Roles of visually evoked and spontaneous activity in the development of retinal direction selectivity maps
Trends Neurosci. 2022 Apr 29:S0166-2236(22)00076-5. doi: 10.1016/j.tins.2022.04.002. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTDetecting the direction of motion underlies many visually guided behaviors, from reflexive eye movements to identifying and catching moving objects. A subset of motion sensitive cells are direction selective - responding strongly to motion in one direction and weakly to motion in other directions. In mammals, direction-selective cells are found throughout the visual system, including the retina, superior colliculus, and primary visual cortex. Direction selectivity maps are well characterized in the mouse retin...
Source: Trends in Neurosciences - May 1, 2022 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Alexandre Tiriac Marla B Feller Source Type: research

Nonapoptotic caspases in neural development and in anesthesia-induced neurotoxicity
Trends Neurosci. 2022 Apr 21:S0166-2236(22)00058-3. doi: 10.1016/j.tins.2022.03.007. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTApoptosis, classically initiated by caspase pathway activation, plays a prominent role during normal brain development as well as in neurodegeneration. The noncanonical, nonlethal arm of the caspase pathway is evolutionarily conserved and has also been implicated in both processes, yet is relatively understudied. Dysregulated pathway activation during critical periods of neurodevelopment due to environmental neurotoxins or exposure to compounds such as anesthetics can have detrimental consequences for brain ma...
Source: Trends in Neurosciences - May 1, 2022 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Nemanja Sari ć Kazue Hashimoto-Torii Vesna Jevtovi ć-Todorović Nobuyuki Ishibashi Source Type: research

Homecoming of the estranged GluD channels
Trends Neurosci. 2022 Apr 27:S0166-2236(22)00075-3. doi: 10.1016/j.tins.2022.04.001. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTA recent paper by Carrillo and colleagues demonstrates that GluD proteins form bona fide ligand-gated ion channels when their intrinsic flexibility is constrained by interactions with protein partners. Therefore, Delta receptors resemble all other members of the ionotropic glutamate receptor family not only by sequence and structural homology, but also by functional dynamics.PMID:35490056 | DOI:10.1016/j.tins.2022.04.001 (Source: Trends in Neurosciences)
Source: Trends in Neurosciences - April 30, 2022 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Jamie A Abbott Gabriela K Popescu Source Type: research

Bridging the big (data) gap: levels of control in small- and large-scale cognitive neuroscience research
Trends Neurosci. 2022 Apr 22:S0166-2236(22)00062-5. doi: 10.1016/j.tins.2022.03.011. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTRecently, cognitive neuroscience has experienced unprecedented growth in the availability of large-scale datasets. These developments hold great methodological and theoretical promise: they allow increased statistical power, the use of nonparametric and generative models, the examination of individual differences, and more. Nevertheless, unlike most 'traditional' cognitive neuroscience research, which uses controlled experimental designs, large-scale projects often collect neuroimaging data not directly relate...
Source: Trends in Neurosciences - April 26, 2022 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Roni Tibon Linda Geerligs Karen Campbell Source Type: research

Bridging the big (data) gap: levels of control in small- and large-scale cognitive neuroscience research
Trends Neurosci. 2022 Apr 22:S0166-2236(22)00062-5. doi: 10.1016/j.tins.2022.03.011. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTRecently, cognitive neuroscience has experienced unprecedented growth in the availability of large-scale datasets. These developments hold great methodological and theoretical promise: they allow increased statistical power, the use of nonparametric and generative models, the examination of individual differences, and more. Nevertheless, unlike most 'traditional' cognitive neuroscience research, which uses controlled experimental designs, large-scale projects often collect neuroimaging data not directly relate...
Source: Trends in Neurosciences - April 26, 2022 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Roni Tibon Linda Geerligs Karen Campbell Source Type: research

Bridging the big (data) gap: levels of control in small- and large-scale cognitive neuroscience research
Trends Neurosci. 2022 Apr 22:S0166-2236(22)00062-5. doi: 10.1016/j.tins.2022.03.011. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTRecently, cognitive neuroscience has experienced unprecedented growth in the availability of large-scale datasets. These developments hold great methodological and theoretical promise: they allow increased statistical power, the use of nonparametric and generative models, the examination of individual differences, and more. Nevertheless, unlike most 'traditional' cognitive neuroscience research, which uses controlled experimental designs, large-scale projects often collect neuroimaging data not directly relate...
Source: Trends in Neurosciences - April 26, 2022 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Roni Tibon Linda Geerligs Karen Campbell Source Type: research

Bridging the big (data) gap: levels of control in small- and large-scale cognitive neuroscience research
Trends Neurosci. 2022 Apr 22:S0166-2236(22)00062-5. doi: 10.1016/j.tins.2022.03.011. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTRecently, cognitive neuroscience has experienced unprecedented growth in the availability of large-scale datasets. These developments hold great methodological and theoretical promise: they allow increased statistical power, the use of nonparametric and generative models, the examination of individual differences, and more. Nevertheless, unlike most 'traditional' cognitive neuroscience research, which uses controlled experimental designs, large-scale projects often collect neuroimaging data not directly relate...
Source: Trends in Neurosciences - April 26, 2022 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Roni Tibon Linda Geerligs Karen Campbell Source Type: research

Bridging the big (data) gap: levels of control in small- and large-scale cognitive neuroscience research
Trends Neurosci. 2022 Apr 22:S0166-2236(22)00062-5. doi: 10.1016/j.tins.2022.03.011. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTRecently, cognitive neuroscience has experienced unprecedented growth in the availability of large-scale datasets. These developments hold great methodological and theoretical promise: they allow increased statistical power, the use of nonparametric and generative models, the examination of individual differences, and more. Nevertheless, unlike most 'traditional' cognitive neuroscience research, which uses controlled experimental designs, large-scale projects often collect neuroimaging data not directly relate...
Source: Trends in Neurosciences - April 26, 2022 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Roni Tibon Linda Geerligs Karen Campbell Source Type: research

Circadian clock, diurnal glucose metabolic rhythm, and dawn phenomenon
Trends Neurosci. 2022 Apr 21:S0166-2236(22)00061-3. doi: 10.1016/j.tins.2022.03.010. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTThe circadian clock provides cue-independent anticipatory signals for diurnal rhythms of baseline glucose levels and glucose tolerance. The central circadian clock is located in the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), which comprises primarily GABAergic neurons. The SCN clock regulates physiological diurnal rhythms of endogenous glucose production (EGP) and hepatic insulin sensitivity through neurohumoral mechanisms. Disruption of the molecular circadian clock is associated with the extended dawn pheno...
Source: Trends in Neurosciences - April 25, 2022 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Fei Peng Xin Li Fang Xiao Ruxing Zhao Zheng Sun Source Type: research

Circadian clock, diurnal glucose metabolic rhythm, and dawn phenomenon
Trends Neurosci. 2022 Apr 21:S0166-2236(22)00061-3. doi: 10.1016/j.tins.2022.03.010. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTThe circadian clock provides cue-independent anticipatory signals for diurnal rhythms of baseline glucose levels and glucose tolerance. The central circadian clock is located in the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), which comprises primarily GABAergic neurons. The SCN clock regulates physiological diurnal rhythms of endogenous glucose production (EGP) and hepatic insulin sensitivity through neurohumoral mechanisms. Disruption of the molecular circadian clock is associated with the extended dawn pheno...
Source: Trends in Neurosciences - April 25, 2022 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Fei Peng Xin Li Fang Xiao Ruxing Zhao Zheng Sun Source Type: research

Neuroinflammation associated with ultrasound-mediated permeabilization of the blood-brain barrier
Trends Neurosci. 2022 Apr 20:S0166-2236(22)00054-6. doi: 10.1016/j.tins.2022.03.003. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTThe blood-brain barrier (BBB) continues to represent one of the most significant challenges for successful drug-based treatments of neurological disease. Mechanical modulation of the BBB using focused ultrasound (FUS) and microbubbles (MBs) has shown considerable promise in enhancing the delivery of therapeutics to the brain, but questions remain regarding possible long-term effects of such forced disruption. This review examines the evidence for inflammation associated with ultrasound-induced BBB disruption a...
Source: Trends in Neurosciences - April 24, 2022 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Olive Jung Alec Thomas Scott R Burks Michael L Dustin Joseph A Frank Marc Ferrer Eleanor Stride Source Type: research

Intercellular signaling by ectodomain shedding at the synapse
Trends Neurosci. 2022 Apr 13:S0166-2236(22)00055-8. doi: 10.1016/j.tins.2022.03.004. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTEctodomain shedding (ES) is a post-translational protein modification process that plays key roles in health and disease. Many neuronal and synaptic membrane proteins are known to undergo ES, but the complexity of functions regulated by the shed peptides is only beginning to be unraveled. Here, we provide an overview of emerging evidence demonstrating that synaptic ES can mediate autocrine and paracrine signaling. We also discuss how advances in large-scale proteomic analyses are leading to the identification ...
Source: Trends in Neurosciences - April 17, 2022 Category: Neuroscience Authors: M Dolores Mart ín-de-Saavedra Marc Dos Santos Peter Penzes Source Type: research

Intercellular signaling by ectodomain shedding at the synapse
Trends Neurosci. 2022 Apr 13:S0166-2236(22)00055-8. doi: 10.1016/j.tins.2022.03.004. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTEctodomain shedding (ES) is a post-translational protein modification process that plays key roles in health and disease. Many neuronal and synaptic membrane proteins are known to undergo ES, but the complexity of functions regulated by the shed peptides is only beginning to be unraveled. Here, we provide an overview of emerging evidence demonstrating that synaptic ES can mediate autocrine and paracrine signaling. We also discuss how advances in large-scale proteomic analyses are leading to the identification ...
Source: Trends in Neurosciences - April 17, 2022 Category: Neuroscience Authors: M Dolores Mart ín-de-Saavedra Marc Dos Santos Peter Penzes Source Type: research

Intercellular signaling by ectodomain shedding at the synapse
Trends Neurosci. 2022 Apr 13:S0166-2236(22)00055-8. doi: 10.1016/j.tins.2022.03.004. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTEctodomain shedding (ES) is a post-translational protein modification process that plays key roles in health and disease. Many neuronal and synaptic membrane proteins are known to undergo ES, but the complexity of functions regulated by the shed peptides is only beginning to be unraveled. Here, we provide an overview of emerging evidence demonstrating that synaptic ES can mediate autocrine and paracrine signaling. We also discuss how advances in large-scale proteomic analyses are leading to the identification ...
Source: Trends in Neurosciences - April 17, 2022 Category: Neuroscience Authors: M Dolores Mart ín-de-Saavedra Marc Dos Santos Peter Penzes Source Type: research

Intercellular signaling by ectodomain shedding at the synapse
Trends Neurosci. 2022 Apr 13:S0166-2236(22)00055-8. doi: 10.1016/j.tins.2022.03.004. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTEctodomain shedding (ES) is a post-translational protein modification process that plays key roles in health and disease. Many neuronal and synaptic membrane proteins are known to undergo ES, but the complexity of functions regulated by the shed peptides is only beginning to be unraveled. Here, we provide an overview of emerging evidence demonstrating that synaptic ES can mediate autocrine and paracrine signaling. We also discuss how advances in large-scale proteomic analyses are leading to the identification ...
Source: Trends in Neurosciences - April 17, 2022 Category: Neuroscience Authors: M Dolores Mart ín-de-Saavedra Marc Dos Santos Peter Penzes Source Type: research