimicrobials, probiotics development via fecal microbiome transplants among monog...
Source: Veterinary Research - July 31, 2018 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Vaccines as alternatives to antibiotics for food producing animals. Part 1: challenges and needs
This article, part of a two-part series, synthesizes and expands on the expert panel discussions regarding opportunities, challenges and needs for the development of vaccines that may reduce the need for use of antibiotics in animals; new approaches and potential solutions will be discussed in part 2 of this series. Vaccines are widely used to prevent infections in food animals. Various studies have demonstrated that their animal agricultural use can lead to significant reductions in antibiotic consumption, making them promising alternatives to antibiotics. To be widely used in food producing animals, vaccines have to be s...
Source: Veterinary Research - July 31, 2018 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

The potential for immunoglobulins and host defense peptides (HDPs) to reduce the use of antibiotics in animal production
AbstractInnate defense mechanisms are aimed at quickly containing and removing infectious microorganisms and involve local stromal and immune cell activation, neutrophil recruitment and activation and the induction of host defense peptides (defensins and cathelicidins), acute phase proteins and complement activation. As an alternative to antibiotics, innate immune mechanisms are highly relevant as they offer rapid general ways to, at least partially, protect against infections and enable the build-up of a sufficient adaptive immune response. This review describes two classes of promising alternatives to antibiotics based o...
Source: Veterinary Research - July 31, 2018 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Phytochemicals as antibiotic alternatives to promote growth and enhance host health
AbstractThere are heightened concerns globally on emerging drug-resistant superbugs and the lack of new antibiotics for treating human and animal diseases. For the agricultural industry, there is an urgent need to develop strategies to replace antibiotics for food-producing animals, especially poultry and livestock. The 2nd International Symposium on Alternatives to Antibiotics was held at the World Organization for Animal Health in Paris, France, December 12 –15, 2016 to discuss recent scientific developments on strategic antibiotic-free management plans, to evaluate regional differences in policies regarding the re...
Source: Veterinary Research - July 31, 2018 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Vaccines as alternatives to antibiotics for food producing animals. Part 2: new approaches and potential solutions
This article, the second part in a two-part series, highlights new approaches and potential solutions for the development of vaccines as alternatives to antibiotics in food producing animals; opportunities, challenges and needs for the development of such vaccines are discussed in the first part of this series. As discussed in part 1 of this manuscript, many current vaccines fall short of ideal vaccines in one or more respects. Promising breakthroughs to overcome these limitations include new biotechnology techniques, new oral vaccine approaches, novel adjuvants, new delivery strategies based on bacterial spores, and live ...
Source: Veterinary Research - July 31, 2018 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Different lesion distribution in calves orally or intratracheally challenged with Mycobacterium bovis : implications for diagnosis
AbstractAnimal tuberculosis (TB) remains a major problem in some countries despite the existence of control programmes focused mainly on cattle. In this species, aerogenous transmission is accepted as the most frequent infection route, affecting mainly the respiratory system. Under the hypothesis that the oral route could be playing a more relevant role in transmission, diagnosis and disease persistence than previously thought, this study was performed to assess the course of TB infection in cattle and its effects on diagnosis depending on the route of entry ofMycobacterium bovis. Two groups of five calves each were either...
Source: Veterinary Research - July 27, 2018 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Annexin A2 binds to vimentin and contributes to porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus multiplication
In conclusion, ANXA2 c an interact with vimentin and enhance PRRSV growth. This contributes to the regulation of PRRSV replication in infected cells and may have implications for the future antiviral strategies. (Source: Veterinary Research)
Source: Veterinary Research - July 27, 2018 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Infection of novel reassortant H1N2 and H3N2 swine influenza A viruses in the guinea pig model
AbstractNovel H1N2 and H3N2 swine influenza A viruses (IAVs) were identified in commercial farms in Chile. These viruses contained H1, H3 and N2 sequences, genetically divergent from IAVs described worldwide, associated with pandemic internal genes. Guinea pigs were used as human surrogate to evaluate the infection dynamics of these reassortant viruses, compared with a pandemic H1N1 virus. All viruses replicated and were shed in the upper respiratory tract without prior adaptation although H1N2 viruses showed the highest shedding titers. This could have public health importance, emphasizing the need to carry out further st...
Source: Veterinary Research - July 27, 2018 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Host factors determine the evolution of infection with Staphylococcus aureus to gangrenous mastitis in goats
AbstractStaphylococcus aureus is the major cause of very severe mastitis of dairy goats. The initial objective of our study was to fine-tune an experimental model of infection of the goat mammary gland with two strains ofS. aureus and two lines of goats (low and high somatic cell score lines). Following the challenge, the 10 infected goats divided in two clear-cut severity groups, independently of theS. aureus strain and the goat line. Five goats developed very severe mastitis (of which four were gangrenous) characterized by uncontrolled infection (UI group), whereas the other five kept the infection under control (CI grou...
Source: Veterinary Research - July 25, 2018 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Endonuclease G takes part in AIF-mediated caspase-independent apoptosis in Mycobacterium bovis -infected bovine macrophages
In this study, we aimed to further characterizeM. bovis-induced apoptosis, addressing Endonuclease G (Endo G) and Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP-1). In order to accomplish our objective, we infected bovine macrophages withM. bovis AN5 (MOI 10:1). Analysis ofM. bovis-infected nuclear protein extracts by immunoblot, identified a 15- and 43-fold increase in concentration of mitochondrial proteins AIF and Endo G respectively. Interestingly, pretreatment ofM. bovis-infected macrophages with cyclosporine A, a mitochondrial permeability transition pore inhibitor, abolished AIF and Endo G nuclear translocation. In addition, ...
Source: Veterinary Research - July 18, 2018 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Preferential use of Siglec-1 or Siglec-10 by type 1 and type 2 PRRSV strains to infect PK15 S1 –CD163 and PK15 S10–CD163 cells
AbstractCellular entry mediators define whether the cell is permissive to PRRSV infection. Porcine sialoadhesin (pSn, Siglec-1) and CD163 are main entry mediators facilitating infection of porcine macrophages by PRRSV. Recently, Siglec-10 was demonstrated to be an alternative receptor for PRRSV. To examine if virulence and pathogenicity of PRRSV strains could be correlated with the use of different Siglecs, a PK15 cell line recombinantly expressing Siglec-1 and CD163 (PK15S1 –CD163) and a PK15 cell line recombinantly expressing Siglec-10 and CD163 (PK15S10 –CD163) were used to compare the virus replication of 7...
Source: Veterinary Research - July 18, 2018 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Ciliostasis of airway epithelial cells facilitates influenza A virus infection
AbstractPorcine precision-cut lung slices (PCLS) were used to analyze the effect of the ciliary activity on infection of airway epithelial cells by influenza viruses. Treatment of slices with 2% NaCl for 30  min resulted in reversible ciliostasis. When PCLS were infected by a swine influenza virus of the H3N2 subtype under ciliostatic conditions, the viral yield was about twofold or threefold higher at 24 or 48 h post-infection, respectively, as compared to slices with ciliary activity. Therefore, th e cilia beating not only transports the mucus out of the airways, it also impedes virus infection. (Source: Veterinary Research)
Source: Veterinary Research - July 18, 2018 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Assessment of cross-protection induced by a bluetongue virus (BTV) serotype 8 vaccine towards other BTV serotypes in experimental conditions
In this study groups of calves were infected with one of the following European BTV serotypes, namely BTV1, 2, 4, 9 and 16. For each tested serotype, two groups of three male Holstein calves were used: one group vaccinated against BTV8, the other non-vaccinated. Clinical signs were quantified, viral RNA was detected in blood and organs and serological relationship was assessed. Calves were euthanized 35  days post-infection and necropsied. Most of the infected animals showed mild clinical signs. A partial serological cross reactivity has been reported between BTV8 and BTV4, and between BTV1 and BTV8. BTV2 and BTV4 vir...
Source: Veterinary Research - July 16, 2018 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

MicroRNA expression profiling of goat peripheral blood mononuclear cells in response to peste des petits ruminants virus infection
AbstractPeste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV) belongs to the genusMorbillivirus that causes an acute and highly contagious disease in goats and sheep. Virus infection can trigger the change in the cellular microRNA (miRNA) expression profile, which play important post-transcriptional regulatory roles in gene expression and can greatly influence viral replication and pathogenesis. Here, we employed deep sequencing technology to determine cellular miRNA expression profile in goat peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) infected with Nigeria 75/1 vaccine virus, a widely used vaccine strain for mass vaccination programs ag...
Source: Veterinary Research - July 16, 2018 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Oral vaccination of dogs: a well-studied and undervalued tool for achieving human and dog rabies elimination
AbstractThe mass vaccination of dogs is a proven tool for rabies prevention. Besides parenteral delivery of inactivated vaccines, over the past several decades, several self-replicating biologics, including modified-live, attenuated and recombinant viruses, have been evaluated for the oral vaccination of dogs against rabies. Vaccines are included within an attractive bait for oral consumption by free-ranging dogs. Due to the high affinity between dogs and humans, such biologics intended for oral vaccination of dogs (OVD) need to be efficacious as well as safe. Baits should be preferentially attractive to dogs and not to no...
Source: Veterinary Research - July 13, 2018 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Control measures to prevent the increase of paratuberculosis prevalence in dairy cattle herds: an individual-based modelling approach
AbstractParatuberculosis, a gastrointestinal disease caused byMycobacterium avium subsp.paratuberculosis (Map), can lead to severe economic losses in dairy cattle farms. Current measures are aimed at controlling prevalence in infected herds, but are not fully effective. Our objective was to determine the most effective control measures to prevent an increase in adult prevalence in infected herds. We developed a new individual-based model coupling population and infection dynamics. Animals are characterized by their age (6 groups) and health state (6 states). The model accounted for all transmission routes and two control m...
Source: Veterinary Research - July 13, 2018 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Resilience to infection by Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis following direct intestinal inoculation in calves
AbstractMycobacterium avium subspeciesparatuberculosis (Map) is the cause of Johne ’s disease, a chronic enteritis of cattle. A significant knowledge gap is how persistence ofMap within the intestinal tract after infection contributes to progression of disease. To address this, we exposed calves toMap by direct ileocecal Peyer ’s patch injection. Our objective was to characterize the persistence ofMap in tissues, associated intestinal lesions, fecalMap shedding, and serum antibody responses, through the first 28-weeks post-inoculation (wpi). Previous work using this model showed 100% rate ofMap infection in int...
Source: Veterinary Research - July 13, 2018 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Molecular characterization of a putative serine protease from Trichinella spiralis and its elicited immune protection
In this study, the TsSP biological characteristics in larval invasion and growth were identified and its potential as a vaccine target againstTrichinella infection were investigated. Expression of TsSP at various developmental phases (newborn larvae, ML, IIL, and AW) was detected by qPCR, immunofluorescent test and Western blotting. The rTsSP could specifically bind to the intestinal epithelial cell (IEC) membrane and enter into the cytoplasm. Anti-rTsSP serum suppressed the larval invasion of enterocytes in a dose-dependent mode, and killed newborn and ML ofT. spiralis, decreased larval infectivity and development in the ...
Source: Veterinary Research - July 13, 2018 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Potent O-antigen-deficient (rough) mutants of Salmonella Typhimurium secreting Lawsonia intracellularis antigens enhance immunogenicity and provide single-immunization protection against proliferative enteropathy and salmonellosis in a murine model
In this study, we genetically engineered an O-antigen-deficient (rough)Salmonella strain secreting four selected immunogenic LI antigens, namely OptA, OptB, LfliC, and Lhly. The genes encoding these antigens were individually inserted in the expression vector plasmid pJHL65, and the resultant plasmids were transformed into the∆asd ∆lon ∆cpxR ∆rfaL Salmonella Typhimurium (ST) strain JOL1800. The individual expression of the selected LI antigens in JOL1800 was validated by an immunoblotting assay. We observed significant (P 
Source: Veterinary Research - July 5, 2018 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Development of in vitro enteroids derived from bovine small intestinal crypts
AbstractCattle are an economically important domestic animal species. In vitro 2D cultures of intestinal epithelial cells or epithelial cell lines have been widely used to study cell function and host –pathogen interactions in the bovine intestine. However, these cultures lack the cellular diversity encountered in the intestinal epithelium, and the physiological relevance of monocultures of transformed cell lines is uncertain. Little is also known of the factors that influence cell differentiat ion and homeostasis in the bovine intestinal epithelium, and few cell-specific markers that can distinguish the different in...
Source: Veterinary Research - July 3, 2018 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Fasciola hepatica induces Foxp3 T cell, proinflammatory and regulatory cytokine overexpression in liver from infected sheep during early stages of infection
AbstractThe expression of T regulatory cells (Foxp3), regulatory (interleukin [IL]-10 and transforming growth factor beta [TGF- β]) and proinflammatory (tumor necrosis factor alpha [TNF-α] and interleukin [IL]-1β) cytokines was quantified using real time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) in the liver of sheep during early stages of infection withFasciola hepatica (1, 3, 9, and 18  days post-infection [dpi]). Portal fibrosis was also evaluated by Masson’s trichrome stain as well as the number of Foxp3+ cells by immunohistochemistry. Animals were divided into three groups: (a) group 1 was immuniz...
Source: Veterinary Research - July 3, 2018 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Canine respiratory coronavirus employs caveolin-1-mediated pathway for internalization to HRT-18G cells
AbstractCanine respiratory coronavirus (CRCoV), identified in 2003, is a member of theCoronaviridae family. The virus is a betacoronavirus and a close relative of human coronavirus OC43 and bovine coronavirus. Here, we examined entry of CRCoV into human rectal tumor cells (HRT-18G cell line) by analyzing co-localization of single virus particles with cellular markers in the presence or absence of chemical inhibitors of pathways potentially involved in virus entry. We also targeted these pathways using siRNA. The results show that the virus hijacks caveolin-dependent endocytosis to enter cells via endocytic internalization....
Source: Veterinary Research - July 3, 2018 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

A Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis relA deletion mutant and a 35  kDa major membrane protein elicit development of cytotoxic T lymphocytes with ability to kill intracellular bacteria
AbstractEfforts to develop live attenuated vaccines againstMycobacterium avium subspeciesparatuberculosis (Map), using indirect methods to screenMap deletion mutants for potential efficacy, have not been successful. A reduction in the capacity to survive in macrophages has not predicted the ability of mutants to survive in vivo. Previous studies for screening of three deletion mutants in cattle and goats revealed one mutant, with a deletion inrelA ( ΔMap/relA), could not establish a persistent infection. Further studies, using antigen presenting cells (APC), blood dendritic cells and monocyte derived DC, pulsed with ...
Source: Veterinary Research - June 26, 2018 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Elevated faecal ovotransferrin concentrations are indicative for intestinal barrier failure in broiler chickens
AbstractIntestinal health is critically important for the welfare and performance of poultry. Enteric diseases that cause gut barrier failure result in high economic losses. Up till now there is no reliable faecal marker to measure gut barrier failure under field conditions. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to identify a faecal protein marker for diminished intestinal barrier function due to enteric diseases in broilers. To assess this, experimental necrotic enteritis and coccidiosis in broilers were used as models for gut barrier failure. Ovotransferrin was identified as a marker for gut barrier failure using a...
Source: Veterinary Research - June 20, 2018 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Comparative liver transcriptome analysis in ducklings infected with duck hepatitis A virus 3 (DHAV-3) at 12 and 48  hours post-infection through RNA-seq
AbstractDuck hepatitis A virus 3 (DHAV-3), the only member of the novel genusAvihepatovirus, in the familyPicornaviridae, can cause significant economic losses for duck farms in China. Reports on the pathogenicity and the antiviral molecular mechanisms of the lethal DHAV-3 strain in ducklings are inadequate and remain poorly understood. We conducted global gene expression profiling and screened differentially expressed genes (DEG) of duckling liver tissues infected with lethal DHAV-3. There were 1643 DEG and 8979 DEG when compared with mock ducklings at 12  hours post-infection (hpi) and at 48 hpi, respectively. ...
Source: Veterinary Research - June 20, 2018 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Cooperation of PD-1 and LAG-3 in the exhaustion of CD4 + and CD8 + T cells during bovine leukemia virus infection
In this study, multi-color flow cytometric analyses of PD-1- and LAG-3-expressing T cells were performed in BLV-infected cattle at different stages of the disease. The frequencies of PD-1+LAG-3+ heavily exhausted T cells among CD4+ and CD8+ T cells was higher in the blood of cattle with B-cell lymphoma over that of BLV-uninfected and BLV-infected cattle without lymphoma. In addition, blockade assays of peripheral blood mononuclear cells were performed to examine whether inhibition of the interactions between PD-1 and LAG-3 and their ligands by blocking antibodies could restore T-cell function during BLV infection. Single o...
Source: Veterinary Research - June 19, 2018 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

RNA-Seq based transcriptome of whole blood from immunocompetent pigs ( Sus scrofa ) experimentally infected with Mycoplasma suis strain Illinois
AbstractPigs are popular animal models in biomedical research. RNA-Seq is becoming the predominant tool to investigate transcriptional changes of the pig ’s response to infection. The high sensitivity of this tool requires a strict control of the study design beginning with the selection of healthy animals to provide accurate interpretation of research data. Pigs chronically infected withMycoplasma suis often show no obvious clinical signs, however the infection may affect the validity of animal research. The goal of this study was to investigate whether or not this silent infection is also silent at the host transcr...
Source: Veterinary Research - June 18, 2018 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Streptococcus suis cps7 : an emerging virulent sequence type (ST29) shows a distinct, IgM-determined pattern of bacterial survival in blood of piglets during the early adaptive immune response after weaning
In conclusion, this study characterizescps7 ST29 as a distinctS. suis pathotype showing high survival factors in porcine blood after weaning, but IgM-mediated killing in the blood of older growing piglets. This underlines the relevance of IgM as an important host defense mechanism againstS. suis. (Source: Veterinary Research)
Source: Veterinary Research - June 15, 2018 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Elucidation of the pathology and tissue distribution of Lagovirus europaeus GI.2/RHDV2 (rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus 2) in young and adult rabbits ( Oryctolagus cuniculus )
AbstractLagovirus europaeus GI.2, also known as RHDV2 or RHDVb, is an emerging virus that causes rabbit haemorrhagic disease (RHD) in European rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus). In contrast toL. europaeus GI.1 (or RHDV/RHDVa) viruses that are only pathogenic for adults, GI.2 causes clinical disease in both adults and kittens. However, detailed descriptions of the pathology of this virus that may provide insight into its pathogenicity and emergence are lacking. Using an Australian GI.2 field strain isolated in 2015, we provide the first detailed description of pathology, viral antigen distribution and tissue load of GI.2 in a...
Source: Veterinary Research - June 5, 2018 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Staphylococcus aureus intramammary challenge in non-lactating mammary glands stimulated to rapidly grow and develop with estradiol and progesterone
The objectives of this study were to (1) define how IMI affected total and differential mammary secretion somatic cell counts in mammary glands stimulated to rapidly grow using estradiol and progesterone, and (2) characterize changes in mammary morphology in response to IMI. Mammary growth was stimulated in 19 non-pregnant, non-lactating cows and 2 quarters of each cow were subsequently infused with either saline (n = 19) orStaphylococcus aureus (n = 19). Mammary secretions were taken daily until mammary tissues were collected at either 5 or 10 days post-challenge.Staph. aureus quarter secr...
Source: Veterinary Research - June 5, 2018 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Assessment of the in vitro growing dynamics and kinetics of the non-pathogenic J and pathogenic 11 and 232 Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae strains
In conclusion, real-time culture titration by means of ATP or molecular assays was useful to describe the in vitro  growth of the tested strains. Knowledge about the in vitro growth behaviour of a specific strain in a specific medium may provide several advantages, including information about the time required to reach maximal titres by the culture. Noteworthy, the obtained results refers to the three strains u sed, so extrapolation to otherM. hyopneumoniae strains or culture conditions should be made cautiously. (Source: Veterinary Research)
Source: Veterinary Research - May 25, 2018 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Experimental infection of grey partridges with Bagaza virus: pathogenicity evaluation and potential role as a competent host
AbstractBagaza virus (BAGV; synonymous to Israel turkey meningoencephalomyelitis virus, ITV) is a relevant arthropod-borne epornitic flavivirus. In its first emergence in Europe (southern Spain, 2010) BAGV caused an outbreak, severely affecting red-legged partridges and common pheasants. The effects (pathogenicity, role as reservoir host) of BAGV in other European phasianids are unknown. To fill this gap, grey partridges were experimentally infected with BAGV. The clinical course of the disease was severe, with neurological signs, significant weight loss and 40% mortality. Low viral loads in the blood and the absence of co...
Source: Veterinary Research - May 9, 2018 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Influence of dose and route of administration on the outcome of infection with the virulent Neospora caninum isolate Nc-Spain7 in pregnant sheep at mid-gestation
AbstractExperimental infections in pregnant sheep have been focused on studying the effect of the time of challenge on the outcome ofN. caninum infection, whereas the impact of the dose and route of challenge has not been studied in depth. Therefore, clinical outcome, immune responses, parasite detection and burden, and lesion severity in placental tissues and foetal brains were investigated in 90-day-pregnant sheep inoculated intravenously with 105 (G1), 104 (G2), 103 (G3), or 102 (G4) tachyzoites or subcutaneously with 104 (G5) tachyzoites of the virulent Nc-Spain7 isolate and an uninfected group (G6). Comparing challeng...
Source: Veterinary Research - May 8, 2018 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Biomarkers for monitoring intestinal health in poultry: present status and future perspectives
AbstractIntestinal health is determined by host (immunity, mucosal barrier), nutritional, microbial and environmental factors. Deficiencies in intestinal health are associated with shifts in the composition of the intestinal microbiome (dysbiosis), leakage of the mucosal barrier and/or inflammation. Since the ban on growth promoting antimicrobials in animal feed, these dysbiosis-related problems have become a major issue, especially in intensive animal farming. The economical and animal welfare consequences are considerable. Consequently, there is a need for continuous monitoring of the intestinal health status, particular...
Source: Veterinary Research - May 8, 2018 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

A chicken liver cell line efficiently supports the replication of ALV-J possibly through its high level viral receptor and efficient protein expression system
In this study, we identified a chicken liver cell line (LMH) which could strongly support the replication of ALV-J (Subgroup J of avian leukosis virus) with high viral titer. Notably, ALV-J was efficiently detected by ELISA in LMH cells 1  day before DF1 cells. In comparison with DF1 cells, LMH cells not only expressed higher levels of ALV-J receptor chNHE-1, but also possessed a more efficient protein expression system for foreign genes. Thus, LMH cells could be a novel tool to shorten the ALV-J eradication approach and accelerate studies on the pathogenesis and oncogenesis of ALV-J. (Source: Veterinary Research)
Source: Veterinary Research - May 2, 2018 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Genomic and biologic comparisons of cyprinid herpesvirus 3 strains
This study illustrates the importance of coupling genomic and biologic comparisons of viral strains in order to enhance understanding of viral evolution and pathogenesis. (Source: Veterinary Research)
Source: Veterinary Research - May 2, 2018 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Exploring the mechanisms of resistance to Teladorsagia circumcincta infection in sheep through transcriptome analysis of abomasal mucosa and abomasal lymph nodes
AbstractThe present study exploited the RNA-seq technology to analyze the transcriptome of target tissues affected by theTeladorsagia circumcincta infection in two groups of adult ewes showing different statuses against gastrointestinal nematode (GIN) infection with the aim of identifying genes linked to GIN infection resistance in sheep. For this, based on the accumulated faecal egg count of 18 adult Churra ewes subjected to a first experimental infection withT. circumcincta, six ewes were classified as resistant and six others as susceptible to the infection. These 12 animals were dewormed and infected again. After human...
Source: Veterinary Research - April 27, 2018 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Immune response to C. novyi -NT immunotherapy
The objective of this pilot, descriptive, prospective, clinical investigation, was to evaluate and describe the immune response to CNV-NT spores to better understand which immune pathways might play a role in the response to this bacteriolytic immunotherapy. Intratumoral injection of CNV-NT spores result in increased phagocytosis and NK cell-like function after treatment. Intravenous injection of CNV-NT spores resulted in increased LPS-induced TNF- α production, LTA-induced IL-10 production and NK cell-like function post-treatment. Increased NK cell-like function was sustained to 28 (intratumoral) or 56 (intravenous)...
Source: Veterinary Research - April 24, 2018 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research