Dopamine ramps for accurate value learning under uncertainty
Trends Neurosci. 2022 Feb 15:S0166-2236(22)00020-0. doi: 10.1016/j.tins.2022.01.008. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTDopamine signals ramping towards reward timings have become widely reported, but their functions remain elusive. Through modeling analyses and experiments in mice, a recent study by Mikhael, Kim et al. shows that such signals represent reward prediction errors used for accurate value learning in conditions with uncertainty about upcoming state and its resolution by sensory feedback.PMID:35181147 | DOI:10.1016/j.tins.2022.01.008 (Source: Trends in Neurosciences)
Source: Trends in Neurosciences - February 19, 2022 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Kenji Morita Ayaka Kato Source Type: research

Dopamine ramps for accurate value learning under uncertainty
Trends Neurosci. 2022 Feb 15:S0166-2236(22)00020-0. doi: 10.1016/j.tins.2022.01.008. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTDopamine signals ramping towards reward timings have become widely reported, but their functions remain elusive. Through modeling analyses and experiments in mice, a recent study by Mikhael, Kim et al. shows that such signals represent reward prediction errors used for accurate value learning in conditions with uncertainty about upcoming state and its resolution by sensory feedback.PMID:35181147 | DOI:10.1016/j.tins.2022.01.008 (Source: Trends in Neurosciences)
Source: Trends in Neurosciences - February 19, 2022 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Kenji Morita Ayaka Kato Source Type: research

Local cholesterol metabolism orchestrates remyelination
Trends Neurosci. 2022 Feb 10:S0166-2236(22)00013-3. doi: 10.1016/j.tins.2022.01.001. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTCholesterol is an essential component of all cell membranes and particularly enriched in myelin membranes. Myelin membranes are a major target of immune attacks in the chronic neurological disorder multiple sclerosis (MS). During demyelinating insults, cholesterol is released from damaged myelin, increasing local levels of this unique lipid and impeding tissue regeneration. Here, we summarize the current knowledge of cholesterol-dependent processes during demyelination and remyelination, emphasizing cell type-...
Source: Trends in Neurosciences - February 14, 2022 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Stefan A Berghoff Lena Spieth Gesine Saher Source Type: research

Local cholesterol metabolism orchestrates remyelination
Trends Neurosci. 2022 Feb 10:S0166-2236(22)00013-3. doi: 10.1016/j.tins.2022.01.001. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTCholesterol is an essential component of all cell membranes and particularly enriched in myelin membranes. Myelin membranes are a major target of immune attacks in the chronic neurological disorder multiple sclerosis (MS). During demyelinating insults, cholesterol is released from damaged myelin, increasing local levels of this unique lipid and impeding tissue regeneration. Here, we summarize the current knowledge of cholesterol-dependent processes during demyelination and remyelination, emphasizing cell type-...
Source: Trends in Neurosciences - February 14, 2022 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Stefan A Berghoff Lena Spieth Gesine Saher Source Type: research

Local cholesterol metabolism orchestrates remyelination
Trends Neurosci. 2022 Feb 10:S0166-2236(22)00013-3. doi: 10.1016/j.tins.2022.01.001. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTCholesterol is an essential component of all cell membranes and particularly enriched in myelin membranes. Myelin membranes are a major target of immune attacks in the chronic neurological disorder multiple sclerosis (MS). During demyelinating insults, cholesterol is released from damaged myelin, increasing local levels of this unique lipid and impeding tissue regeneration. Here, we summarize the current knowledge of cholesterol-dependent processes during demyelination and remyelination, emphasizing cell type-...
Source: Trends in Neurosciences - February 14, 2022 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Stefan A Berghoff Lena Spieth Gesine Saher Source Type: research

Local cholesterol metabolism orchestrates remyelination
Trends Neurosci. 2022 Feb 10:S0166-2236(22)00013-3. doi: 10.1016/j.tins.2022.01.001. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTCholesterol is an essential component of all cell membranes and particularly enriched in myelin membranes. Myelin membranes are a major target of immune attacks in the chronic neurological disorder multiple sclerosis (MS). During demyelinating insults, cholesterol is released from damaged myelin, increasing local levels of this unique lipid and impeding tissue regeneration. Here, we summarize the current knowledge of cholesterol-dependent processes during demyelination and remyelination, emphasizing cell type-...
Source: Trends in Neurosciences - February 14, 2022 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Stefan A Berghoff Lena Spieth Gesine Saher Source Type: research

Local cholesterol metabolism orchestrates remyelination
Trends Neurosci. 2022 Feb 10:S0166-2236(22)00013-3. doi: 10.1016/j.tins.2022.01.001. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTCholesterol is an essential component of all cell membranes and particularly enriched in myelin membranes. Myelin membranes are a major target of immune attacks in the chronic neurological disorder multiple sclerosis (MS). During demyelinating insults, cholesterol is released from damaged myelin, increasing local levels of this unique lipid and impeding tissue regeneration. Here, we summarize the current knowledge of cholesterol-dependent processes during demyelination and remyelination, emphasizing cell type-...
Source: Trends in Neurosciences - February 14, 2022 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Stefan A Berghoff Lena Spieth Gesine Saher Source Type: research

Going beyond primary motor cortex to improve brain-computer interfaces
Trends Neurosci. 2022 Jan 22:S0166-2236(21)00254-X. doi: 10.1016/j.tins.2021.12.006. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTBrain-computer interfaces (BCIs) for movement restoration typically decode the user's intent from neural activity in their primary motor cortex (M1) and use this information to enable 'mental control' of an external device. Here, we argue that activity in M1 has both too little and too much information for optimal decoding: too little, in that many regions beyond it contribute unique motor outputs and have movement-related information that is absent or otherwise difficult to resolve from M1 activity; and too m...
Source: Trends in Neurosciences - January 26, 2022 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Juan A Gallego Tamar R Makin Samuel D McDougle Source Type: research

Going beyond primary motor cortex to improve brain-computer interfaces
Trends Neurosci. 2022 Jan 22:S0166-2236(21)00254-X. doi: 10.1016/j.tins.2021.12.006. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTBrain-computer interfaces (BCIs) for movement restoration typically decode the user's intent from neural activity in their primary motor cortex (M1) and use this information to enable 'mental control' of an external device. Here, we argue that activity in M1 has both too little and too much information for optimal decoding: too little, in that many regions beyond it contribute unique motor outputs and have movement-related information that is absent or otherwise difficult to resolve from M1 activity; and too m...
Source: Trends in Neurosciences - January 26, 2022 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Juan A Gallego Tamar R Makin Samuel D McDougle Source Type: research

Going beyond primary motor cortex to improve brain-computer interfaces
Trends Neurosci. 2022 Jan 22:S0166-2236(21)00254-X. doi: 10.1016/j.tins.2021.12.006. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTBrain-computer interfaces (BCIs) for movement restoration typically decode the user's intent from neural activity in their primary motor cortex (M1) and use this information to enable 'mental control' of an external device. Here, we argue that activity in M1 has both too little and too much information for optimal decoding: too little, in that many regions beyond it contribute unique motor outputs and have movement-related information that is absent or otherwise difficult to resolve from M1 activity; and too m...
Source: Trends in Neurosciences - January 26, 2022 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Juan A Gallego Tamar R Makin Samuel D McDougle Source Type: research

Going beyond primary motor cortex to improve brain-computer interfaces
Trends Neurosci. 2022 Jan 22:S0166-2236(21)00254-X. doi: 10.1016/j.tins.2021.12.006. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTBrain-computer interfaces (BCIs) for movement restoration typically decode the user's intent from neural activity in their primary motor cortex (M1) and use this information to enable 'mental control' of an external device. Here, we argue that activity in M1 has both too little and too much information for optimal decoding: too little, in that many regions beyond it contribute unique motor outputs and have movement-related information that is absent or otherwise difficult to resolve from M1 activity; and too m...
Source: Trends in Neurosciences - January 26, 2022 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Juan A Gallego Tamar R Makin Samuel D McDougle Source Type: research

Going beyond primary motor cortex to improve brain-computer interfaces
Trends Neurosci. 2022 Jan 22:S0166-2236(21)00254-X. doi: 10.1016/j.tins.2021.12.006. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTBrain-computer interfaces (BCIs) for movement restoration typically decode the user's intent from neural activity in their primary motor cortex (M1) and use this information to enable 'mental control' of an external device. Here, we argue that activity in M1 has both too little and too much information for optimal decoding: too little, in that many regions beyond it contribute unique motor outputs and have movement-related information that is absent or otherwise difficult to resolve from M1 activity; and too m...
Source: Trends in Neurosciences - January 26, 2022 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Juan A Gallego Tamar R Makin Samuel D McDougle Source Type: research

Going beyond primary motor cortex to improve brain-computer interfaces
Trends Neurosci. 2022 Jan 22:S0166-2236(21)00254-X. doi: 10.1016/j.tins.2021.12.006. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTBrain-computer interfaces (BCIs) for movement restoration typically decode the user's intent from neural activity in their primary motor cortex (M1) and use this information to enable 'mental control' of an external device. Here, we argue that activity in M1 has both too little and too much information for optimal decoding: too little, in that many regions beyond it contribute unique motor outputs and have movement-related information that is absent or otherwise difficult to resolve from M1 activity; and too m...
Source: Trends in Neurosciences - January 26, 2022 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Juan A Gallego Tamar R Makin Samuel D McDougle Source Type: research

Going beyond primary motor cortex to improve brain-computer interfaces
Trends Neurosci. 2022 Jan 22:S0166-2236(21)00254-X. doi: 10.1016/j.tins.2021.12.006. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTBrain-computer interfaces (BCIs) for movement restoration typically decode the user's intent from neural activity in their primary motor cortex (M1) and use this information to enable 'mental control' of an external device. Here, we argue that activity in M1 has both too little and too much information for optimal decoding: too little, in that many regions beyond it contribute unique motor outputs and have movement-related information that is absent or otherwise difficult to resolve from M1 activity; and too m...
Source: Trends in Neurosciences - January 26, 2022 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Juan A Gallego Tamar R Makin Samuel D McDougle Source Type: research

Going beyond primary motor cortex to improve brain-computer interfaces
Trends Neurosci. 2022 Jan 22:S0166-2236(21)00254-X. doi: 10.1016/j.tins.2021.12.006. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTBrain-computer interfaces (BCIs) for movement restoration typically decode the user's intent from neural activity in their primary motor cortex (M1) and use this information to enable 'mental control' of an external device. Here, we argue that activity in M1 has both too little and too much information for optimal decoding: too little, in that many regions beyond it contribute unique motor outputs and have movement-related information that is absent or otherwise difficult to resolve from M1 activity; and too m...
Source: Trends in Neurosciences - January 26, 2022 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Juan A Gallego Tamar R Makin Samuel D McDougle Source Type: research