Blocked expression of key genes of the angiogenic pathway in JSRV-induced pulmonary adenocarcinomas
AbstractJSRV (Jaagsiekte Sheep Retrovirus) is a retrovirus inducing a transmissible lung adenocarcinoma in sheep and goats with predominantly lepidic and papillary lesions. This naturally occurring lung cancer in large animals shares many features with human pneumonic-type lung adenocarcinomas with predominant lepidic growth. The metastatic spread is rare in both human and animal cancers. This unique feature prompted us to decipher the angiogenesis pathway in these cancers. We focused on the levels of mRNA and proteins of genes implicated in the extension of JSRV-induced lung adenocarcinomas by studying their expression in...
Source: Veterinary Research - November 14, 2017 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Effect of enriched housing on levels of natural (auto-)antibodies in pigs co-infected with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) and Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae
AbstractHousing of pigs in barren, stimulus-poor housing conditions may influence their immune status, including antibody responses to (auto-)antigens, and thus affect immune protection, which will influence the onset and outcome of infection. In the present study, we investigated the effects of environmental enrichment versus barren housing on the level of natural (auto-)antibodies (NA(A)b) and their isotypes (IgM and IgG) binding keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH), myelin basic protein (MBP), and phosphorycholine conjugated to bovine serum albumin (PC-BSA) in pigs co-infected with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndro...
Source: Veterinary Research - November 10, 2017 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Identification and characterization of serovar-independent immunogens in Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae
AbstractDespite numerous actions to prevent disease,Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (A. pleuropneumoniae) remains a major cause of porcine pleuropneumonia, resulting in economic losses to the swine industry worldwide. In this paper, we describe the utilization of a reverse vaccinology approach for the selection and in vitro testing of serovar-independentA. pleuropneumoniae immunogens. Potential immunogens were identified in the complete genomes of threeA. pleuropneumoniae strains belonging to different serovars using the following parameters: predicted outer-membrane subcellular localization;  ≤ 1 trans-membra...
Source: Veterinary Research - November 9, 2017 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

The C3HeB/FeJ mouse model recapitulates the hallmark of bovine tuberculosis lung lesions following Mycobacterium bovis aerogenous infection
AbstractAchieving the control of bovine tuberculosis (bTB) would require the discovery of an efficient combined immunodiagnostic and vaccine strategy. Since in vivo experiments on cattle are not ethically and economically acceptable there is a need for a cost-effective animal model capable of reproducing, as closely as possible, the physiopathology of bTB to (i) better characterize the cellular and molecular features of bTB immunopathogenesis and (ii) screen preclinical vaccine candidates. To develop such a model, we focused on the C3HeB/FeJ Kramnik ’s mouse forming hypoxic, encapsulated granulomas with a caseous nec...
Source: Veterinary Research - November 7, 2017 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Variability in the response of canine and human dendritic cells stimulated with Brucella canis
This study analysed the cytokine pattern production, by RT-qPCR and ELISA, in human and canine DCs against wholeB. canis or its purified LPS. Human and canine DCs produced different patterns of cytokines after stimulation withB. canis. In particular, while human DCs produced a Th1-pattern of cytokines (IL-1 β, IL-12, and TNF-α), canine cells produced both Th1 and Th17-related cytokines (IL-6, IL-12, IL-17, and IFN-γ). Thus, differences in susceptibility and pathogenicity between these two hosts could be explained, at least partly, by the distinct cytokine patterns observed in this study, where we pr opose ...
Source: Veterinary Research - November 2, 2017 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Crosstalk between H9N2 avian influenza virus and crypt-derived intestinal organoids
In this study, we used mouse threedimensional intestinal organoids that contained intestinal crypts and villi differentiated from intestinal stem cells to explore interactions between H9N2 avian influenza virus and the intestinal mucosa. The HA, NA, NP and PB1 genes of H9N2 viruses could be detected in intestinal organoids at 1 h, and reached peak levels at 48 h post-infection. Moreover, the HA and NP proteins of H9N2 virus could also be detected in organoids via immunofluorescence. Virus invasion caused damage to intestinal organoids with reduced mRNA transcript expression of Wnt3, Dll1 and Dll4. The abnormal growth of in...
Source: Veterinary Research - November 2, 2017 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Large-scale lagovirus disease outbreaks in European brown hares ( Lepus europaeus ) in France caused by RHDV2 strains spatially shared with rabbits ( Oryctolagus cuniculus )
AbstractRabbit haemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) is a lagovirus that causes rabbit haemorrhagic disease (RHD) in European rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus). In 2010, a new genotype called RHDV2 emerged in France. It exhibits a larger host range than classical RHDV strains by sporadically infecting different hare species, including the European hare (Lepus europaeus). Phylogenetic analyses revealed that closely related RHDV2 strains circulate locally in both hares and rabbits, and therefore that RHDV2 strains infecting hares do not belong to a lineage that has evolved only in this species. We showed that RHDV2 is widely distr...
Source: Veterinary Research - October 28, 2017 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

A review of virulent Newcastle disease viruses in the United States and the role of wild birds in viral persistence and spread
AbstractNewcastle disease is caused by virulent strains of Newcastle disease virus (NDV), which causes substantial morbidity and mortality events worldwide in poultry. The virus strains can be differentiated as lentogenic, mesogenic, or velogenic based on a mean death time in chicken embryos. Currently, velogenic strains of NDV are not endemic in United States domestic poultry; however, these strains are present in other countries and are occasionally detected in wild birds in the U.S. A viral introduction into domestic poultry could have severe economic consequences due to the loss of production from sick and dying birds,...
Source: Veterinary Research - October 26, 2017 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Evaluation of the efficacy of a commercial inactivated genogroup 2b-based porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) vaccine and experimental live genogroup 1b exposure against 2b challenge
AbstractPorcine epidemic diarrhea virus strains from the G1b cluster are considered less pathogenic compared to the G2b cluster. The aim of this study was to compare the ability of G1b-based live virus exposure against use of a commercial G2b –based inactivated vaccine to protect growing pigs against G2b challenge. Thirty-nine PEDV naïve pigs were randomly divided into five groups: EXP-IM-1b (intramuscular G1b exposure; G2b challenge), EXP-ORAL-1b (oral G1b exposure; G2b challenge), VAC-IM-2b (intramuscular commercial inactivated G2b vaccination; G2b challenge), POS-CONTROL (sham-vaccination; G2b challenge) and ...
Source: Veterinary Research - October 26, 2017 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Salmonella Typhimurium, the major causative agent of foodborne illness inactivated by a phage lysis system provides effective protection against lethal challenge by induction of robust cell-mediated immune responses and activation of dendritic cells
In this study, we developed a genetically inactivated vaccine candidate by introducing lysis plasmid pJHL454 harboring the λ phage holin–endolysin system intoS. Typhimurium; we designated this vaccine JOL1950. In vitro expression of endolysin was validated by immunoblotting, and complete inactivation of JOL1950 cells was observed following 36  h of the lysis. Electron microscopic examinations by scanning electron microscopy and immunogold labeling transmission EM revealed conserved surface antigenic traits of the JOL1950 cells after lysis. An in vivo immunogenicity study in mice immunized with lysed cells...
Source: Veterinary Research - October 25, 2017 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Synergistic effect of PB2 283M and 526R contributes to enhanced virulence of H5N8 influenza viruses in mice
AbstractHighly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N8 virus has caused considerable economic losses to poultry industry and poses a great threat to public health. Our previous study revealed two genetically similar HPAI H5N8 viruses displaying completely different virulence in mice. However, the molecular basis for viral pathogenicity to mammals remains unknown. Herein, we generated a series of reassortants between the two viruses and evaluated their virulence in mice. We demonstrated that 283M in PB2 is a new mammalian virulence marker for H5 viruses and that synergistic effect of amino acid residues 283M and 526R in PB2 ...
Source: Veterinary Research - October 25, 2017 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Molecular and virulence characterization of highly prevalent Streptococcus agalactiae circulated in bovine dairy herds
In conclusion, our study provides substantial evidence for the hypothesis that the virulence characteristics including efficient growth in milk, elevated biofilm formation ability, together with strong adhesion ability might have favored the high prevalence of the STs in the bovine environment, whereas the hemolytic activity and cytotoxicity were not the crucial characteristics. (Source: Veterinary Research)
Source: Veterinary Research - October 16, 2017 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Which phenotypic traits of resistance should be improved in cattle to control paratuberculosis dynamics in a dairy herd: a modelling approach
AbstractParatuberculosis is a worldwide disease causing production losses in dairy cattle herds. Variability of cattle response to exposure toMycobacterium avium subsp.paratuberculosis (Map) has been highlighted. Such individual variability could influence Map spread at larger scale. Cattle resistance to paratuberculosis has been shown to be heritable, suggesting genetic selection could enhance disease control. Our objective was to identify which phenotypic traits characterising the individual course of infection influence Map spread in a dairy cattle herd. We used a stochastic mechanistic model. Resistance consisted in th...
Source: Veterinary Research - October 10, 2017 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Longitudinal study of influenza A virus circulation in a nursery swine barn
The objectives of this study were to describe the IAV circulation in a multi-source nursery facility and identify factors associated with infection in nursery pigs. Pigs from five sow herds were mixed in one all-in/all-out nursery barn, with 81 and 75 pigs included in two longitudinal studies. Virus isolation was performed in Madin-Darby canine kidney cells and serology was performed using hemagglutination inhibition assays. Risk factor analysis for virological positivity was conducted using logistic regression and stratified Cox ’s regression for recurrent events. In Study 1, at ≈30 days post-weaning, 100...
Source: Veterinary Research - October 10, 2017 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Amplicon sequencing of bacterial microbiota in abortion material from cattle
AbstractAbortions in cattle have a significant economic impact on animal husbandry and require prompt diagnosis for surveillance of epizootic infectious agents. Since most abortions are not epizootic but sporadic with often undetected etiologies, this study examined the bacterial community present in the placenta (PL,n = 32) and fetal abomasal content (AC,n = 49) in 64 cases of bovine abortion by next generation sequencing (NGS) of the 16S rRNA gene. The PL and AC from three fetuses of dams that died from non-infectious reasons were included as controls. All samples were analyzed by bacterial culture, a...
Source: Veterinary Research - October 10, 2017 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Cross protective immune responses in nursing piglets infected with a US spike-insertion deletion porcine epidemic diarrhea virus strain and challenged with an original US PEDV strain
AbstractWe investigated cross-protective immunity of a US spike-insertion deletion porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) Iowa106 (S-INDEL) strain against the original US PEDV (PC21A) strain in nursing piglets. Piglets were inoculated orally with S-INDEL, PC21A or mock. At 20 –29 days post-inoculation (dpi), all pigs were challenged with the PC21A strain. The S-INDEL-inoculated pigs had lower ileal IgA antibody secreting cells, serum IgA and neutralizing antibody titers compared with PC21A-inoculated pigs. No pigs in the PC21A-group developed diarrhea, whereas 81 and 100% of pigs in the S-INDEL and mock-groups h...
Source: Veterinary Research - October 6, 2017 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

An avirulent Brachyspira hyodysenteriae strain elicits intestinal IgA and slows down spread of swine dysentery
AbstractSwine dysentery caused byBrachyspira hyodysenteriae, results in substantial economic losses in swine producing countries worldwide. Although a number of different vaccine approaches have been explored with regard to this disease, they show limitations and none of them have reached the market. We here determine the vaccine potential of a weakly haemolyticB. hyodysenteriae strain. The virulence of this strain was assessed in experimental infection trials and its protection against swine dysentery was quantified in a vaccination-challenge experiment using a seeder infection model. Systemic IgG production and local IgA...
Source: Veterinary Research - October 5, 2017 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Limitations of using feline coronavirus spike protein gene mutations to diagnose feline infectious peritonitis
This study was designed to determine whether S gene mutation analysis can reliably diagnose FIP. Cats were categorised as with FIP (n = 57) or without FIP (n = 45) based on gross post-mortem and histopathological examination including immunohistochemistry for FCoV antigen. RNA was purified from available tissue, fluid and faeces. Reverse-transcriptase quantitative-PCR (RT-qPCR) was performed on all samples using FCoV-specific primers, followed by sequ encing of a section of the S gene on RT-qPCR positive samples. Samples were available from a total of 102 cats. Tissue, fluid, and faecal samples from cat...
Source: Veterinary Research - October 5, 2017 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Control of endemic swine flu persistence in farrow-to-finish pig farms: a stochastic metapopulation modeling assessment
AbstractSwine influenza viruses (swIAVs) are known to persist endemically in farrow-to-finish pig farms, leading to repeated swine flu outbreaks in successive batches of pigs at a similar age (mostly around 8  weeks of age). This persistence in European swine herds involves swIAVs from European lineages including H1avN1, H1huN2, H3N2, the 2009 H1N1 pandemic virus and their reassortants. The specific population dynamics of farrow-to-finish pig farms, the immune status of the animals at infection-time, the co-circulation of distinct subtypes leading to consecutive or concomitant infections have been evidenced as factors...
Source: Veterinary Research - October 3, 2017 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Oral vaccination of wildlife using a vaccinia –rabies-glycoprotein recombinant virus vaccine (RABORAL V-RG ® ): a global review
AbstractRABORAL V-RG® is an oral rabies vaccine bait that contains an attenuated ( “modified-live”) recombinant vaccinia virus vector vaccine expressing the rabies virus glycoprotein gene (V-RG). Approximately 250 million doses have been distributed globally since 1987 without any reports of adverse reactions in wildlife or domestic animals since the first licensed recombinant oral rabies vaccine (ORV) was released into the environment to immunize wildlife populations against rabies. V-RG is genetically stable, is not detected in the oral cavity beyond 48 h after ingestion, is not shed by vaccinates in...
Source: Veterinary Research - September 22, 2017 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

In vitro antibiotic susceptibility and biofilm production of Staphylococcus aureus isolates recovered from bovine intramammary infections that persisted or not following extended therapies with cephapirin, pirlimycin or ceftiofur
In this study, antibiotic susceptibility and biofilm production byS. aureus isolates recovered from IMIs that were cured or not following an extended therapy with cephapirin, pirlimycin or ceftiofur for 5, 8 and 8  days, respectively, were compared. An isolate was confirmed as from a persistent case (not cured) if the sameS. aureus strain was isolated before and after treatment as revealed by the same VNTR profile (variable number of tandem repeats detected by multiplex PCR). The antibiotic minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were determined for these isolates as well as the capacity of the isolates to produce bi...
Source: Veterinary Research - September 21, 2017 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Global proteomic profiling of Yersinia ruckeri strains
AbstractYersinia ruckeri is the causative agent of enteric redmouth disease (ERM) of salmonids. There is little information regarding the proteomics ofY. ruckeri. Herein, we perform whole protein identification and quantification of biotype 1 and biotype 2 strains ofY. ruckeri grown under standard culture conditions using a shotgun proteomic approach. Proteins were extracted, digested and peptides were separated by a nano liquid chromatography system and analyzed with a high-resolution hybrid triple quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometer coupled via a nano ESI interface. SWATH-MS technology and sophisticated statistic...
Source: Veterinary Research - September 20, 2017 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Neutralizing immune responses induced by oligomeric H5N1-hemagglutinins from plants
AbstractPlant-based transient expression is an alternative platform to produce hemagglutinin-based subunit vaccines. This production system provides not only fast and effective response in the context of a pandemic but also enables the supply of big volume vaccines at low cost. Crude plant extracts containing influenza hemagglutinin are considered to use as vaccine sources because of avoidance of related purification steps resulting in low cost production allowing veterinary applications. Highly immunogenic influenza hemagglutinins are urgently required to meet these pre-conditions. Here, we present a new and innovative wa...
Source: Veterinary Research - September 20, 2017 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Erratum to: Role of transcription regulatory sequence in regulation of gene expression and replication of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus
After publication of the article [1], it has been brought to our attention that an acknowledgement has been omitted from the original article. The authors would like to include the following, The authors also thank Prof. En-Min Zhou (Northwest A&F University) and his laboratory for technical support. ” (Source: Veterinary Research)
Source: Veterinary Research - September 20, 2017 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Protecting effect of PrP codons M142 and K222 in goats orally challenged with bovine spongiform encephalopathy prions
In this study, goat kids representing fivePRNP genotypes based on three polymorphisms (M142, Q211 and K222 and the wild type I142, R211 and Q222) were orally challenged with bovine or goat BSE. Wild type goats were killed with clinical signs between 24 –28 months post inoculation (mpi) to both challenges, and goats with genotype R/Q211 succumbed between 29–36 mpi. I/M142 goats developed clinical signs at 44–45 mpi and M/M142 goats remained healthy until euthanasia at 48 mpi. None of the Q/K222 goats showed definite clinical signs. Taken tog ether the highest attack ratios were seen in wild type and R...
Source: Veterinary Research - September 19, 2017 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Current situation of H9N2 subtype avian influenza in China
AbstractIn China, H9N2 subtype avian influenza outbreak is firstly reported in Guangdong province in 1992. Subsequently, the disease spreads into vast majority regions nationwide and has currently become endemic there. Over vicennial genetic evolution, the viral pathogenicity and transmissibility have showed an increasing trend as year goes by, posing serious threat to poultry industry. In addition, H9N2 has demonstrated significance to public health as it could not only directly infect mankind, but also donate partial or even whole cassette of internal genes to generate novel human-lethal reassortants like H5N1, H7N9, H10...
Source: Veterinary Research - September 15, 2017 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

A decade of research into classical swine fever marker vaccine CP7_E2alf (Suvaxyn ® CSF Marker): a review of vaccine properties
AbstractDue to its impact on animal health and pig industry, classical swine fever (CSF) is still one of the most important viral diseases of pigs. To control the disease, safe and highly efficacious live attenuated vaccines exist for decades. However, until recently, the available live vaccines did not allow a serological marker concept that is essentially important to circumvent long-term trade restrictions. In 2014, a new live attenuated marker vaccine, Suvaxyn® CSF Marker (Zoetis), was licensed by the European Medicines Agency. This vaccine is based on pestivirus chimera “CP7_E2alf” that carries the mai...
Source: Veterinary Research - September 15, 2017 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

A longitudinal study of serological responses to Coxiella burnetii and shedding at kidding among intensively-managed goats supports early use of vaccines
AbstractVaccination againstCoxiella burnetii, the cause of Q fever, is reportedly the only feasible strategy of eradicating infection in ruminant herds. Preventive vaccination of seronegative goats is more effective in reducing shedding ofC. burnetii than vaccinating seropositive goats. The age at which goats born on heavily-contaminated farms first seroconvert toC. burnetii has not yet been documented. In a 16-month birth cohort study, the age at which goats seroconverted againstC. burnetii was investigated; 95 goats were bled every 2  weeks and tested for antibodies againstC. burnetii. Risk factors for seroconversio...
Source: Veterinary Research - September 15, 2017 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Acquisition of resistance to avian leukosis virus subgroup B through mutations on tvb cysteine-rich domains in DF-1 chicken fibroblasts
AbstractAvian leukosis virus (ALV) is a retrovirus that causes tumors in avian species, and its vertical and horizontal transmission in poultry flocks results in enormous economic losses. Despite the discovery of specific host receptors, there have been few reports on the modulation of viral susceptibility via genetic modification. We therefore engineered acquired resistance to ALV subgroup B using CRISPR/Cas9-mediated genome editing technology in DF-1 chicken fibroblasts. Using this method, we efficiently modified the tumor virus locus B (tvb) gene, encoding the TVB receptor, which is essential for ALV subgroup B entry in...
Source: Veterinary Research - September 13, 2017 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

RNA-seq comparative analysis of Peking ducks spleen gene expression  24 h post-infected with duck plague virulent or attenuated virus
AbstractDuck plague virus (DPV), a member of alphaherpesvirus sub-family, can cause significant economic losses on duck farms in China. DPV Chinese virulent strain (CHv) is highly pathogenic and could induce massive ducks death. Attenuated DPV vaccines (CHa) have been put into service against duck plague with billions of doses in China each year. Researches on DPV have been development for many years, however, a comprehensive understanding of molecular mechanisms underlying pathogenicity of CHv strain and protection of CHa strain to ducks is still blank. In present study, we performed RNA-seq technology to analyze transcri...
Source: Veterinary Research - September 13, 2017 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Use of the mice passive protection test to evaluate the humoral response in goats vaccinated with Sterne 34F2 live spore vaccine
This study suggests that the passive mouse protection model could be potentially used to evaluate the protective immune response in livestock animals vaccinated with the current live vaccine and new vaccines. (Source: Veterinary Research)
Source: Veterinary Research - September 7, 2017 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

The role of phospholipase C signaling in bovine herpesvirus 1 infection
In this study, for the first time we show that BoHV-1 infection manipulated phospholipase C (PLC) signaling, as demonstrated by the activation of PLC γ-1 at both early stages [at 0.5 h post-infection (hpi)] and late stages (4–12 hpi) during the virus infection of MDBK cells. Viral entry, and de novo protein expression and/or DNA replication were potentially responsible for the activation of PLCγ-1 signaling. PLC signaling inhibitors of both U73122 and edelfosine significantly inhibited BoHV-1 replication in both bovine kidney cells (MDBK) and rabbit skin cells (RS-1) in a dose-dependent manner b...
Source: Veterinary Research - September 7, 2017 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Identification of two mutation sites in spike and envelope proteins mediating optimal cellular infection of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus from different pathways
AbstractEntry of the α-coronavirus porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) requires specific proteases to activate spike (S) protein for the membrane fusion of the virion to the host cell following receptor binding. Herein, PEDV isolate 85-7 could proliferate and induce cell–cell fusion in a trypsin independent manner on Vero cells, and eight homologous mutation strains were screened by continuous proliferation in the absence of trypsin on Vero cells. According to the whole genome sequence comparative analysis, we identified four major variations located in nonstructural protein 2, S, open reading frame 3, and e...
Source: Veterinary Research - August 30, 2017 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Efficacy of a polyvalent immersion vaccine against Flavobacterium psychrophilum and evaluation of immune response to vaccination in rainbow trout fry ( Onchorynchus mykiss L.)
AbstractRainbow trout fry syndrome (RTFS) is a disease caused by the Gram-negative bacteriumFlavobacterium psychrophilum, responsible for significant economic losses in salmonid aquaculture worldwide. The diversity ofF. psychrophilum isolates and the inherent difficulties in vaccinating juvenile fish has hampered the development of a vaccine for RTFS. Disease episodes tend to occur between 10 –14 °C with necrotic lesions often seen on the skin surrounding the dorsal fin and tail. At present no commercial vaccines are available for RTFS in the UK, leaving antibiotics as the only course of action to control di...
Source: Veterinary Research - August 18, 2017 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Bovine cryptosporidiosis: impact, host-parasite interaction and control strategies
AbstractGastrointestinal disease caused by the apicomplexan parasiteCryptosporidium parvum is one of the most important diseases of young ruminant livestock, particularly neonatal calves. Infected animals may suffer from profuse watery diarrhoea, dehydration and in severe cases death can occur. At present, effective therapeutic and preventative measures are not available and a better understanding of the host –pathogen interactions is required.Cryptosporidium parvum is also an important zoonotic pathogen causing severe disease in people, with young children being particularly vulnerable. Our knowledge of the immune r...
Source: Veterinary Research - August 11, 2017 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Role of transcription regulatory sequence in regulation of gene expression and replication of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus
AbstractIn order to gain insight into the role of the transcription regulatory sequences (TRSs) in the regulation of gene expression and replication of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), the enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) gene, under the control of the different structural gene TRSs, was inserted between the N gene and 3 ′-UTR of the PRRSV genome and EGFP expression was analyzed for each TRS. TRSs of all the studied structural genes of PRRSV positively modulated EGFP expression at different levels. Among the TRSs analyzed, those of GP2, GP5, M, and N genes highly enhanced EGFP exp...
Source: Veterinary Research - August 10, 2017 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Intracellular delivery of HA1 subunit antigen through attenuated Salmonella Gallinarum act as a bivalent vaccine against fowl typhoid and low pathogenic H5N3 virus
In conclusion, the data from the present showed that the JOL1814 can be an effective bivalent vaccine candidate against H5N3 LPAI and fowl typhoid infection in poultry while still offering sero-surveillance property against H5 avian influenza virus. (Source: Veterinary Research)
Source: Veterinary Research - August 7, 2017 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Serotype-specific role of antigen I/II in the initial steps of the pathogenesis of the infection caused by Streptococcus suis
AbstractStreptococcus suis is one of the most important post-weaning porcine bacterial pathogens worldwide. The serotypes 2 and 9 are often considered the most virulent and prevalent serotypes involved in swine infections, especially in Europe. However, knowledge of the bacterial factors involved in the first steps of the pathogenesis of the infection remains scarce. In several pathogenic streptococci, expression of multimodal adhesion proteins known as antigen I/II (AgI/II) have been linked with persistence in the upper respiratory tract and the oral cavity, as well as with bacterial dissemination. Herein, we report expre...
Source: Veterinary Research - July 14, 2017 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Recall T cell responses to bluetongue virus produce a narrowing of the T cell repertoire
AbstractIn most viral infections, recall T cell responses are critical for protection. The magnitude of these secondary responses can also affect the CD8 and CD4 epitope repertoire diversity. Bluetongue virus (BTV) infection in sheep elicits a T cell response that contributes to viremia control and could be relevant for cross-protection between BTV serotypes. Here, we characterized CD4+ and CD8+ T cell responses during primary and recall responses. During primary immune responses, both CD4+ and CD8+ T cell populations expanded by 14  days post-infection (dpi). CD4+ T cell populations showed a lower peak of expansion a...
Source: Veterinary Research - June 29, 2017 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Bacterial ghosts as adjuvants: mechanisms and potential
AbstractBacterial ghosts (BG) are empty cell envelopes derived from Gram-negative bacteria. They contain many innate immunostimulatory agonists, and are potent activators of a broad range of cell types involved in innate and adaptive immunity. Several considerable studies have demonstrated the effectiveness of BG as adjuvants as well as their ability to induce proinflammatory cytokine production by a range of immune and non-immune cell types. These proinflammatory cytokines trigger a generalized recruitment of T and B lymphocytes to lymph nodes that maximize the chances of encounter with their cognate antigen, and subseque...
Source: Veterinary Research - June 24, 2017 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Differential protein expression in chicken macrophages and heterophils in vivo following infection with Salmonella Enteritidis
In this study we compared the proteomes of macrophages and heterophils isolated from the spleen 4  days after intravenous infection of chickens withSalmonella Enteritidis. Heterophils were characterized by expression of MMP9, MRP126, LECT2, CATHL1, CATHL2, CATHL3, LYG2, LYZ and RSFR. Macrophages specifically expressed receptor proteins, e.g. MRC1L, LRP1, LGALS1, LRPAP1 and a DMBT1L. Following infection, heterophils decreased ALB and FN1, and released MMP9 to enable their translocation to the site of infection. In addition, the endoplasmic reticulum proteins increased in heterophils which resulted in the release of gra...
Source: Veterinary Research - June 17, 2017 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Variation in susceptibility of different breeds of sheep to Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis following experimental inoculation
This study was designed to examine the susceptibility or resistance of various breeds of sheep to MAP infection. Merino, Suffolk first cross Merino, Border L eicester, and Poll Dorset sheep were orally inoculated with MAP and monitored for 14 months. Clinical disease occurred more frequently in the Merino (42%) and Suffolk first cross Merino (36%) compared to the Border Leicester (12%) and Poll Dorset (11%) breeds. Infection risk, as determined by cultu re of gut and associated lymphoid tissues, ranged from 75% for the Suffolk first cross Merino to 47% for the Poll Dorset sheep. Significant differences were identified...
Source: Veterinary Research - June 17, 2017 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Helicobacter suis induces changes in gastric inflammation and acid secretion markers in pigs of different ages
AbstractGastric mRNA expression of markers for acid secretion and inflammation and presence of gastric ulceration was studied in naturallyHelicobacter suis-infected and non-infected 2 –3 months old, 6–8 months old and adult pigs. InH. suis-infected 2 –3 months old pigs, IL-8 and IL-1β transcript levels were upregulated in the pyloric gland zone, indicating an innate immune response. A similar response was demonstrated in the fundic gland zone of adult pigs, potentially due to a shift ofH. suis colonization from the pyloric to the fundic gland zone. A Treg response in combination with d...
Source: Veterinary Research - June 15, 2017 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Infectivity, transmission and pathogenicity of H5 highly pathogenic avian influenza clade 2.3.4.4 (H5N8 and H5N2) United States index viruses in Pekin ducks and Chinese geese
In conclusion, the H5 HPAI viruses can infect domestic waterfowl and easily transmit to contact birds, with geese being more susceptible to infection and disease than ducks. The disease is mostly asymptomatic, but infected birds shed virus for several days representing a risk to other poultry species. (Source: Veterinary Research)
Source: Veterinary Research - June 7, 2017 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Several strains, one disease: experimental investigation of Vibrio aestuarianus infection parameters in the Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas
This study investigated oyster infection dynamics by different strains ofVibrio aestuarianus isolated before and after the apparent re-emergence of this pathogen observed in France in 2011. We conducted experiments to compare minimal infective dose, lethal dose 50 and bacterial shedding for sixV. aestuarianus strains. Whatever the strain used, mortality was induced in juvenile oysters by intramuscular injection and reached 90 –100% of mortality within 5 days. Moreover, bacterial shedding was comparable among strains and reached its maximum after 20 h (≈10 EXP5 bacteria/mL/animal). Similarly, our first...
Source: Veterinary Research - May 26, 2017 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

From the epidemiology of hepatitis E virus (HEV) within the swine reservoir to public health risk mitigation strategies: a comprehensive review
AbstractHepatitis E virus (HEV) is the causative agent of hepatitis E in humans, an emerging zoonosis mainly transmitted via food in developed countries and for which domestic pigs are recognised as the main reservoir. It therefore appears important to understand the features and drivers of HEV infection dynamics on pig farms in order to implement HEV surveillance programmes and to assess and manage public health risks. The authors have reviewed the international scientific literature on the epidemiological characteristics of HEV in swine populations. Although prevalence estimates differed greatly from one study to another...
Source: Veterinary Research - May 25, 2017 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Innate immune responses induced by the saponin adjuvant Matrix-M in specific pathogen free pigs
AbstractSaponin-based adjuvants have been widely used to enhance humoral and cellular immune responses in many species, but their mode of action is not fully understood. A characterization of the porcine transcriptional response to Matrix-M was performed in vitro using lymphocytes, monocytes or monocyte-derived dendritic cells (MoDCs) and in vivo. The effect of Matrix-M was also evaluated in specific pathogen free (SPF) pigs exposed to conventionally reared pigs. The pro-inflammatory cytokine genesIL1B andCXCL8 were up-regulated in monocytes and lymphocytes after Matrix-M exposure. Matrix-M also inducedIL12B,IL17A andIFNG ...
Source: Veterinary Research - May 22, 2017 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Surface displaying of swine IgG1 Fc enhances baculovirus-vectored vaccine efficacy by facilitating viral complement escape and mammalian cell transduction
In this study, we constructed and screened a series of baculovirus vectors displaying complement interfering factors, of which a baculovirus vector displaying swine IgG1 Fc (pFc) showed the highest complement antagonism (75.6%). Flow cytometry analysis of transduced cells demonstrated that the baculovirus display of pFc had a significant increase in transduction efficiency and transgene expression of reporter genes. On this basis, a VSV-G-pseudotyped with swine IgG1 Fc surface displayed baculovirus vector was developed to express the classical swine fever virus (CSFV) E2 gene. The translational enhancers Syn21 and P10UTR w...
Source: Veterinary Research - May 12, 2017 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Concurrent infection with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus and Haemophilus parasuis in two types of porcine macrophages: apoptosis, production of ROS and formation of multinucleated giant cells
AbstractPorcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) is one of the most significant and economically important infectious diseases affecting swine worldwide and can predispose pigs to secondary bacterial infections caused by, e.g.Haemophilus parasuis. The aim of the presented study was to compare susceptibility of two different types of macrophages which could be in contact with both pathogens during infection with PRRS virus (PRRSV) and in co-infection withH. parasuis. Alveolar macrophages (PAMs) as resident cells provide one of the first lines of defence against microbes invading lung tissue. On the other hand, m...
Source: Veterinary Research - May 4, 2017 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Fecal shedding and tissue infections demonstrate transmission of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in group-housed dairy calves
In conclusion, new MAP infections occurred due to exposure of infectious penmates to contact calves. Therefore, calf-to-calf transmission is a potential route of uncontrolled transmission on cattle farms. (Source: Veterinary Research)
Source: Veterinary Research - April 28, 2017 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research