Alzheimer's Association International Conference Neuroscience Next focused on early career researchers across all of neuroscience.
Authors: PMID: 33442952 [PubMed - in process] (Source: The Journal of Alzheimers Association)
Source: The Journal of Alzheimers Association - January 16, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Alzheimers Dement Source Type: research

Erratum.
Authors: PMID: 33442953 [PubMed] (Source: The Journal of Alzheimers Association)
Source: The Journal of Alzheimers Association - January 16, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Alzheimers Dement Source Type: research

Unhealthy foods may attenuate the beneficial relation of a Mediterranean diet to cognitive decline.
CONCLUSION: This prospective study found that high consumption of Western diet components attenuates benefits of the MedDiet on cognition. PMID: 33410584 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: The Journal of Alzheimers Association)
Source: The Journal of Alzheimers Association - January 9, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Alzheimers Dement Source Type: research

Increased β-site APP cleaving enzyme 1-mediated insulin receptor cleavage in type 2 diabetes mellitus with cognitive impairment.
DISCUSSION: The elevated BACE1 levels in T2DM may contribute to increasing the cognitive impairment risk through both amyloidogenesis and insulin resistance. PMID: 33410588 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: The Journal of Alzheimers Association)
Source: The Journal of Alzheimers Association - January 9, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Alzheimers Dement Source Type: research

The chronic neuropsychiatric sequelae of COVID-19: The need for a prospective study of viral impact on brain functioning.
CONCLUSIONS: The increasing evidence and understanding of SARS-CoV-2's impact on the CNS raises key questions on the impact for risk of later life cognitive decline, AD, and other dementia. This program of studies aims to better understand the long-term consequences that may impact the brain, cognition, and functioning-including the underlying biology that may contribute to AD and other dementias. PMID: 33399270 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: The Journal of Alzheimers Association)
Source: The Journal of Alzheimers Association - January 7, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Alzheimers Dement Source Type: research

Multimorbidity burden and dementia risk in older adults: The role of inflammation and genetics.
DISCUSSION: Individuals with neuropsychiatric, cardiovascular, and sensory impairment/cancer patterns are at increased risk for dementia and APOE ε4, and inflammation may further increase the risk. Identifying such high-risk groups might allow tailored interventions for dementia prevention. PMID: 33403740 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: The Journal of Alzheimers Association)
Source: The Journal of Alzheimers Association - January 7, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Alzheimers Dement Source Type: research

Quantifying dementia prevention potential in the FINGER randomized controlled trial using the LIBRA prevention index.
DISCUSSION: The cognitive benefit of the FINGER intervention was similar across individuals with different LIBRA scores at baseline. Furthermore, LIBRA may be useful as a surrogate/intermediate endpoint and surveillance tool to monitor intervention success during trial execution. PMID: 33403822 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: The Journal of Alzheimers Association)
Source: The Journal of Alzheimers Association - January 7, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Alzheimers Dement Source Type: research

Actigraphic sleep patterns and cognitive decline in the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos.
CONCLUSION: In a cohort of mostly middle-aged Hispanic/Latinos, actigraphy-derived sleep-onset latency predicted 7-year cognitive change. These findings may serve as targets for sleep interventions of cognitive decline. PMID: 33350583 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: The Journal of Alzheimers Association)
Source: The Journal of Alzheimers Association - December 24, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Alzheimers Dement Source Type: research

ABCA7 and the altered lipidostasis hypothesis of Alzheimer's disease.
Authors: Lyssenko NN, Praticò D Abstract We propose the altered lipidostasis hypothesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). It holds that vulnerable neurons of the entorhinal region generate a neurodegenerative lipid during normal function, adenosine triphosphate-binding cassette transporter subfamily A member 7 (ABCA7) protects from AD pathogenesis by removing it out of the cell, generation of the lipid increases with age, and the minimal amount of ABCA7 needed to dispose of the rising volumes of the lipid also increases with age. A survey of ABCA7 protein levels in the hippocampus or parietal cortex of 123 indivi...
Source: The Journal of Alzheimers Association - December 20, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Alzheimers Dement Source Type: research

Endogenous antagonists of N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor in schizophrenia.
We present a systematic review of the neurobiology and the role of endogenous NMDA receptor antagonists in animal models of schizophrenia, and in patients. We discuss their neurochemical origin, release from neurons and glia with action mechanisms, and functional effects, which might contribute toward the impairment of neuronal processes underlying this complex pathological state. We consider clinical evidence suggesting dysregulations of endogenous NMDA receptor in schizophrenia, and highlight the pressing need in future studies and emerging directions, to restore the NMDA receptor functions for therapeutic benefits. ...
Source: The Journal of Alzheimers Association - December 20, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Alzheimers Dement Source Type: research

An examination of a novel multipanel of CSF biomarkers in the Alzheimer's disease clinical and pathological continuum.
This study examines the utility of a multipanel of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers complementing Alzheimer's disease (AD) biomarkers in a clinical research sample. We compared biomarkers across groups defined by clinical diagnosis and pTau181 /Aβ42 status (+/-) and explored their value in predicting cognition. METHODS: CSF biomarkers amyloid beta (Aβ)42 , pTau181 , tTau, Aβ40 , neurogranin, neurofilament light (NfL), α-synuclein, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), chitinase-3-like protein 1 (YKL-40), soluble triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 2 (sTREM2), S100 calcium binding p...
Source: The Journal of Alzheimers Association - December 20, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Alzheimers Dement Source Type: research

Distinct effects of beta-amyloid and tau on cortical thickness in cognitively healthy older adults.
We examined relationships among PET measures, cortical thickness, and cognition. RESULTS: Cortical thickness was reduced in PiB+/FTP+ participants compared to the PiB+/FTP- and PiB-/FTP- groups. Continuous PiB associations with cortical thickness were weak but positive in FTP- participants and negative in FTP+. FTP strongly negatively predicted thickness regardless of PiB status. FTP was associated with memory and cortical thickness, and mediated the association of PiB with memory. DISCUSSION: Past findings linking Aβ and cortical thickness are likely weak due to opposing effects of Aβ on cortical thickne...
Source: The Journal of Alzheimers Association - December 18, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Alzheimers Dement Source Type: research

Clinical relevance of brain atrophy subtypes categorization in memory clinics.
DISCUSSION: Atrophy subtypes categorization predicted different subsequent patterns of cognitive decline and rates of conversion to distinct etiologies of dementia in persons attending memory clinics. PMID: 33325121 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: The Journal of Alzheimers Association)
Source: The Journal of Alzheimers Association - December 18, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Alzheimers Dement Source Type: research

Recognizing African-American contributions to neurology: The role of Solomon Carter Fuller (1872-1953) in Alzheimer's disease research.
Authors: Mohammed H Abstract Solomon Carter Fuller (1872-1953) is widely acknowledged as the first African-American psychiatrist but underappreciated as a pioneer of Alzheimer's disease. He immigrated to the United States from Liberia at age 17 and excelled in his medical career to become associate professor of both pathology and neurology at Boston University by 1921. He was one of five research assistants selected by Alois Alzheimer to work in his laboratory at the Royal Psychiatric Hospital in Munich, an experience that arguably paved the way for trailblazing research in Alzheimer's disease. Dr Fuller was the fi...
Source: The Journal of Alzheimers Association - December 18, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Alzheimers Dement Source Type: research

Reactive or transgenic increase in microglial TYROBP reveals a TREM2-independent TYROBP-APOE link in wild-type and Alzheimer's-related mice.
CONCLUSIONS: Our results provide evidence that TYROBP-APOE signaling does not require TREM2 and could be an initiating step in establishment of the disease-associated microglia (DAM) phenotype. PMID: 33314529 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: The Journal of Alzheimers Association)
Source: The Journal of Alzheimers Association - December 15, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Alzheimers Dement Source Type: research

Apathy in presymptomatic genetic frontotemporal dementia predicts cognitive decline and is driven by structural brain changes.
DISCUSSION: Apathy is an early marker of FTD-related changes and predicts a subsequent subclinical deterioration of cognition before dementia onset. Apathy may be a modifiable factor in those at risk of FTD. PMID: 33316852 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: The Journal of Alzheimers Association)
Source: The Journal of Alzheimers Association - December 15, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Alzheimers Dement Source Type: research

Vascular health across young adulthood and midlife cerebral autoregulation, gait, and cognition.
Authors: Mahinrad S, Shownkeen M, Sedaghat S, Yaffe K, Hausdorff JM, Lloyd-Jones DM, Gorelick PB, Sorond FA Abstract INTRODUCTION: To test the association of vascular health (VH) across young adulthood with midlife dynamic cerebral autoregulation (dCA), gait, and cognition; and to test whether dCA is a modifying factor. METHODS: We studied 196 participants from the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults cohort who were followed over 30 years. VH was assessed at each visit according to American Heart Association recommendations. At year 30, dCA was measured using transcranial Doppler ultrasound and sev...
Source: The Journal of Alzheimers Association - December 8, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Alzheimers Dement Source Type: research

Diet, psychosocial stress, and Alzheimer's disease-related neuroanatomy in female nonhuman primates.
DISCUSSION: The observation of increased size of AD-related brain areas is consistent with similar reports of mid-life volume increases predicting increased AD risk later in life. While the biological mechanisms underlying the findings require future investigation, these observations suggest that Western diet and psychosocial stress instigate pathologic changes that increase risk of AD-associated neuropathology, whereas the Mediterranean diet may protect the brain. PMID: 33270373 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: The Journal of Alzheimers Association)
Source: The Journal of Alzheimers Association - December 4, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Alzheimers Dement Source Type: research

Neuroscience Next 2020 Abstracts.
Authors: Alzheimer's Association PMID: 33259682 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: The Journal of Alzheimers Association)
Source: The Journal of Alzheimers Association - December 3, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Alzheimers Dement Source Type: research

Head-to-head comparison of clinical performance of CSF phospho-tau T181 and T217 biomarkers for Alzheimer's disease diagnosis.
DISCUSSION: N-p-tau217 and N-p-tau181 could improve diagnostic accuracy in prodromal-AD and clinical trial recruitment as both identify Aβ pathophysiology and differentiate early MCI-AD better than Mid-p-tau181. PMID: 33252199 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: The Journal of Alzheimers Association)
Source: The Journal of Alzheimers Association - December 1, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Alzheimers Dement Source Type: research

Nerve growth factor (NGF) pathway biomarkers in Down syndrome prior to and after the onset of clinical Alzheimer's disease: A paired CSF and plasma study.
We examined levels of NGF pathway proteins (proNGF, neuroserpin, tissue plasminogen activator [tPA], and metalloproteases [MMP]) in matched cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)/plasma samples from AD-symptomatic (DSAD) and AD-asymptomatic (aDS) individuals with DS, as well as controls (HC). RESULTS: ProNGF and MMP-3 were elevated while tPA was decreased in plasma from individuals with DS. CSF from individuals with DS showed elevated proNGF, neuroserpin, MMP-3, and MMP-9. ProNGF and MMP-9 in CSF differentiated DSAD from aDS (area under the curve = 0.86, 0.87). NGF pathway markers associated with CSF amyloid beta and tau ...
Source: The Journal of Alzheimers Association - November 24, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Alzheimers Dement Source Type: research

Optimal age and outcome measures for Alzheimer's disease prevention trials in people with Down syndrome.
DISCUSSION: Efficient RCTs of AD preventative treatments can be conducted in the DS population using sensitive outcome measures to monitor early decline. Dose-response models could help tailor future RCTs. PMID: 33226718 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: The Journal of Alzheimers Association)
Source: The Journal of Alzheimers Association - November 24, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Alzheimers Dement Source Type: research

Gene- and age-informed screening for preclinical Alzheimer's disease trials.
DISCUSSION: ADAge enrichment provides for a more efficient and cost-effective means to enroll clinically normal individuals with elevated β-amyloid in clinical trials. PMID: 33226723 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: The Journal of Alzheimers Association)
Source: The Journal of Alzheimers Association - November 24, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Alzheimers Dement Source Type: research

Alzheimer's team care approach-akin to diabetes-in the development, validation, and population assessment of retinal biomarkers for disease.
This article describes the study of retinal biomarkers for the identification of, and tracking of change over time for, individuals in the preclinical stage of AD and substantiates the need for a major cross-disciplinary effort for comparison across labs and clinical sites using diabetes risk monitoring as a perfect analogy. Proposed framework would: (1) support AD working groups across disciplines; (2) establish common imaging platforms to develop and test basic standards, and minimum datasets to embrace and test novel innovations as they emerge; and (3) accelerate AD prevention and quality improvement in real-world care....
Source: The Journal of Alzheimers Association - November 24, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Alzheimers Dement Source Type: research

Dominantly inherited Alzheimer's disease in Latin America: Genetic heterogeneity and clinical phenotypes.
DISCUSSION: Future DIAD studies will be required in LatAm, albeit with a more systematic approach to include fluid biomarker and imaging studies. Regional efforts are under way to extend the DIAD observational studies and clinical trials to Latin America. PMID: 33226734 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: The Journal of Alzheimers Association)
Source: The Journal of Alzheimers Association - November 24, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Alzheimers Dement Source Type: research

ATN incorporating cerebrospinal fluid neurofilament light chain detects frontotemporal lobar degeneration.
DISCUSSION: ATNNfL is a promising diagnostic strategy that may accurately identify both AD and FTLD, even when pathologies co-occur. PMID: 33226735 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: The Journal of Alzheimers Association)
Source: The Journal of Alzheimers Association - November 24, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Alzheimers Dement Source Type: research

The APOE gene cluster responds to air pollution factors in mice with coordinated expression of genes that differs by age in humans.
This study describes novel links among the APOE network, air pollution, and age-related diseases. Mice exposed to air pollution nano-sized particulate matter (nPM) had coordinate responses of Apoe-Apoc1-Tomm40 in the cerebral cortex. In humans, the AD vulnerable hippocampus and amygdala had stronger age decline in APOE cluster expression than the AD-resistant cerebellum and hypothalamus. Using consensus weighted gene co-expression network, we showed that APOE has a conserved co-expressed network in rodent and primate brains. SOX1, which has AD-associated single nucleotide polymorphisms, was among the co-expressed genes in ...
Source: The Journal of Alzheimers Association - November 21, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Alzheimers Dement Source Type: research

Brain functional network integrity sustains cognitive function despite atrophy in presymptomatic genetic frontotemporal dementia.
DISCUSSION: Our findings suggest that the maintenance of functional network connectivity enables carriers to maintain cognitive performance. PMID: 33215845 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: The Journal of Alzheimers Association)
Source: The Journal of Alzheimers Association - November 21, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Alzheimers Dement Source Type: research

Immunity and amyloid beta, total tau and neurofilament light chain: Findings from a community-based cohort study.
DISCUSSION: Higher levels of immunity markers were associated with higher Aβ in plasma. Participants with a higher genetic predisposition to AD had higher immunity markers, where these effects were mainly driven by APOE ε4. PMID: 33215849 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: The Journal of Alzheimers Association)
Source: The Journal of Alzheimers Association - November 21, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Alzheimers Dement Source Type: research

Development and validation of the Uniform Data Set (v3.0) executive function composite score (UDS3-EF).
Authors: Staffaroni AM, Asken BM, Casaletto KB, Fonseca C, You M, Rosen HJ, Boxer AL, Elahi FM, Kornak J, Mungas D, Kramer JH Abstract INTRODUCTION: Cognitive composite scores offer a means of precisely measuring executive functioning (EF). METHODS: We developed the Uniform Data Set v3.0 EF composite score (UDS3-EF) in 3507 controls from the National Alzheimer's Coordinating Center dataset using item-response theory and applied nonlinear and linear demographic adjustments. The UDS3-EF was validated with other neuropsychological tests and brain magnetic resonance imaging from independent research cohorts using l...
Source: The Journal of Alzheimers Association - November 21, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Alzheimers Dement Source Type: research

Item response theory analysis of the Clinical Dementia Rating.
DISCUSSION: The shortened version of the CDR and the automatic scoring algorithm has established a good foundation for developing an eCDR and will ultimately improve the efficiency of cognitive assessment. PMID: 33215873 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: The Journal of Alzheimers Association)
Source: The Journal of Alzheimers Association - November 21, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Alzheimers Dement Source Type: research

Toward a theory-based specification of non-pharmacological treatments in aging and dementia: Focused reviews and methodological recommendations.
DISCUSSION: We conclude that the evidence strongly supports various NPTs in relation to their primary targets, and discuss opportunities and challenges associated with a unifying theoretical framework to guide future efforts in this area. PMID: 33215876 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: The Journal of Alzheimers Association)
Source: The Journal of Alzheimers Association - November 21, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Alzheimers Dement Source Type: research

Biphasic cortical macro- and microstructural changes in autosomal dominant Alzheimer's disease.
In this study we tested this model fitting linear versus quadratic trajectories and computed the timing of the inflection points vertexwise of cortical thickness and cortical diffusivity-a novel marker of cortical microstructure-changes in 389 participants from the Dominantly Inherited Alzheimer Network. RESULTS: In early preclinical AD, between 20 and 15 years before estimated symptom onset, we found increases in cortical thickness and decreases in cortical diffusivity followed by cortical thinning and cortical diffusivity increases in later preclinical and symptomatic stages. The inflection points 16 to 19 years befo...
Source: The Journal of Alzheimers Association - November 18, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Alzheimers Dement Source Type: research

Cognitive impairment in sporadic cerebral small vessel disease: A systematic review and meta-analysis.
Authors: Hamilton OKL, Backhouse EV, Janssen E, Jochems ACC, Maher C, Ritakari TE, Stevenson AJ, Xia L, Deary IJ, Wardlaw JM Abstract This paper is a proposal for an update on the characterization of cognitive impairments associated with sporadic cerebral small vessel disease (SVD). We pose a series of questions about the nature of SVD-related cognitive impairments and provide answers based on a comprehensive review and meta-analysis of published data from 69 studies. Although SVD is thought primarily to affect executive function and processing speed, we hypothesize that SVD affects all major domains of cognitive a...
Source: The Journal of Alzheimers Association - November 17, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Alzheimers Dement Source Type: research

Alzheimer's Association pays tribute to former Chief Science Officer William (Bill) Thies, PhD.
Authors: PMID: 33179840 [PubMed - in process] (Source: The Journal of Alzheimers Association)
Source: The Journal of Alzheimers Association - November 14, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Alzheimers Dement Source Type: research

In Memoriam: William H. Thies, PhD.
Authors: Khachaturian ZS PMID: 33179841 [PubMed - in process] (Source: The Journal of Alzheimers Association)
Source: The Journal of Alzheimers Association - November 14, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Alzheimers Dement Source Type: research

APOE alleles' association with cognitive function differs across Hispanic/Latino groups and genetic ancestry in the study of Latinos-investigation of neurocognitive aging (HCHS/SOL).
DISCUSSION: Results suggest that APOE alleles' effects on cognitive outcomes differ across six Latino backgrounds and are modified by continental genetic ancestry. PMID: 33155766 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: The Journal of Alzheimers Association)
Source: The Journal of Alzheimers Association - November 11, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Alzheimers Dement Source Type: research

Open Peer Commentary to "Failure to demonstrate efficacy of aducanumab: An analysis of the EMERGE and ENGAGE Trials as reported by Biogen December 2019".
Open Peer Commentary to "Failure to demonstrate efficacy of aducanumab: An analysis of the EMERGE and ENGAGE Trials as reported by Biogen December 2019". Alzheimers Dement. 2020 Nov 01;: Authors: Sabbagh MN, Cummings J PMID: 33135288 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: The Journal of Alzheimers Association)
Source: The Journal of Alzheimers Association - November 4, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Alzheimers Dement Source Type: research

Failure to demonstrate efficacy of aducanumab: An analysis of the EMERGE and ENGAGE trials as reported by Biogen, December 2019.
Authors: Knopman DS, Jones DT, Greicius MD Abstract Aducanumab recently underwent two large phase III clinical trials that were stopped prematurely by the sponsor Biogen. One trial was trending positive while the other showed no benefits from aducanumab. Post hoc analyses led the sponsor to assert that there was a sufficient efficacy signal to justify a new drug application as a treatment for Alzheimer's disease. The sponsor claimed that subsets of participants receiving sufficiently high doses of aducanumab demonstrated benefits in both trials. In contrast, we identified alternative accounts for the apparent drug ...
Source: The Journal of Alzheimers Association - November 4, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Alzheimers Dement Source Type: research

Prediction of dementia of Alzheimer type by different types of subjective cognitive decline.
We report sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values (PPV, NPV) for conversion to all-cause dementia, and DAT in different SCD types (decline in memory, assocated worries, longitudinal consitency, of the AgeCoDe study (n = 2.402, 12 years follow-up). RESULTS: 82.7% of those converting to any dementia and 84.4% of those converting with DAT at follow-up, reported memory decline and fulfilled criteria of SCD at least at one time point before. SCD with worries at two consecutive time points showed a specificity of 92.2% for any dementia and also for DAT as well as a PPV of 44.3% for any dem...
Source: The Journal of Alzheimers Association - November 4, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Alzheimers Dement Source Type: research

A ketogenic drink improves cognition in mild cognitive impairment: Results of a 6-month RCT.
CONCLUSIONS: This kMCT drink improved cognitive outcomes in MCI, at least in part by increasing blood ketone level. These data support further assessment of MCI progression to Alzheimer's disease. PMID: 33103819 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: The Journal of Alzheimers Association)
Source: The Journal of Alzheimers Association - October 28, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Alzheimers Dement Source Type: research

Blood polyunsaturated omega-3 fatty acids, brain atrophy, cognitive decline, and dementia risk.
DISCUSSION: This prospective study provides compelling evidence for a relationship between long-chain omega-3 fatty acids levels and lower risks for dementia and related outcomes. PMID: 33090665 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: The Journal of Alzheimers Association)
Source: The Journal of Alzheimers Association - October 24, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Alzheimers Dement Source Type: research

Self-reported obstructive sleep apnea, amyloid and tau burden, and Alzheimer's disease time-dependent progression.
Authors: Bubu OM, Umasabor-Bubu OQ, Turner AD, Parekh A, Mullins AE, Kam K, Birckbichler MK, Mukhtar F, Mbah AK, Williams NJ, Rapoport DM, de Leon M, Jean-Louis G, Ayappa I, Varga AW, Osorio RS, and Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative Abstract INTRODUCTION: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD) biomarkers in cognitively normal (CN) and mild cognitive impaired (MCI) participants. However, independent and combined effects of OSA, amyloid beta (Aβ) and tau-accumulation on AD time-dependent progression risk is unclear. METHODS: Study participants grouped by biomarker...
Source: The Journal of Alzheimers Association - October 24, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Alzheimers Dement Source Type: research

Mitophagy alterations in Alzheimer's disease are associated with granulovacuolar degeneration and early tau pathology.
DISCUSSION: Our study highlights mitophagy alterations in AD that are associated with early tau pathology, and suggests that distinct mitochondrial, autophagic, and/or lysosomal failure may contribute to the selective vulnerability in disease. PMID: 33090691 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: The Journal of Alzheimers Association)
Source: The Journal of Alzheimers Association - October 24, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Alzheimers Dement Source Type: research

Using Medicare claims in identifying Alzheimer's disease and related dementias.
This study develops a measure of Alzheimer's disease and related dementias (ADRD) using Medicare claims. METHODS: Validation resembles the approach of the American Psychological Association, including (1) content validity, (2) construct validity, and (3) predictive validity. RESULTS: We found that four items-a Medicare claim recording ADRD 1 year ago, 2 years ago, 3 years ago, and a total stay of 6 months in a nursing home-exhibit a pattern of association consistent with a single underlying ADRD construct, and presence of any two of these four items predict a direct measure of cognitive function and also future cla...
Source: The Journal of Alzheimers Association - October 24, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Alzheimers Dement Source Type: research

Functional insights from biophysical study of TREM2 interactions with apoE and A β1-42.
DISCUSSION: These findings demonstrate that TREM2 has at least two ligand-binding surfaces that might be therapeutic targets and uncovers a potential function for sTREM2 in directly inhibiting Aβ polymerization. PMID: 33090700 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: The Journal of Alzheimers Association)
Source: The Journal of Alzheimers Association - October 24, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Alzheimers Dement Source Type: research

Drug therapies for chronic conditions and risk of Alzheimer's disease and related dementias: A scoping review.
DISCUSSION: Future research targeting drug classes with limited/non-robust evidence, examining sex, racial heterogeneity, and separating classes by molecule, will facilitate understanding of associated risk, and inform clinical and policy efforts to alleviate the growing impact of ADRD. PMID: 33090701 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: The Journal of Alzheimers Association)
Source: The Journal of Alzheimers Association - October 24, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Alzheimers Dement Source Type: research

Retinal imaging in Alzheimer's and neurodegenerative diseases.
Discussion further focused on the importance of defining the context of use to help guide the development of retinal biomarkers. Moving from research to context of use, and ultimately to clinical evaluation, this article outlines ongoing retinal imaging research today in Alzheimer's and other brain diseases, including a discussion of future directions for this area of study. PMID: 33090722 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: The Journal of Alzheimers Association)
Source: The Journal of Alzheimers Association - October 24, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Alzheimers Dement Source Type: research

Hypothesis: Tau pathology is an initiating factor in sporadic Alzheimer's disease.
Authors: Arnsten AFT, Datta D, Tredici KD, Braak H Abstract The etiology of the common, sporadic form of Alzheimer's disease (sAD) is unknown. We hypothesize that tau pathology within select projection neurons with susceptible microenvironments can initiate sAD. This postulate rests on extensive data demonstrating that in human brains tau pathology appears about a decade before the formation of Aβ plaques (Aβps), especially targeting glutamate projection neurons in the association cortex. Data from aging rhesus monkeys show abnormal tau phosphorylation within vulnerable neurons, associated with calcium dy...
Source: The Journal of Alzheimers Association - October 22, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Alzheimers Dement Source Type: research

Long genes are more frequently affected by somatic mutations and show reduced expression in Alzheimer's disease: Implications for disease etiology.
Authors: Soheili-Nezhad S, van der Linden RJ, Olde Rikkert M, Sprooten E, Poelmans G Abstract Aging, the greatest risk factor for Alzheimer's disease (AD), may lead to the accumulation of somatic mutations in neurons. We investigated whether somatic mutations, specifically in longer genes, are implicated in AD etiology. First, we modeled the theoretical likelihood of genes being affected by aging-induced somatic mutations, dependent on their length. We then tested this model and found that long genes are indeed more affected by somatic mutations and that their expression is more frequently reduced in AD brains. Fur...
Source: The Journal of Alzheimers Association - October 22, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Alzheimers Dement Source Type: research