Evolutionary Expansion of Human Cerebellar Germinal Zones.
Abstract Haldipur et al. explored the developmental origins of the human cerebellum, which has gained growing appreciation for its involvement in human cognition. The authors discovered human-unique expansion and maintenance of cerebellar germinal zones, reminiscent of processes in the developing human cerebral cortex necessary for generating expanded neuronal populations. PMID: 31954525 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Trends in Neurosciences)
Source: Trends in Neurosciences - January 15, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Keefe MG, Nowakowski TJ Tags: Trends Neurosci Source Type: research

Diverse Mechanisms of Sound Frequency Discrimination in the Vertebrate Cochlea.
Abstract Discrimination of different sound frequencies is pivotal to recognizing and localizing friend and foe. Here, I review the various hair cell-tuning mechanisms used among vertebrates. Electrical resonance, filtering of the receptor potential by voltage-dependent ion channels, is ubiquitous in all non-mammals, but has an upper limit of ~1 kHz. The frequency range is extended by mechanical resonance of the hair bundles in frogs and lizards, but may need active hair-bundle motion to achieve sharp tuning up to 5 kHz. Tuning in mammals uses somatic motility of outer hair cells, underpinned by the membrane protei...
Source: Trends in Neurosciences - January 15, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Fettiplace R Tags: Trends Neurosci Source Type: research

The Sigma-1 Receptor at the Crossroad of Proteostasis, Neurodegeneration, and Autophagy.
Abstract Neurodegenerative diseases are linked to dysfunctional proteostasis and disturbed autophagy. Here, we discuss how the sigma-1 receptor (Sig-1R) may act at the intersection of this interaction, as loss-of-function mutations of this unique chaperone are associated with defective autophagy and its pharmacological activation induces autophagic activity. PMID: 31918966 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Trends in Neurosciences)
Source: Trends in Neurosciences - January 6, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Christ MG, Clement AM, Behl C Tags: Trends Neurosci Source Type: research

Is Ca2+ Essential for Synaptic Vesicle Endocytosis?
Abstract Synaptic vesicle fusion is coupled to swift retrieval of vesicle components from the synaptic plasma membrane. Ca2+ has been assumed to be a key mediator of this coupling. In a recent study, Orlando et al. unequivocally demonstrate that Ca2+ is not essential for synaptic vesicle retrieval. PMID: 31910996 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Trends in Neurosciences)
Source: Trends in Neurosciences - January 3, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Chanaday NL, Kavalali ET Tags: Trends Neurosci Source Type: research

Zona Incerta: An Integrative Node for Global Behavioral Modulation.
Abstract Zona incerta (ZI) is a largely inhibitory subthalamic region connecting with many brain areas. Early studies have suggested involvement of ZI in various functions such as visceral activities, arousal, attention, and locomotion, but the specific roles of different ZI subdomains or cell types have not been well examined. Recent studies combining optogenetics, behavioral assays, neural tracing, and neural activity-recording reveal novel functional roles of ZI depending on specific input-output connectivity patterns. Here, we review these studies and summarize functions of ZI into four categories: sensory int...
Source: Trends in Neurosciences - December 18, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Wang X, Chou XL, Zhang LI, Tao HW Tags: Trends Neurosci Source Type: research

Reinventing Neuroaging Research in the Digital Age.
Abstract The worldwide average human lifespan has increased over the past century. These changing demographics demand a reinvention of experimental approaches to study the brain and aging, with the aim of better matching cognitive healthspan with human lifespan. Past studies of cognitive aging included sample sizes that tended to be underpowered, were not sufficiently representative of national population characteristics, and often lacked longitudinal assessments. As a step to address these shortcomings, we propose a framework that encourages interaction between electronic-based and face-to-face study designs. We ...
Source: Trends in Neurosciences - December 14, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Huentelman MJ, Talboom JS, Lewis CR, Chen Z, Barnes CA Tags: Trends Neurosci Source Type: research

Fiery Cell Death: Pyroptosis in the Central Nervous System.
Abstract Pyroptosis ('fiery death') is an inflammatory type of regulated cell death (RCD), which occurs downstream of inflammasome activation. Pyroptosis is mediated directly by the recently identified family of pore-forming proteins known as gasdermins, the best characterized of which is gasdermin D (GSDMD). Recent investigations implicate pyroptosis in the pathogenesis of multiple neurological diseases. In this review, we discuss molecular mechanisms that drive pyroptosis, evidence for pyroptosis within the CNS, and emerging therapeutic strategies for its inhibition in the context of neurological disease. P...
Source: Trends in Neurosciences - December 13, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: McKenzie BA, Dixit VM, Power C Tags: Trends Neurosci Source Type: research

Gamma Entrainment: Impact on Neurocircuits, Glia, and Therapeutic Opportunities.
Abstract Studies have shown that gamma oscillations (30-100 Hz) are relevant for neurocircuit function, behavior, and memory. To examine a possible causal contribution of gamma oscillations to cognitive function, recent studies have employed various types of brain stimulation to induce gamma oscillations. Techniques such as optogenetics or sensory stimulation appear to engage canonical neurocircuits that encompass excitatory and inhibitory interneurons, similarly to those driven by sensory experience, to induce gamma entrainment. Sensory evoked gamma entrainment improves cognitive function in mouse models. Os...
Source: Trends in Neurosciences - December 10, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Adaikkan C, Tsai LH Tags: Trends Neurosci Source Type: research

Are There Islands of Awareness?
Abstract Ordinary human experience is embedded in a web of causal relations that link the brain to the body and the wider environment. However, there might be conditions in which brain activity supports consciousness even when that activity is fully causally isolated from the body and its environment. Such cases would involve what we call islands of awareness: conscious states that are neither shaped by sensory input nor able to be expressed by motor output. This opinion article considers conditions in which such islands might occur, including ex cranio brains, hemispherotomy, and in cerebral organoids. We examine...
Source: Trends in Neurosciences - December 10, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Bayne T, Seth AK, Massimini M Tags: Trends Neurosci Source Type: research

Glucose-Sensing Neurons Reciprocally Regulate Insulin and Glucagon.
This study provides insight into how the brain regulates the circulation and storage of glucose. PMID: 31813601 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Trends in Neurosciences)
Source: Trends in Neurosciences - December 5, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Yao Z, Scott K Tags: Trends Neurosci Source Type: research

Neocortex-Cerebellum Circuits for Cognitive Processing.
Abstract Although classically thought of as a motor circuit, the cerebellum is now understood to contribute to a wide variety of cognitive functions through its dense interconnections with the neocortex, the center of brain cognition. Recent investigations have shed light on the nature of cerebellar cognitive processing and information exchange with the neocortex. We review findings that demonstrate widespread reward-related cognitive input to the cerebellum, as well as new studies that have characterized the codependence of processing in the neocortex and cerebellum. Together, these data support a view of the neo...
Source: Trends in Neurosciences - November 28, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Wagner MJ, Luo L Tags: Trends Neurosci Source Type: research

Travelling Together: A Unifying Pathomechanism for  ALS.
Travelling Together: A Unifying Pathomechanism for ALS. Trends Neurosci. 2019 Nov 16;: Authors: Fratta P, Birsa N, Tosolini AP, Schiavo G Abstract Axonal transport is critical for neuronal homeostasis and relies on motor complexes bound to cargoes via specific adaptors. However, the mechanisms responsible for the spatiotemporal regulation of axonal transport are not completely understood. A recent study by Liao et al. contributes to filling this gap by reporting that RNA granules 'hitchhike' on LAMP1-positive organelles using annexin A11 as a tether. PMID: 31744630 [PubMed - as supplied by p...
Source: Trends in Neurosciences - November 16, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Fratta P, Birsa N, Tosolini AP, Schiavo G Tags: Trends Neurosci Source Type: research

Editing the Epigenome to Tackle Brain Disorders.
Abstract Genetic studies of epigenetic modifiers such as DNA methyltransferases and histone acetyltransferases have revealed a critical role for epigenetic regulation during brain development and function. Alteration of epigenetic modifications have been documented in a variety of brain disorders, including neurodevelopmental, psychiatric, and neurodegenerative diseases. Development of epigenome editing tools enables a functional dissection of the link between altered epigenetic changes and disease outcomes. Here, we review the development of epigenome editing tools, summarize proof of concept applications focusin...
Source: Trends in Neurosciences - November 7, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Liu XS, Jaenisch R Tags: Trends Neurosci Source Type: research

Is There a Hemispheric Disconnect in Neurodevelopmental Disorders?
Abstract The CYFIP1 gene has been linked to autism and schizophrenia and, while there is a noted heterogeneity, both have been characterized to be disorders of connectivity. Recent studies by Dominquez-Iturza et al. and Silva et al. provide direct evidence for CYFIP1 in functional and structural connectivity in the brain. PMID: 31704178 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Trends in Neurosciences)
Source: Trends in Neurosciences - November 5, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Ellegood J Tags: Trends Neurosci Source Type: research

Lysosomal Dysfunction at the Centre of Parkinson's Disease and Frontotemporal Dementia/Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis.
Abstract Parkinson's disease (PD) and frontotemporal dementia/amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (FTD/ALS) are insidious and incurable neurodegenerative diseases that represent a significant burden to affected individuals, caregivers, and an ageing population. Both PD and FTD/ALS are defined at post mortem by the presence of protein aggregates and the loss of specific subsets of neurons. We examine here the crucial role of lysosome dysfunction in these diseases and discuss recent evidence for converging mechanisms. This review draws upon multiple lines of evidence from genetic studies, human tissue, induced pluripotent...
Source: Trends in Neurosciences - November 5, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Wallings RL, Humble SW, Ward ME, Wade-Martins R Tags: Trends Neurosci Source Type: research

Accumulators, Neurons, and Response Time.
Abstract The marriage of cognitive neurophysiology and mathematical psychology to understand decision-making has been exceptionally productive. This interdisciplinary area is based on the proposition that particular neurons or circuits instantiate the accumulation of evidence specified by mathematical models of sequential sampling and stochastic accumulation. This linking proposition has earned widespread endorsement. Here, a brief survey of the history of the proposition precedes a review of multiple conundrums and paradoxes concerning the accuracy, precision, and transparency of that linking proposition. Correct...
Source: Trends in Neurosciences - November 5, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Schall JD Tags: Trends Neurosci Source Type: research

Astroglia-Derived ATP Modulates CNS Neuronal Circuits.
Abstract It is broadly recognized that ATP not only supports energy storage within cells but is also a transmitter/signaling molecule that serves intercellular communication. Whereas the fast (co)transmitter function of ATP in the peripheral nervous system has been convincingly documented, in the central nervous system (CNS) ATP appears to be primarily a slow transmitter/modulator. Data discussed in the present review suggest that the slow modulatory effects of ATP arise as a result of its vesicular/nonvesicular release from astrocytes. ATP acts together with other glial signaling molecules such as cytokines, chem...
Source: Trends in Neurosciences - November 5, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Illes P, Burnstock G, Tang Y Tags: Trends Neurosci Source Type: research

Looming Danger: Unraveling the Circuitry for Predator Threats.
Abstract Threat avoidance, particularly from predators, is key for survival. Through the use of optogenetics, viral tracing, and electrophysiological recordings, Zhou and colleagues identified a superior colliculus to ventral tegmental area pathway in detecting alarming visual cues and mediating defensive behaviors in mice. These findings provide novel insight into the neural circuit underlying innate predator defense. PMID: 31699467 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Trends in Neurosciences)
Source: Trends in Neurosciences - November 4, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Lischinsky JE, Lin D Tags: Trends Neurosci Source Type: research

Cien A ños de Microglía: Milestones in a Century of Microglial Research.
Cien Años de Microglía: Milestones in a Century of Microglial Research. Trends Neurosci. 2019 Oct 18;: Authors: Sierra A, Paolicelli RC, Kettenmann H Abstract The year 2019 marks the 100-year anniversary of the discovery of microglia by Pío del Río-Hortega. We will recount the state of neuroscience research at the beginning of the 20th century and the heated scientific dispute regarding microglial identity. We will then walk through some of the milestones of microglial research in the decades since then. In the last 20 years, the field has grown exponentially. Researchers h...
Source: Trends in Neurosciences - October 18, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Sierra A, Paolicelli RC, Kettenmann H Tags: Trends Neurosci Source Type: research

The Retrotrapezoid Nucleus: Central Chemoreceptor and Regulator of Breathing Automaticity.
Abstract The ventral surface of the rostral medulla oblongata has been suspected since the 1960s to harbor central respiratory chemoreceptors [i.e., acid-activated neurons that regulate breathing to maintain a constant arterial PCO2 (PaCO2)]. The key neurons, a.k.a. the retrotrapezoid nucleus (RTN), have now been identified. In this review we describe their transcriptome, developmental lineage, and anatomical projections. We also review their contribution to CO2 homeostasis and to the regulation of breathing automaticity during sleep and wake. Finally, we discuss several mechanisms that contribute to the activatio...
Source: Trends in Neurosciences - October 18, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Guyenet PG, Stornetta RL, Souza GMPR, Abbott SBG, Shi Y, Bayliss DA Tags: Trends Neurosci Source Type: research

Spontaneous Thought as an Unconstrained Memory Process.
Abstract The stream of thought can flow freely, without much guidance from attention or cognitive control. What determines what we think about from one moment to the next? Spontaneous thought shares many commonalities with memory processes. We use insights from computational models of memory to explain how the stream of thought flows through the landscape of memory. In this framework of spontaneous thought, semantic memory scaffolds episodic memory to form the content of thought, and drifting context modulated by one's current state - both internal and external - constrains the area of memory to explore. This conc...
Source: Trends in Neurosciences - October 15, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Mildner JN, Tamir DI Tags: Trends Neurosci Source Type: research

Microglial Self-Recognition STINGs in A-T Neurodegeneration.
Abstract Microglial inflammation is often seen as a secondary event in neurodegeneration. A recent study by Song et al. demonstrates that loss of ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) activates microglia through the cytosolic DNA sensor STING. This highlights the ability of microglia to recognize and respond to self-DNA, with potentially neurotoxic consequences. PMID: 31623867 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Trends in Neurosciences)
Source: Trends in Neurosciences - October 14, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Ferro A, Sheeler C, Cvetanovic M Tags: Trends Neurosci Source Type: research

One or Two Ca2+ Stores in the Neuronal Endoplasmic Reticulum?
Abstract It is generally accepted that the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) has one continuous lumen and operates as one unified Ca2+ store, but new data from Chen-Engerer et al. in hippocampal neurons now challenge this idea and indicate that receptors for inositol trisphosphate (IP3) and ryanodine may be located in two functionally distinct Ca2+ stores. Are both these stores in the ER? PMID: 31623868 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Trends in Neurosciences)
Source: Trends in Neurosciences - October 14, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Peng S, Petersen OH Tags: Trends Neurosci Source Type: research

Consequences of Perinatal Cannabis Exposure.
Abstract Cannabis exposure during the perinatal period results in varied and significant consequences in affected offspring. The prevalence of detrimental outcomes of perinatal cannabis exposure is likely to increase in tandem with the broadening of legalization and acceptance of the drug. As such, it is crucial to highlight the immediate and protracted consequences of cannabis exposure on pre- and postnatal development. Here, we identify lasting changes in neurons' learning flexibility (synaptic plasticity) and epigenetic misregulation in animal models of perinatal cannabinoid exposure (using synth...
Source: Trends in Neurosciences - October 8, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Scheyer AF, Melis M, Trezza V, Manzoni OJJ Tags: Trends Neurosci Source Type: research

The Cortical Physiology of Ipsilateral Limb Movements.
Abstract Whereas voluntary movements have long been understood to derive primarily from the cortical hemisphere contralateral to a moving limb, substantial cortical activations also occur in the same-sided, or ipsilateral, cortical hemisphere. These ipsilateral motor activations have recently been shown to be useful to decode specific movement features. Furthermore, in contrast to the classical understanding that unilateral limb movements are solely driven by the contralateral hemisphere, it appears that the ipsilateral hemisphere plays an active and specific role in the planning and execution of voluntary movemen...
Source: Trends in Neurosciences - September 10, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Bundy DT, Leuthardt EC Tags: Trends Neurosci Source Type: research

Covert Consciousness in the Intensive Care Unit.
Abstract Claassen et al. performed task-based electroencephalography (EEG) in patients with disorders of consciousness in the intensive care unit (ICU) and found that covert consciousness detected by EEG is associated with better long-term outcomes. The diagnostic and prognostic uncertainty raised by these findings lead to pressing ethical questions concerning clinical management. PMID: 31514975 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Trends in Neurosciences)
Source: Trends in Neurosciences - September 9, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Giacino JT, Edlow BL Tags: Trends Neurosci Source Type: research

Prediction Error and Memory Reactivation: How Incomplete Reminders Drive Reconsolidation.
Abstract Memories are readily distorted. What conditions allow memories to be altered? Converging evidence implicates prediction error, or surprise, as a key mechanism that renders memories malleable. Recent reconsolidation studies have used incomplete reminders to elicit prediction error; retrieval cues that partially replicate an encoding experience allow memories to be distorted, updated, and strengthened. Here, we review diverse evidence that incomplete reminders govern human memory updating, ranging from classical conditioning to naturalistic episodes. Through the unifying theme of predictive coding, we discu...
Source: Trends in Neurosciences - September 7, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Sinclair AH, Barense MD Tags: Trends Neurosci Source Type: research

Intergenerational Metabolic Syndrome and Neuronal Network Hyperexcitability in Autism.
Abstract We review evidence that suggests a role for excessive consumption of energy-dense foods, particularly fructose, and consequent obesity and insulin resistance (metabolic syndrome) in the recent increase in prevalence of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Maternal insulin resistance, obesity, and diabetes may predispose offspring to ASD by mechanisms involving chronic activation of anabolic cellular pathways and a lack of metabolic switching to ketosis resulting in a deficit in GABAergic signaling and neuronal network hyperexcitability. Metabolic reprogramming by epigenetic DNA and chromatin modifications may...
Source: Trends in Neurosciences - September 5, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Rivell A, Mattson MP Tags: Trends Neurosci Source Type: research

Microglia in Memory Decline from Zika Virus and West Nile Virus Infection.
Abstract Neurotropic viral infection can result in complications underscored by persistent T cell presence in the brain linked with cognitive decline. A recent study by Garber et al. showed that sustained T cell production of interferon (IFN)-γ mediating microglia activation triggers cognitive decline during recovery from Zika virus (ZIKV) or West Nile virus (WNV) infection. PMID: 31495452 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Trends in Neurosciences)
Source: Trends in Neurosciences - September 5, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Tisoncik-Go J, Gale M Tags: Trends Neurosci Source Type: research

Neurodevelopmental Resilience and Susceptibility to Maternal Immune Activation.
Abstract Maternal immune activation (MIA), be it triggered by infectious or noninfectious stimuli, is implicated in various psychiatric and neurological disorders with developmental etiologies. Its consequences on the offspring's mental health are heterogeneous and influenced by a number of factors shaping the specificity and/or severity of pathological outcomes. There is also a substantial degree of resilience to MIA, which determines the extent to which offspring are protected from developing neurodevelopmental sequelae. This review provides a synopsis of the plausible sources that account for the heterogeneous ...
Source: Trends in Neurosciences - September 4, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Meyer U Tags: Trends Neurosci Source Type: research

Physiological, Pathological, and Targetable Membraneless Organelles in Neurons.
Abstract Neurons require unique subcellular compartmentalization to function efficiently. Formed from proteins and RNAs through liquid-liquid phase separation, membraneless organelles (MLOs) have emerged as one way in which cells form distinct, specialized compartments in the absence of lipid membranes. We first discuss MLOs that are common to many cell types as well as those that are specific to neurons. Interestingly, many proteins associated with neurodegenerative disease are found in MLOs, particularly in stress and transport granules. We next review possible links between neurodegeneration and MLOs, and the h...
Source: Trends in Neurosciences - September 4, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Ryan VH, Fawzi NL Tags: Trends Neurosci Source Type: research

Allostasis: A Brain-Centered, Predictive Mode of Physiological Regulation.
Abstract Although the concept of allostasis was proposed some 30 years ago, doubts persist about its precise meaning and whether it is useful. Here we review the concept in the context of recent studies as a strategy to efficiently regulate physiology and behavior. The brain, sensing the internal and external milieu, and consulting its database, predicts what is likely to be needed; then, it computes the best response. The brain rewards a better-than-predicted result with a pulse of dopamine, thereby encouraging the organism to learn effective regulatory behaviors. The brain, by prioritizing behaviors and dynamica...
Source: Trends in Neurosciences - September 2, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Schulkin J, Sterling P Tags: Trends Neurosci Source Type: research

Practical Considerations for Navigating Registered Reports.
Abstract Recent open science efforts to improve rigor and reliability have sparked great enthusiasm. Among these, the Registered Report publication format integrates best practices in hypothesis-driven research with peer review that occurs before the research is conducted. Here, we detail practical recommendations to help researchers negotiate the mechanics of this developing format. PMID: 31470913 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Trends in Neurosciences)
Source: Trends in Neurosciences - September 1, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Kiyonaga A, Scimeca JM Tags: Trends Neurosci Source Type: research

Damage Control in the Developing Brain: Tradeoffs and Consequences.
Abstract Genomic surveillance is crucial for shaping brain development. However, are these mechanisms always beneficial, and can they be manipulated to ameliorate neurodevelopmental disease? A recent paper by Shi et al. (Nat. Commun., 2019) sheds light on these questions and examines the consequences of both inducing genomic instability and suppressing safeguard mechanisms for the development of the cerebral cortex. PMID: 31447171 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Trends in Neurosciences)
Source: Trends in Neurosciences - August 22, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Alsina FC, Silver DL Tags: Trends Neurosci Source Type: research

Mitochondria and Alzheimer's: Is PTCD1 the Smoking Gun?
Abstract Multiple features distinguish the mitochondria of Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients from those of unaffected individuals. The causes and consequences of these differences are informed by the recent finding by Fleck et al. (J. Neurosci., 2019) that pentatricopeptide repeat-containing protein 1 (PTCD1) gene variants associate with AD. This suggests a proximal or initiating role for mitochondria in AD. PMID: 31421943 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Trends in Neurosciences)
Source: Trends in Neurosciences - August 14, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Pa J, Andrews SJ, Swerdlow RH Tags: Trends Neurosci Source Type: research

The Molecular Diversity of Vagal Afferents Revealed.
Abstract Using single-cell RNA sequencing (RNA-seq), Kupari and coworkers (Cell Rep., 2019) have generated a long sought-after molecular atlas of vagal afferents in the mouse. Vagal afferents were found to be organized into 24 subtypes, revealing a level of diversity that was not previously recognized. PMID: 31421944 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Trends in Neurosciences)
Source: Trends in Neurosciences - August 14, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Egerod KL, Schwartz TW, Gautron L Tags: Trends Neurosci Source Type: research

Éloge de la Fuite: Neural Circuits for Avoiding Dangerous Situations.
Éloge de la Fuite: Neural Circuits for Avoiding Dangerous Situations. Trends Neurosci. 2019 Aug 06;: Authors: González-Rueda A, Tripodi M Abstract When facing threats, animals not only innately freeze or flee, but can also learn to avoid harmful situations, a behaviour known as 'active avoidance'. A recent study by Hormigo et al. (J. Neurosci., 2019) provides new insights into the neural circuit responsible for this behaviour, placing the pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus (PPT) at its centre. PMID: 31399288 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Trends in Neurosciences)
Source: Trends in Neurosciences - August 6, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: González-Rueda A, Tripodi M Tags: Trends Neurosci Source Type: research

Towards a Unified View on Pathways and Functions of Neural Recurrent Processing.
Abstract There are three neural feedback pathways to the primary visual cortex (V1): corticocortical, pulvinocortical, and cholinergic. What are the respective functions of these three projections? Possible functions range from contextual modulation of stimulus processing and feedback of high-level information to predictive processing (PP). How are these functions subserved by different pathways and can they be integrated into an overarching theoretical framework? We propose that corticocortical and pulvinocortical connections are involved in all three functions, whereas the role of cholinergic projections is limi...
Source: Trends in Neurosciences - August 6, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Pennartz CMA, Dora S, Muckli L, Lorteije JAM Tags: Trends Neurosci Source Type: research

Machine Learning and Brain Imaging: Opportunities and Challenges.
Abstract Machine learning approaches may provide ways to link brain activation patterns to behavior at an individual-subject level. Using a comparative performance analysis, Jollans and colleagues (Neuroimage, 2019) highlight in a recent paper key considerations when applying machine learning algorithms to neuroimaging data. PMID: 31376925 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Trends in Neurosciences)
Source: Trends in Neurosciences - July 31, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Paulus MP, Kuplicki R, Yeh HW Tags: Trends Neurosci Source Type: research

A Deep Dive to Illuminate V4 Neurons.
Abstract Neurons in the primate cortical area V4 have been recognized as being selective for intermediate-level visual features, including shape, texture, and color. But, there is no a priori reason why V4 neurons should respond to easily describable categories of visual stimuli. In a recent study (Bashivan et al.,Science, 2019) used an artificial neural network to synthesize images that acted as 'super-stimuli' for recorded neurons in V4, pushing the boundaries of known neural responses in this brain region and raising broader questions about the potential for synergies between biological and artificial neural ne...
Source: Trends in Neurosciences - July 30, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Batista AP, Kording KP Tags: Trends Neurosci Source Type: research

Anxiety and Brain Mitochondria: A Bidirectional Crosstalk.
Abstract Accumulating data highlight the contribution of brain mitochondria and bioenergetics to psychiatric disorders and stress-related pathologies. Although anxiety has not received much attention in this booming literature, a bidirectional interplay between anxiety and brain mitochondria and metabolism has recently started to emerge. Substantial observations indicate alterations in mitochondria and metabolism in highly anxious individuals and, conversely, anxiety symptoms in humans suffering from mitochondrial disorders. Genetic and pharmacological efforts have made substantial progress at advancing the causal...
Source: Trends in Neurosciences - July 27, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Filiou MD, Sandi C Tags: Trends Neurosci Source Type: research

Astrocyte-Neuron Interactions in the Striatum: Insights on Identity, Form, and Function.
Abstract The physiological functions of astrocytes within neural circuits remain incompletely understood. There has been progress in this regard from recent work on striatal astrocytes, where detailed studies are emerging. In this review, findings on striatal astrocyte identity, form, and function, are summarized with a focus on how astrocytes regulate striatal neurons, circuits, and behavior. Specific features of striatal astrocytes are highlighted to illustrate how they may be specialized to regulate medium spiny neurons (MSNs) by responding to, and altering, excitation and inhibition. Further experiments should...
Source: Trends in Neurosciences - July 24, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Khakh BS Tags: Trends Neurosci Source Type: research

Do Astrocytes Play a Role in Intellectual Disabilities?
Abstract Neurodevelopmental disorders, including those involving intellectual disability, are characterized by abnormalities in formation and functions of synaptic circuits. Traditionally, research on synaptogenesis and synaptic transmission in health and disease focused on neurons, however, a growing number of studies have highlighted the role of astrocytes in this context. Tight structural and functional interactions of astrocytes and synapses indeed play important roles in brain functions, and the repertoire of astroglial regulations of synaptic circuits is large and complex. Recently, genetic studies of intell...
Source: Trends in Neurosciences - July 9, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Cresto N, Pillet LE, Billuart P, Rouach N Tags: Trends Neurosci Source Type: research

Can GBA1-Associated Parkinson Disease Be Modeled in the Mouse?
Abstract Homozygous and heterozygous mutations in GBA1, the gene implicated in Gaucher disease, increase the risk and severity of Parkinson disease (PD). We evaluated the design, phenotype, strengths, and limitations of current GBA1-associated PD mouse models. Although faithful modeling of a genetic risk factor poses many challenges, the different approaches taken were successful in revealing predisposing abnormalities in heterozygotes for GBA1 mutations and demonstrating the deleterious effects of GBA1 impairment on the PD course in PD models. GBA1-PD models differ in key parameters, with no single model recapitu...
Source: Trends in Neurosciences - July 6, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Farfel-Becker T, Do J, Tayebi N, Sidransky E Tags: Trends Neurosci Source Type: research

Refueling the Ischemic CNS: Guidance Molecules for Vascular Repair.
ME Abstract Stroke patients have only limited therapeutic options and often remain with considerable disabilities. To promote neurological recovery, angiogenesis in the ischemic peri-infarct region has been recognized as an encouraging therapeutic target. Despite advances in mechanistic understanding of vascular growth and repair, effective and safe angiogenic treatments are currently missing. Besides the most intensively studied angiogenic growth factors, recent research has indicated that the process of vascular sprouting and migration also requires the participation of guidance molecules, many of which were in...
Source: Trends in Neurosciences - July 5, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Rust R, Grönnert L, Weber RZ, Mulders G, Schwab ME Tags: Trends Neurosci Source Type: research

Transcribing Memories in Genome Architecture.
Abstract Whether dynamic changes in genome architecture underlie transcriptional and functional plasticity in mature neurons has been technically challenging to address. A recent study (Yamada et al., Nature, 2019) exploited experimental advantages of the cerebellum to reveal cell type-specific changes in chromatin architecture that coordinate neural activity-induced changes in gene transcription and contribute to sensorimotor learning. PMID: 31279492 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Trends in Neurosciences)
Source: Trends in Neurosciences - July 3, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Tonn Eisinger KR, West AE Tags: Trends Neurosci Source Type: research

Mechanisms for the Approach/Avoidance Decision Applied to Autism.
We present a hypothesis of mechanisms plausibly affected during brain development in autism, based on neural pathways that are associated with social behavior and connect the prefrontal cortex (PFC) to the basal ganglia (BG). We consider failure of social approach in autism as a special case of imbalance in the fundamental dichotomy between behavioral approach and avoidance. Differential combinations of genes mutated, differences in the timing of their impact during development, and graded degrees of hormonal influences may help explain the heterogeneity in symptomatology in autism and predominance in boys. PMID: 3125...
Source: Trends in Neurosciences - July 1, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Pfaff D, Barbas H Tags: Trends Neurosci Source Type: research

Regulation of the Blood-Brain Barrier by Circadian Rhythms and Sleep.
Abstract The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is an evolutionarily conserved, structural, and functional separation between circulating blood and the central nervous system (CNS). By controlling permeability into and out of the nervous system, the BBB has a critical role in the precise regulation of neural processes. Here, we review recent studies demonstrating that permeability at the BBB is dynamically controlled by circadian rhythms and sleep. An endogenous circadian rhythm in the BBB controls transporter function, regulating permeability across the BBB. In addition, sleep promotes the clearance of metabolites along t...
Source: Trends in Neurosciences - July 1, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Cuddapah VA, Zhang SL, Sehgal A Tags: Trends Neurosci Source Type: research

Meningeal Memories of Viral Infection.
Abstract The dura mater is rich in tissue-resident macrophages originally derived from yolk sac precursors. Rua et al. (Nat. Immunol., 2019) investigated meningeal macrophages (MMs) in the context of viral infection and found that the replenishment of the MM compartment by peripheral monocytes decreases its ability to detect and respond to microbes. PMID: 31253444 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Trends in Neurosciences)
Source: Trends in Neurosciences - June 25, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Sanmarco LM, Quintana FJ Tags: Trends Neurosci Source Type: research

Neuronal Regulation of Immunity in the Skin and Lungs.
Abstract The nervous and immune systems are classically studied as two separate entities. However, their interactions are crucial for maintaining barrier functions at tissues constantly exposed to the external environment. We focus here on the role of neuronal signaling in regulating the immune system at two major barriers: the skin and respiratory tract. Barrier tissues are heavily innervated by sensory and autonomic nerves, and are densely populated by resident immune cells, allowing rapid, coordinated responses to noxious stimuli, as well as to bacterial and fungal pathogens. Neural release of neurotransmitters...
Source: Trends in Neurosciences - June 15, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Blake KJ, Jiang XR, Chiu IM Tags: Trends Neurosci Source Type: research