α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in the hippocampal circuit: taming complexity
Trends Neurosci. 2021 Dec 13:S0166-2236(21)00235-6. doi: 10.1016/j.tins.2021.11.006. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTCholinergic innervation of the hippocampus uses the neurotransmitter acetylcholine (ACh) to coordinate neuronal circuit activity while simultaneously influencing the function of non-neuronal cell types. The α7 nicotinic ACh receptor (nAChR) subtype is highly expressed throughout the hippocampus, has the highest calcium permeability compared with other subtypes of nAChRs, and is of high therapeutic interest due to its association with a variety of neurological disorders and neurodegenerative diseases. In this ...
Source: Trends in Neurosciences - December 17, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Ayland C Letsinger Zhenglin Gu Jerrel L Yakel Source Type: research

The impact of stress on the hippocampal spatial code
Trends Neurosci. 2021 Dec 13:S0166-2236(21)00234-4. doi: 10.1016/j.tins.2021.11.005. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTHippocampal function is severely compromised by prolonged, uncontrollable stress. However, how stress alters neural representations of our surroundings and events that occur within them remains less clear. We review hippocampal place cell studies that examine how spatial coding is affected by acute and chronic stress, as well as by stress accompanying fear conditioning. Emerging data suggest that chronic stress disrupts the acuity and specificity of CA1 spatial coding, both in familiar and novel contexts, and ...
Source: Trends in Neurosciences - December 17, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Anupratap Tomar Thomas J McHugh Source Type: research

α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in the hippocampal circuit: taming complexity
Trends Neurosci. 2021 Dec 13:S0166-2236(21)00235-6. doi: 10.1016/j.tins.2021.11.006. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTCholinergic innervation of the hippocampus uses the neurotransmitter acetylcholine (ACh) to coordinate neuronal circuit activity while simultaneously influencing the function of non-neuronal cell types. The α7 nicotinic ACh receptor (nAChR) subtype is highly expressed throughout the hippocampus, has the highest calcium permeability compared with other subtypes of nAChRs, and is of high therapeutic interest due to its association with a variety of neurological disorders and neurodegenerative diseases. In this ...
Source: Trends in Neurosciences - December 17, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Ayland C Letsinger Zhenglin Gu Jerrel L Yakel Source Type: research

The impact of stress on the hippocampal spatial code
Trends Neurosci. 2021 Dec 13:S0166-2236(21)00234-4. doi: 10.1016/j.tins.2021.11.005. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTHippocampal function is severely compromised by prolonged, uncontrollable stress. However, how stress alters neural representations of our surroundings and events that occur within them remains less clear. We review hippocampal place cell studies that examine how spatial coding is affected by acute and chronic stress, as well as by stress accompanying fear conditioning. Emerging data suggest that chronic stress disrupts the acuity and specificity of CA1 spatial coding, both in familiar and novel contexts, and ...
Source: Trends in Neurosciences - December 17, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Anupratap Tomar Thomas J McHugh Source Type: research

Beneficial and detrimental functions of microglia during viral encephalitis
Trends Neurosci. 2021 Dec 11:S0166-2236(21)00233-2. doi: 10.1016/j.tins.2021.11.004. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTMicroglia are resident immune cells of the central nervous system (CNS) with multiple functions in health and disease. Their response during encephalitis depends on whether inflammation is triggered in a sterile or infectious manner, and in the latter case on the type of the infecting pathogen. Even though recent technological innovations advanced the understanding of the broad spectrum of microglia responses during viral encephalitis (VE), it is not entirely clear which microglia gene expression profiles are ...
Source: Trends in Neurosciences - December 15, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Inken Waltl Ulrich Kalinke Source Type: research

Beneficial and detrimental functions of microglia during viral encephalitis
Trends Neurosci. 2021 Dec 11:S0166-2236(21)00233-2. doi: 10.1016/j.tins.2021.11.004. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTMicroglia are resident immune cells of the central nervous system (CNS) with multiple functions in health and disease. Their response during encephalitis depends on whether inflammation is triggered in a sterile or infectious manner, and in the latter case on the type of the infecting pathogen. Even though recent technological innovations advanced the understanding of the broad spectrum of microglia responses during viral encephalitis (VE), it is not entirely clear which microglia gene expression profiles are ...
Source: Trends in Neurosciences - December 15, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Inken Waltl Ulrich Kalinke Source Type: research

The iPSC perspective on schizophrenia
Trends Neurosci. 2021 Dec 4:S0166-2236(21)00229-0. doi: 10.1016/j.tins.2021.11.002. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTOver a decade of schizophrenia research using human induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-derived neural models has provided substantial data describing neurobiological characteristics of the disorder in vitro. Simultaneously, translation of the results into general mechanistic concepts underlying schizophrenia pathophysiology has been trailing behind. Given that modeling brain function using cell cultures is challenging, the gap between the in vitro models and schizophrenia as a clinical disorder has remained w...
Source: Trends in Neurosciences - December 8, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Noora R äsänen Jari Tiihonen Marja Koskuvi Šárka Lehtonen Jari Koistinaho Source Type: research

The iPSC perspective on schizophrenia
Trends Neurosci. 2021 Dec 4:S0166-2236(21)00229-0. doi: 10.1016/j.tins.2021.11.002. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTOver a decade of schizophrenia research using human induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-derived neural models has provided substantial data describing neurobiological characteristics of the disorder in vitro. Simultaneously, translation of the results into general mechanistic concepts underlying schizophrenia pathophysiology has been trailing behind. Given that modeling brain function using cell cultures is challenging, the gap between the in vitro models and schizophrenia as a clinical disorder has remained w...
Source: Trends in Neurosciences - December 8, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Noora R äsänen Jari Tiihonen Marja Koskuvi Šárka Lehtonen Jari Koistinaho Source Type: research

The iPSC perspective on schizophrenia
Trends Neurosci. 2021 Dec 4:S0166-2236(21)00229-0. doi: 10.1016/j.tins.2021.11.002. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTOver a decade of schizophrenia research using human induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-derived neural models has provided substantial data describing neurobiological characteristics of the disorder in vitro. Simultaneously, translation of the results into general mechanistic concepts underlying schizophrenia pathophysiology has been trailing behind. Given that modeling brain function using cell cultures is challenging, the gap between the in vitro models and schizophrenia as a clinical disorder has remained w...
Source: Trends in Neurosciences - December 8, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Noora R äsänen Jari Tiihonen Marja Koskuvi Šárka Lehtonen Jari Koistinaho Source Type: research

The iPSC perspective on schizophrenia
Trends Neurosci. 2021 Dec 4:S0166-2236(21)00229-0. doi: 10.1016/j.tins.2021.11.002. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTOver a decade of schizophrenia research using human induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-derived neural models has provided substantial data describing neurobiological characteristics of the disorder in vitro. Simultaneously, translation of the results into general mechanistic concepts underlying schizophrenia pathophysiology has been trailing behind. Given that modeling brain function using cell cultures is challenging, the gap between the in vitro models and schizophrenia as a clinical disorder has remained w...
Source: Trends in Neurosciences - December 8, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Noora R äsänen Jari Tiihonen Marja Koskuvi Šárka Lehtonen Jari Koistinaho Source Type: research

The iPSC perspective on schizophrenia
Trends Neurosci. 2021 Dec 4:S0166-2236(21)00229-0. doi: 10.1016/j.tins.2021.11.002. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTOver a decade of schizophrenia research using human induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-derived neural models has provided substantial data describing neurobiological characteristics of the disorder in vitro. Simultaneously, translation of the results into general mechanistic concepts underlying schizophrenia pathophysiology has been trailing behind. Given that modeling brain function using cell cultures is challenging, the gap between the in vitro models and schizophrenia as a clinical disorder has remained w...
Source: Trends in Neurosciences - December 8, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Noora R äsänen Jari Tiihonen Marja Koskuvi Šárka Lehtonen Jari Koistinaho Source Type: research

The iPSC perspective on schizophrenia
Trends Neurosci. 2021 Dec 4:S0166-2236(21)00229-0. doi: 10.1016/j.tins.2021.11.002. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTOver a decade of schizophrenia research using human induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-derived neural models has provided substantial data describing neurobiological characteristics of the disorder in vitro. Simultaneously, translation of the results into general mechanistic concepts underlying schizophrenia pathophysiology has been trailing behind. Given that modeling brain function using cell cultures is challenging, the gap between the in vitro models and schizophrenia as a clinical disorder has remained w...
Source: Trends in Neurosciences - December 8, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Noora R äsänen Jari Tiihonen Marja Koskuvi Šárka Lehtonen Jari Koistinaho Source Type: research

Evaluating microglial phenotypes using single-cell technologies
Trends Neurosci. 2021 Dec 3:S0166-2236(21)00228-9. doi: 10.1016/j.tins.2021.11.001. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTRecent single-cell technologies have enabled researchers to simultaneously assess the transcriptomes and other modalities of thousands of cells within their spatial context. Here, we have summarized available single-cell methods for dissociated tissues and tissue slides with respect to the specifics of microglial biology. We have focused on next-generation-based technologies. We review the potential of these single-cell sequencing methods and newer multiomics approaches to extend the understanding of microglia ...
Source: Trends in Neurosciences - December 7, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Roman Sankowski Gianni Monaco Marco Prinz Source Type: research

Evaluating microglial phenotypes using single-cell technologies
Trends Neurosci. 2021 Dec 3:S0166-2236(21)00228-9. doi: 10.1016/j.tins.2021.11.001. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTRecent single-cell technologies have enabled researchers to simultaneously assess the transcriptomes and other modalities of thousands of cells within their spatial context. Here, we have summarized available single-cell methods for dissociated tissues and tissue slides with respect to the specifics of microglial biology. We have focused on next-generation-based technologies. We review the potential of these single-cell sequencing methods and newer multiomics approaches to extend the understanding of microglia ...
Source: Trends in Neurosciences - December 7, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Roman Sankowski Gianni Monaco Marco Prinz Source Type: research

Mitochondrial dysfunction as a trigger of programmed axon death
Trends Neurosci. 2021 Nov 29:S0166-2236(21)00214-9. doi: 10.1016/j.tins.2021.10.014. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTMitochondrial failure has long been associated with programmed axon death (Wallerian degeneration, WD), a widespread and potentially preventable mechanism of axon degeneration. While early findings in axotomised axons indicated that mitochondria are involved during the execution steps of this pathway, recent studies suggest that in addition, mitochondrial dysfunction can initiate programmed axon death without physical injury. As mitochondrial dysfunction is associated with disorders involving early axon loss, ...
Source: Trends in Neurosciences - December 2, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Elisa Merlini Michael P Coleman Andrea Loreto Source Type: research