A live attenuated Salmonella Enteritidis secreting detoxified heat labile toxin enhances mucosal immunity and confers protection against wild-type challenge in chickens
In conclusion, we report here that dmLT could be biologically incorporated in the secretion system of a live attenuated Salmonella-based vaccine, and that this construction is safe and could enhance mucosal immunity, and protect immunized birds against wild-type challenge. (Source: Veterinary Research)
Source: Veterinary Research - June 4, 2016 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Serum-derived exosomes from non-viremic animals previously exposed to the porcine respiratory and reproductive virus contain antigenic viral proteins
Abstract PRRSV is the etiological agent of one of the most important swine diseases with a significant economic burden worldwide and limitations in vaccinology. Exosomes are 30–100 nm vesicles of endocytic origin. Remarkably, immunizations with exosomes containing antigens from tumors or pathogens are capable of eliciting protective immune responses, albeit variably, in cancer and infectious diseases. Here we describe the isolation, molecular composition and immunogenicity of serum-derived exosomes from naïve animals, from PRRSV viremic animals and from animals previously PRRSV infected but alread...
Source: Veterinary Research - May 31, 2016 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

In vivo therapeutic efficacy and pharmacokinetics of colistin sulfate in an experimental model of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli infection in weaned pigs
In this study, 96 pigs were divided into two trials based on CS dose (100 000 or 50 000 IU/kg). Fecal shedding of ETEC: F4, total E. coli, and CS-resistant E. coli, diarrhea scores, and weight changes were evaluated. Colistin sulfate plasma concentrations were determined by HPLC–MS/MS. Regardless of the dose, CS treatment resulted in a reduction of fecal ETEC: F4 and total E. coli shedding, and in diarrhea scores but only during the treatment period. However, CS treatment resulted in a slight increase in fecal shedding of CS resistant E. coli and did not prevent weight loss in challenged pigs. In addition, chall...
Source: Veterinary Research - May 27, 2016 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Piscine orthoreovirus can infect and shed through the intestine in experimentally challenged Atlantic salmon ( Salmo salar L.)
Abstract Piscine orthoreovirus (PRV) is a ubiquitous virus in Norwegian salmon farms associated with the disease heart and skeletal muscle inflammation (HSMI). Experimental challenge has shown that the virus replicates in circulating red blood cells of Atlantic salmon prior to infecting heart myocytes. The infection route from water to blood is however still unknown. The related mammalian orthoreovirus primarily infects the lungs and gastrointestinal (GI) tract and is proposed to spread mainly through the faecal–oral route. To investigate the role of the salmonid GI tract in PRV-infection, o...
Source: Veterinary Research - May 23, 2016 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Local host response following an intramammary challenge with Staphylococcus fleurettii and different strains of Staphylococcus chromogenes in dairy heifers
In conclusion, these results suggest that S. chromogenes might be better adapted to the mammary gland than S. fleurettii. Furthermore, not all S. chromogenes strains induce the same local host response. (Source: Veterinary Research)
Source: Veterinary Research - May 12, 2016 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Induction of mycoplasmal pneumonia in experimentally infected pigs by means of different inoculation routes
Abstract The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of three different inoculation routes into mycoplasmal pneumonia (MP) in pigs challenged with Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (M. hyopneumoniae). Thirty six-week-old M. hyopneumoniae seronegative piglets were randomly assigned to four groups: three challenged groups with experimentally inoculated pigs by either the endotracheal (ET; n = 8), intranasal (IN; n = 8) or aerosol (AE; n = 8) routes and one uninfected group (Control; n = 6). Blood samples were collected 1 day before challenge and at necropsy, 28 days p...
Source: Veterinary Research - May 9, 2016 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Both tumour cells and infiltrating T-cells in equine sarcoids express FOXP3 associated with an immune-supressed cytokine microenvironment
Abstract Bovine papillomavirus (BPV) infections of equine species have a central role in the aetiology of equine sarcoids; a common benign skin tumour of horses, zebras and donkeys. Within the lesions, all of the early papillomavirus genes are expressed and promote the excessive replication of fibroblasts which characterise these tumours. Equine sarcoids differ from BPV induced fibro-papillomas of cattle (the natural host of BPV), in that they do not produce high amounts of virus particles, do not usually regress spontaneously and do not sero-convert to BPV; features which suggest that affected horses lack an eff...
Source: Veterinary Research - May 9, 2016 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Enhanced replication of avian-origin H3N2 canine influenza virus in eggs, cell cultures and mice by a two-amino acid insertion in neuraminidase stalk
Abstract Canine influenza virus (CIV) is a newly identified, highly contagious respiratory pathogen in dogs. Recent studies indicate that avian-origin H3N2 CIV are circulating in Chinese dogs. To investigate the effects of a two-amino acid (2-aa) insertion naturally occurring at the distal end of the neuraminidase (NA) stalk found in Chinese isolates since 2010 on virus replication and virulence, we rescued the CIV strain, A/canine/Jiangsu/06/2011(H3N2) and its NA mutant without the 2-aa insertion using reverse genetics. The NA stalk length affected virus growth in cell culture. Compared to the short stalk strain...
Source: Veterinary Research - May 9, 2016 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

The C-terminal domain of Clostridium perfringens alpha toxin as a vaccine candidate against bovine necrohemorrhagic enteritis
Abstract Bovine necrohemorrhagic enteritis is caused by Clostridium perfringens and leads to sudden death. Alpha toxin, together with perfringolysin O, has been identified as the principal toxin involved in the pathogenesis. We assessed the potential of alpha toxin as a vaccine antigen. Using an intestinal loop model in calves, we investigated the protection afforded by antisera raised against native alpha toxin or its non-toxic C-terminal fragment against C. perfringens-induced intestinal necrosis. Immunization of calves with either of the vaccine preparations induced a strong antibody response. The resulting an...
Source: Veterinary Research - April 27, 2016 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Sublethal effects of acaricides and Nosema ceranae infection on immune related gene expression in honeybees
Abstract Nosema ceranae is an obligate intracellular parasite and the etiologic agent of Nosemosis that affects honeybees. Beside the stress caused by this pathogen, honeybee colonies are exposed to pesticides under beekeeper intervention, such as acaricides to control Varroa mites. These compounds can accumulate at high concentrations in apicultural matrices. In this work, the effects of parasitosis/acaricide on genes involved in honeybee immunity and survival were evaluated. Nurse bees were infected with N. ceranae and/or were chronically treated with sublethal doses of coumaphos or tau-fluvalin...
Source: Veterinary Research - April 26, 2016 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Identification and characterization of a Streptococcus equi ssp . zooepidemicus immunogenic GroEL protein involved in biofilm formation
In this study, we used an immunoproteomic approach to search for immunogenic proteins expressed by biofilm-grown S. equi spp. zooepidemicus. Seventeen immunoreactive proteins were found, of which nine common immunoreactive proteins were identified in planktonic and biofilm-grown bacteria. The immunogenicity and protective efficacy of the S. equi spp. zooepidemicus immunoreactive GroEL chaperone protein was further investigated in mice. The protein was expressed in vivo and elicited high antibody titers following S. equi spp. zooepidemicus infections of mice. An animal challenge experiment with S. equi spp. zooepidemicus sh...
Source: Veterinary Research - April 18, 2016 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

The microbiome associated with equine periodontitis and oral health
Abstract Equine periodontal disease is a common and painful condition and its severe form, periodontitis, can lead to tooth loss. Its aetiopathogenesis remains poorly understood despite recent increased awareness of this disorder amongst the veterinary profession. Bacteria have been found to be causative agents of the disease in other species, but current understanding of their role in equine periodontitis is extremely limited. The aim of this study was to use high-throughput sequencing to identify the microbiome associated with equine periodontitis and oral health. Subgingival plaque samples from 24 horses with ...
Source: Veterinary Research - April 14, 2016 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Spread of Coxiella burnetii between dairy cattle herds in an enzootic region: modelling contributions of airborne transmission and trade
We present a novel dynamic spatial model describing the inter-herd regional spread of C. burnetii in dairy cattle herds, quantifying the ability of airborne transmission and animal trade in C. burnetii propagation in an enzootic region. Among all the new herd infections, 92% were attributed to airborne transmission and the rest to cattle trade. Infections acquired following airborne transmission were shown to cause relatively small and ephemeral intra-herd outbreaks. On the contrary, disease-free herds purchasing an infectious cow experienced significantly higher intra-herd prevalence. The results also indicated that, for ...
Source: Veterinary Research - April 5, 2016 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Live and inactivated Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium stimulate similar but distinct transcriptome profiles in bovine macrophages and dendritic cells
Abstract Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) is a major cause of gastroenteritis in cattle and humans. Dendritic cells (DC) and macrophages (Mø) are major players in early immunity to Salmonella, and their response could influence the course of infection. Therefore, the global transcriptional response of bovine monocyte-derived DC and Mø to stimulation with live and inactivated S. Typhimurium was compared. Both cell types mount a major response 2 h post infection, with a core common response conserved across cell-type and stimuli. However, three of the most ...
Source: Veterinary Research - March 22, 2016 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

BHV-1 induced oxidative stress contributes to mitochondrial dysfunction in MDBK cells
Abstract The levels of cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and ATP as well as the mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) in response to bovine herpesvirus 1 (BHV-1) infection of MDBK cells were measured, respectively. BHV-1 infection increased ROS production which depended on viral entry, and de novo protein expression and/or DNA replication. Vice versa, excessive ROS was required for efficient viral replication. Levels of both ATP and MMP were significantly decreased after BHV-1 infection. Interestingly, the loss of MMP was ameliorated by ROS depression. Collectively, ROS dependent mitochondrial damage and ul...
Source: Veterinary Research - March 22, 2016 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Comparative analysis of routes of immunization of a live porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) vaccine in a heterologous virus challenge study
In conclusion, PRRS-MLV IM vaccination induced the virus specific T cell response in pigs, but still it is required to improve its cross-protective efficacy. (Source: Veterinary Research)
Source: Veterinary Research - March 17, 2016 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Regulation of tracheal antimicrobial peptide gene expression in airway epithelial cells of cattle
The objectives of this study were to identify the signalling pathway by which LPS, Pam3CSK4 and IL-17A induce TAP gene expression, and to determine the effect of glucocorticoid as a model of stress on this epithelial innate immune response. In primary cultures of bovine tracheal epithelial cells (bTEC), LPS, Pam3CSK4 and IL-17A each stimulated TAP gene expression. This effect was abrogated by caffeic acid phenylester (CAPE), an inhibitor of NF-κB. Similarly, western analysis showed that LPS, Pam3CSK4 and IL-17A each induced translocation of NF-κB p65 from the cytoplasm to the nucleus, but pre-treatment with CAP...
Source: Veterinary Research - March 17, 2016 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Experimental ovine toxoplasmosis: influence of the gestational stage on the clinical course, lesion development and parasite distribution
Abstract The relation between gestational age and foetal death risk in ovine toxoplasmosis is already known, but the mechanisms involved are not yet clear. In order to study how the stage of gestation influences these mechanisms, pregnant sheep of the same age and genetic background were orally dosed with 50 oocysts of Toxoplasma gondii (M4 isolate) at days 40 (G1), 90 (G2) and 120 (G3) of gestation. In each group, four animals were culled on the second, third and fourth week post infection (pi) in order to evaluate parasite load and distribution, and lesions in target organs. Ewes from G1 showed a longer period ...
Source: Veterinary Research - March 16, 2016 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Scientific literature on infectious diseases affecting livestock animals, longitudinal worldwide bibliometric analysis
The objectives of this bibliometric analysis of the scientific literature were to describe the research subjects and the international collaborations in the field of research on infectious diseases in livestock animals including fishes and honeybees. It was based on articles published worldwide from 2006 through 2013. The source of data was the Web of Science, Core collection® and only papers fully written in English were considered. Queries were built that combined 130 descriptors related to animal species and 1213 descriptors related to diseases and pathogens. To refine and assess the accuracy of the extracted databa...
Source: Veterinary Research - March 14, 2016 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Identification of risk factors influencing Clostridium difficile prevalence in middle-size dairy farms
This study shows that C. difficile is common on dairy farms and that shedding is more influenced by farm management than environmental factors. Based on molecular typing of C. difficile isolates, it could also be concluded that family dairy farms are currently not contributing to increased CDI incidence. (Source: Veterinary Research)
Source: Veterinary Research - March 12, 2016 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Interaction of non-human primate complement and antibodies with hypermucoviscous Klebsiella pneumoniae
In this study, we investigated the interaction of African green monkeys (AGM) (Chlorocebus aethiops sabaeus) complement and antibody with HMV and non-HMV isolates as in vitro models of primate infection. Significantly greater survival of HMV isolates was evident after incubation in normal serum or whole blood (p 
Source: Veterinary Research - March 8, 2016 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Per os infectivity of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) in white-legged shrimp ( Litopenaeus vannamei ) and role of peritrophic membrane
This study indicated that WSSV contaminated feed is poorly infectious via peroral route, whereas it is highly infectious when injected into shrimp. The PM plays a minor role as internal barrier of shrimp against WSSV infection. (Source: Veterinary Research)
Source: Veterinary Research - February 29, 2016 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Impact of the shedding level on transmission of persistent infections in Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP)
Abstract Super-shedders are infectious individuals that contribute a disproportionate amount of infectious pathogen load to the environment. A super-shedder host may produce up to 10 000 times more pathogens than other infectious hosts. Super-shedders have been reported for multiple human and animal diseases. If their contribution to infection dynamics was linear to the pathogen load, they would dominate infection dynamics. We here focus on quantifying the effect of super-shedders on the spread of infection in natural environments to test if such an effect actually occurs in Mycobacterium avium su...
Source: Veterinary Research - February 29, 2016 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Veterinary Research reviewer acknowledgement 2015
(Source: Veterinary Research)
Source: Veterinary Research - February 29, 2016 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Deterioration of eggshell quality in laying hens experimentally infected with H9N2 avian influenza virus
This study aimed to determine the mechanism by which H9N2 avian influenza virus (AIV) affects eggshell quality. Thirty-week-old specific pathogen free egg-laying hens were inoculated with the chicken-origin H9N2 AIV strain (A/Chicken/shaanxi/01/2011) or with inoculating media without virus by combined intraocular and intranasal routes. The time course for the appearance of viral antigen and tissue lesions in the oviduct was coincident with the adverse changes in egg production in the infected hens. The viral loads of AIV have a close correlation with the changes in the uterus CaBP-D28k mRNA expression as well as the Ca con...
Source: Veterinary Research - February 25, 2016 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Recombinant proteins from Gallibacterium anatis induces partial protection against heterologous challenge in egg-laying hens
Abstract Gallibacterium anatis is a Gram-negative bacterium and major cause of salpingitis and peritonitis in egg-laying hens, thereby contributing to decreased egg production and increased mortality among the hens. Due to widespread drug resistance and antigenic diversity, novel prophylactic measures are urgently required. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the cross-protective capacity of three recombinant proteins recently identified as potential vaccine candidates; GtxA-N, GtxA-C, and FlfA, in an in vivo challenge model. Nine groups of birds were immunized twice with each protein, re...
Source: Veterinary Research - February 25, 2016 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Japanese encephalitis virus tropism in experimentally infected pigs
Abstract Pigs are considered to be the main amplifying host for Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), and their infection can correlate with human cases of disease. Despite their importance in the ecology of the virus as it relates to human cases of encephalitis, the pathogenesis of JEV in pigs remains obscure. In the present study, the localization and kinetics of virus replication were investigated in various tissues after experimental intravenous infection of pigs. The data demonstrate a rapid and broad spreading of the virus to the central nervous system (CNS) and various other organs. A particular tropism of JE...
Source: Veterinary Research - February 24, 2016 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Virus replicon particles expressing porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus proteins elicit immune priming but do not confer protection from viremia in pigs
In this study, VSV VRP expressing the PRRSV envelope proteins GP5, M, GP4, GP3, GP2 and the nucleocapsid protein N, individually or in combination, were generated and evaluated as a potential vector vaccine against PRRSV infection. High level expression of the recombinant PRRSV proteins was demonstrated in cell culture. However, none of the PRRSV antigens expressed from VRP, with the exception of the N protein, did induce any detectable antibody response in pigs before challenge infection with PRRSV. After challenge however, the antibody responses against GP5, GP4 and GP3 appeared in average 2 weeks earlier than in pi...
Source: Veterinary Research - February 19, 2016 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Repurposing of antiparasitic drugs: the hydroxy-naphthoquinone buparvaquone inhibits vertical transmission in the pregnant neosporosis mouse model
Abstract The three anti-malarial drugs artemiside, artemisone, and mefloquine, and the naphthoquinone buparvaquone known to be active against theileriosis in cattle and Leishmania infections in rodents, were assessed for activity against Neospora caninum infection. All four compounds inhibited the proliferation of N. caninum tachyzoites in vitro with IC50 in the sub-micromolar range, but artemisone and buparvaquone were most effective (IC50 = 3 and 4.9 nM, respectively). However, in a neosporosis mouse model for cerebral infection comprising Balb/c mice experimentally infected with the virulent iso...
Source: Veterinary Research - February 17, 2016 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Large genomic differences between Moraxella bovoculi isolates acquired from the eyes of cattle with infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis versus the deep nasopharynx of asymptomatic cattle
In this study, closed circularized genomes were generated for seven M. bovoculi isolates: three that originated from the eyes of clinical IBK bovine cases and four from the deep nasopharynx of asymptomatic cattle. Isolates that originated from the eyes of IBK cases profoundly differed from those that originated from the nasopharynx of asymptomatic cattle in genome structure, gene content and polymorphism diversity and consequently placed into two distinct phylogenetic groups. These results suggest that there are genetically distinct strains of M. bovoculi that may not associate with IBK. (Source: Veterinary Research)
Source: Veterinary Research - February 13, 2016 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Experimental caprine neosporosis: the influence of gestational stage on the outcome of infection
Abstract Here, we assessed outcome of experimental infection by Neospora caninum in goats intravenously inoculated with 106 tachyzoites of the Nc-Spain7 isolate at 40 (G1), 90 (G2) and 120 (G3) days of gestation. Infected goats had fever between 5 and 9 days post inoculation (dpi); all were seropositive at the time of abortion/birth. Foetal death occurred in G1 from 10 to 21 dpi (n = 7) and in G2 from 27 to 35 dpi (n = 4). Goats in G2 also had seropositive stillbirth (n = 1) and healthy kids (n = 2). G3 goats (n = 7) had 3 seropositive and 3 seronegative weak...
Source: Veterinary Research - February 11, 2016 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Expression of cytokine and apoptosis-related genes in bovine peripheral blood mononuclear cells stimulated with Brucella abortus recombinant proteins
Abstract Brucellosis is a clinically and economically important disease. Therefore, eradication programs of the disease have been implemented in several countries. One hurdle in these programs is the detection of infected animals at the early stage. Although the protein antigens as diagnostic antigens have recently received attention, the exact mechanisms at the beginning of immune responses are not yet known. Therefore, genes encoding five B. abortus cellular proteins were cloned and the expressed recombinant proteins were purified. The expression of several cytokine genes (IL-1β, IL-4, IL-6, IL-12p40, IFN-...
Source: Veterinary Research - February 11, 2016 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Variations in IL-23 and IL-25 receptor gene structure, sequence and expression associated with the two disease forms of sheep paratuberculosis
Abstract The immunopathology of paucibacillary and multibacillary sheep paratuberculosis is characterized by inflammatory T cell and macrophage responses respectively. IL-23 and IL-25 are key to the development of these responses by interaction with their complex receptors, IL-23R/IL-12RB1 and IL-17RA/IL-17RB. In humans, variations in structure, sequence and/or expression of these genes have been implicated in the different pathological forms of tuberculosis and leprosy, and in gastrointestinal inflammatory disorders such as Crohn’s disease. Sequencing has identified multiple transcript variants of sheep IL...
Source: Veterinary Research - February 9, 2016 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Barrier protection via Toll-like receptor 2 signaling in porcine intestinal epithelial cells damaged by deoxynivalnol
Abstract Intestinal barrier is the first line of defense inside the body and comprises intercellular tight junction (TJ) proteins that regulate paracellular permeability. Deoxynivalenol (DON), a fungal metabolite often found in the contaminated food of domestic animals, is known to impair intestinal barrier function and may be involved in intestinal inflammation. Unlike in humans and mice, the importance of Toll-like receptor (TLR) 2 expressed in porcine intestinal epithelial cells is largely unclear. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate whether TLR2 stimulation enhances intestinal barrier f...
Source: Veterinary Research - February 9, 2016 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Central nervous system disease and genital disease in harbor porpoises ( Phocoena phocoena ) are associated with different herpesviruses
In conclusion, harbor porpoises may be infected with at least three different herpesviruses, one of which can cause clinically severe neurological disease. (Source: Veterinary Research)
Source: Veterinary Research - February 9, 2016 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

A recombinant subunit vaccine for the control of ovine psoroptic mange (sheep scab)
Abstract Sheep scab, caused by infestation with the mite Psoroptes ovis, is highly contagious, causing intense pruritus and represents a major welfare and economic concern. Disease control strategies rely upon chemotherapy, however, sustainability is questionable due to issues of chemical residues, eco-toxicity and acaricide resistance. Control by vaccination is supported by demonstration of protective immunity in sheep previously infested with P. ovis. We identified vaccine candidates for P. ovis based on: (1) antigens selected by their interaction with host signalling pathways and the host immune-response; and ...
Source: Veterinary Research - February 9, 2016 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Porcine aminopeptidase N binds to F4 + enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli fimbriae
Abstract F4+ enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) strains cause diarrheal disease in neonatal and post-weaned piglets. Several different host receptors for F4 fimbriae have been described, with porcine aminopeptidase N (APN) reported most recently. The FaeG subunit is essential for the binding of the three F4 variants to host cells. Here we show in both yeast two-hybrid and pulldown assays that APN binds directly to FaeG, the major subunit of F4 fimbriae, from three serotypes of F4+ ETEC. Modulating APN gene expression in IPEC-J2 cells affected ETEC adherence. Antibodies raised against APN or F4 fimbriae both ...
Source: Veterinary Research - February 9, 2016 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Avian influenza infection dynamics under variable climatic conditions, viral prevalence is rainfall driven in waterfowl from temperate, south-east Australia
Abstract Understanding Avian Influenza Virus (AIV) infection dynamics in wildlife is crucial because of possible virus spill over to livestock and humans. Studies from the northern hemisphere have suggested several ecological and environmental drivers of AIV prevalence in wild birds. To determine if the same drivers apply in the southern hemisphere, where more irregular environmental conditions prevail, we investigated AIV prevalence in ducks in relation to biotic and abiotic factors in south-eastern Australia. We sampled duck faeces for AIV and tested for an effect of bird numbers, rainfall anomaly, temperature ...
Source: Veterinary Research - February 6, 2016 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Comparison of the pathogen species-specific immune response in udder derived cell types and their models
Abstract The outcome of an udder infection (mastitis) largely depends on the species of the invading pathogen. Gram-negative pathogens, such as Escherichia coli often elicit acute clinical mastitis while Gram-positive pathogens, such as Staphylococcus aureus tend to cause milder subclinical inflammations. It is unclear which type of the immune competent cells residing in the udder governs the pathogen species-specific physiology of mastitis and which established cell lines might provide suitable models. We therefore profiled the pathogen species-specific immune response of different cell types derived from udder ...
Source: Veterinary Research - February 1, 2016 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

How to survey classical swine fever in wild boar ( Sus scrofa ) after the completion of oral vaccination? Chasing away the ghost of infection at different spatial scales
Abstract Oral mass vaccination (OMV) is considered as an efficient strategy for controlling classical swine fever (CSF) in wild boar. After the completion of vaccination, the presence of antibodies in 6–12 month-old hunted wild boars was expected to reflect a recent CSF circulation. Nevertheless, antibodies could also correspond to the long-lasting of maternal antibodies. This paper relates an experience of surveillance which lasted 4 years after the completion of OMV in a formerly vaccinated area, in north-eastern France (2010–2014). First, we conducted a retrospective analysis of the serol...
Source: Veterinary Research - January 25, 2016 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Determination of the minimum fully protective dose of adenovirus-based DIVA vaccine against peste des petits ruminants virus challenge in East African goats
Abstract Peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV) causes an economically important disease of sheep and goats, primarily in developing countries. It is becoming the object of intensive international control efforts. Current vaccines do not allow vaccinated and infected animals to be distinguished (no DIVA capability). We have previously shown that recombinant, replication-defective, adenovirus expressing the PPRV H glycoprotein (AdH) gives full protection against wild type PPRV challenge. We have now tested lower doses of the vaccine, as well as AdH in combination with a similar construct expressing the PPRV F gly...
Source: Veterinary Research - January 21, 2016 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Replication characteristics of equine herpesvirus 1 and equine herpesvirus 3: comparative analysis using ex vivo tissue cultures
Abstract Replication kinetics and invasion characteristics of equine herpesvirus-1 and -3 (EHV-1/-3) in nasal and vaginal mucosae were compared using explants. The explants were cultured during 96 h with little change in viability. The tissues were inoculated with EHV-1 03P37 (neuropathogenic), 97P70 (abortigenic) and EHV-3 04P57, collected at 0, 24, 48 and 72 h post inoculation (pi) and stained for viral antigens. Both EHV-1 and EHV-3 replicated in a plaquewise manner. The plaques were already observed at 24 h pi, their size increased over time and did not directly cross the basement membrane (BM)...
Source: Veterinary Research - January 15, 2016 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Quantification of the increase in the frequency of early calving associated with late exposure to bluetongue virus serotype 8 in dairy cows: implications for syndromic surveillance
The objectives of this study were (1) to quantify the increase in the frequency of early calving associated with the exposure to BTV-8 in late gestation and (2) to determine whether this association could be found in populations exposed to BTV-8 but without reported clinical signs. Increases in frequency of early calving were quantified for cows in herds located in the 2007 outbreak area in France, reported or not as cases. Increases were detected for cows in both categories of herds with a larger effect in herds reported after clinical signs. Moreover, the largest effect was found for exposures occurring during the latest...
Source: Veterinary Research - January 13, 2016 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Characterization of two Austrian porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) field isolates reveals relationship to East Asian strains
Abstract Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) causes major problems for the swine industry worldwide. Due to Austria’s central location in Europe, a large number of animals are transported through the country. However, little is known about current PRRSV strains and epidemiology. We determined full-length genome sequences of two Austrian field isolates (AUT13-883 and AUT14-440) from recent PRRSV outbreaks and of a related German isolate (GER09-613). Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the strains belong to European genotype 1 subtype 1 and form a cluster together with a South Korean s...
Source: Veterinary Research - January 11, 2016 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Structural analysis and insertion study reveal the ideal sites for surface displaying foreign peptides on a betanodavirus-like particle
Abstract Betanodavirus infection causes fatal disease of viral nervous necrosis in many cultured marine and freshwater fish worldwide and the virus-like particles (VLP) are effective vaccines against betanodavirus. But vaccine and viral vector designs of betanodavirus VLP based on their structures remain lacking. Here, the three-dimensional structure of orange-spotted grouper nervous necrosis virus (OGNNV) VLP (RBS) at 3.9 Å reveals the organization of capsid proteins (CP). Based on the structural results, seven putative important sites were selected to genetically insert a 6× histidine (His)-tag...
Source: Veterinary Research - January 11, 2016 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

SJNNV down-regulates RGNNV replication in European sea bass by the induction of the type I interferon system
This study demonstrates that an antiviral state exists after SJNNV and poly I:C injection, suggesting that the IFN I system plays an important role against VNNV infections in sea bass. (Source: Veterinary Research)
Source: Veterinary Research - January 8, 2016 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Expression of immunogenic structural proteins of cyprinid herpesvirus 3 in vitro assessed using immunofluorescence
Abstract Cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV-3), also called koi herpesvirus (KHV), is the aetiological agent of a fatal disease in carp and koi (Cyprinus carpio L.), referred to as koi herpesvirus disease. The virus contains at least 40 structural proteins, of which few have been characterised with respect to their immunogenicity. Indirect immunofluorescence assays (IFAs) using two epitope-specific monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) were used to examine the expression kinetics of two potentially immunogenic and diagnostically relevant viral antigens, an envelope glycoprotein and a capsid-associated protein. The rate of expre...
Source: Veterinary Research - January 8, 2016 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Rainbow trout ( Oncorhynchus mykiss ) muscle satellite cells are targets of salmonid alphavirus infection
Abstract Sleeping disease in rainbow trout is characterized by an abnormal swimming behaviour of the fish which stay on their side at the bottom of the tanks. This sign is due to extensive necrosis and atrophy of red skeletal muscle induced by the sleeping disease virus (SDV), also called salmonid alphavirus 2. Infections of humans with arthritogenic alphaviruses, such as Chikungunya virus (CHIKV), are global causes of debilitating musculoskeletal diseases. The mechanisms by which the virus causes these pathologies are poorly understood due to the restrictive availability of animal models capable of reproducing t...
Source: Veterinary Research - January 8, 2016 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Role of the IFN I system against the VHSV infection in juvenile Senegalese sole ( Solea senegalensis )
In this study, the stimulation of the Senegalese sole IFN I by VHSV infections has been evaluated by the relative quantification of the transcription of several ISG (Mx, Isg15 and Pkr) after inoculation with marine (pathogenic) and freshwater (non-pathogenic) VHSV isolates. Compared to marine VHSV, lower levels of RNA of the freshwater VHSV induced transcription of ISG to similar levels, with the Isg15 showing the highest fold induction. The protective role of the IFN I system was evaluated in poly I:C-inoculated animals subsequently challenged with VHSV isolates. The cumulative mortality caused by the marine isolate in th...
Source: Veterinary Research - January 8, 2016 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Virulence of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV) genotype III in rainbow trout
In this study, we describe the difference of virulence in rainbow trout between the NO-2007-50-385 and 4p168 isolates as representatives of virulent and non-virulent GIII isolates, respectively. Rainbow trout were bath challenged with VHSV NO-2007-50-385 for 1 and 6 h, resulting in cumulative mortalities of 5 and 35%, respectively. No mortality was observed in the rainbow trout groups immersed with the genotype III VHSV isolate 4p168 for 1 and 6 h. The viral titre in organs from fish challenged with NO-2007-50-385 for 6 h increased more rapidly than those exposed for 1 h. By in vitro studies it was demo...
Source: Veterinary Research - January 8, 2016 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research