State of the Art in Stratum Corneum Research. Part II: Hypothetical Stratum Corneum Lipid Matrix Models
This review is the second part of a series which presents the state of the art in stratum corneum (SC) lipid matrix (LM) research in depth. In this part, the various hypothetical models which were developed to describe the structure and function of the SC LM as the skin ’s barrier will be discussed. New as well as a cumulative assortment of older results which change the view on the different models are considered to conclude how well the different models are holding up today. As a final conclusion, a model, factoring in as much of the known data as possible, is concluded, unifying the varying different models into o...
Source: Skin Pharmacology and Physiology - July 17, 2020 Category: Dermatology Source Type: research

Epidermal Regeneration Induced by Comfrey Extract: A Study by Light and Electron Microscopy
Conclusions: Application of comfrey cream led to a quicker regeneration of skin cells and to an earlier differentiation of the cells towards a normal fine structure with a visible distinction of epidermal strata, keratin, and corneocyte formation within 4 –7 days. The study covered the early days of skin regeneration and confirms the benefits observed in published clinical trials and non-interventional studies in patients with abrasions.Skin Pharmacol Physiol (Source: Skin Pharmacology and Physiology)
Source: Skin Pharmacology and Physiology - July 17, 2020 Category: Dermatology Source Type: research

A Novel Autologous Topical Serum Based on Plasma Rich in Growth Factors Technology Counteracts Ultraviolet Light-Derived Photo-Oxidative Stress
Conclusion: This preliminary study suggests that this novel ATS might counteract the harmful effects of UV radiation.Skin Pharmacol Physiol (Source: Skin Pharmacology and Physiology)
Source: Skin Pharmacology and Physiology - July 1, 2020 Category: Dermatology Source Type: research

Caffeine and Its Pharmacological Benefits in the Management of Androgenetic Alopecia: A Review
Caffeine, particularly after ingestion, is well known to exert various pharmacological effects. A growing body of evidence implicates the ingestion of caffeine with beneficial effects on several diseases. The easy penetration of caffeine across the skin barrier and into human skin makes caffeine an ideal compound for topical application. Hair loss is known to negatively affect the quality of life and predispose to depression and anxiety. Androgenetic alopecia (AGA) is the most common type of hair loss in both men and women. To date, only few approved drug-based treatments for AGA exist, and these are inevitably associated ...
Source: Skin Pharmacology and Physiology - June 29, 2020 Category: Dermatology Source Type: research

Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Blockade Induces Dermal Endothelial Cell Apoptosis in a Clinically Relevant Skin Organ Culture Model
Conclusion: Our pilot study provides the first evidence that anti-VEGF therapy promotes endothelial cell apoptosis in human skin ex vivo. Our pragmatic human skin organ culture assay offers a valuable tool for future preclinical endothelial cell and translational microvascular network/anti-angiogenesis research in human skin.Skin Pharmacol Physiol (Source: Skin Pharmacology and Physiology)
Source: Skin Pharmacology and Physiology - June 22, 2020 Category: Dermatology Source Type: research

The Effects of Fabric Containing < b > < i > Chamaecyparis obtusa < /i > < /b > Essential Oil on Atopic Dermatitis-Like Lesions: A Functional Clothing Possibility
Conclusions: It was confirmed that fabric containing EOCO has anti-atopic and anti-inflammatory properties. The study data show that fabric containing EOCO can be implemented as an alternative functional clothing for people suffering from AD.Skin Pharmacol Physiol (Source: Skin Pharmacology and Physiology)
Source: Skin Pharmacology and Physiology - June 12, 2020 Category: Dermatology Source Type: research

Hydrogen Sulfide Promotes Cell Proliferation and Melanin Synthesis in Primary Human Epidermal Melanocytes
Conclusions: This study demonstrates that H2S promotes cell proliferation and melanin synthesis in HEMs, which indicates pharmacologic regulation of H2S may be potential treatment for skin disorders caused by loss of melanocytes or dysfunction of melanogenesis.Skin Pharmacol Physiol 2020;33:61 –68 (Source: Skin Pharmacology and Physiology)
Source: Skin Pharmacology and Physiology - June 2, 2020 Category: Dermatology Source Type: research

A Clinical Anti-Ageing Comparative Study of 0.3 and 0.5% Retinol Serums: A Clinically Controlled Trial
Conclusion: Retinol in liquid crystal formulation is safe and provides significant clinical benefits associated with unification of skin colour, overall skin tone, skin elasticity, and moisture. Regular use of retinol typically results in brightening of the skin and reduced signs of ageing. The objective findings confirmed the effectiveness of the procedures.Skin Pharmacol Physiol 2020;33:102 –116 (Source: Skin Pharmacology and Physiology)
Source: Skin Pharmacology and Physiology - May 19, 2020 Category: Dermatology Source Type: research

Altered Epidermal Permeability Barrier Function in the Uninvolved Skin Supports a Role of Epidermal Dysfunction in the Pathogenesis of Occupational Hand Eczema
In conclusion, the uninvolved skin site of subjects with hand eczema exhibits abnormalities in epidermal perme ­ability barrier, supporting a pathogenic role of epidermal dysfunction in hand eczema. Whether subjects with hand eczema in other occupations also display altered epidermal function on uninvolved skin remains to be explored.Skin Pharmacol Physiol 2020;33:94 –101 (Source: Skin Pharmacology and Physiology)
Source: Skin Pharmacology and Physiology - March 30, 2020 Category: Dermatology Source Type: research

Solvent-Containing Closure Material Can Be Used to Prevent Follicular Penetration of Caffeine and Fluorescein Sodium Salt on Porcine Ear Skin
Conclusion: This study clearly demonstrates that a standard nail varnish in combination with a gentle application technique of the API provides a secure follicular closure. The presented study only investigated the closure for the substances caffeine and fluorescein sodium salt. The results might not be transferable to all kinds of APIs.Skin Pharmacol Physiol 2020;33:117 –125 (Source: Skin Pharmacology and Physiology)
Source: Skin Pharmacology and Physiology - February 11, 2020 Category: Dermatology Source Type: research

Intradermal Administration of Atrial Natriuretic Peptide Attenuates Cutaneous Vasodilation but Not Sweating in Young Men during Exercise in the Heat
Conclusion: Intradermal ANP administration directly attenuated cutaneous blood flow, but not sweating, in habitually active young men during rest and exercise in the heat.Skin Pharmacol Physiol 2020;33:86 –93 (Source: Skin Pharmacology and Physiology)
Source: Skin Pharmacology and Physiology - January 31, 2020 Category: Dermatology Source Type: research

The Influence of Short-Wave and Long-Wave Radiation Spectrum on the Photostability of Sunscreens
Conclusion:Based on these data, we can conclude that short waves and/or VIS + IR light have an influence on the photostability of sunscreens.Skin Pharmacol Physiol 2020;33:77 –85 (Source: Skin Pharmacology and Physiology)
Source: Skin Pharmacology and Physiology - January 24, 2020 Category: Dermatology Source Type: research

Exogenous Activation of Protease-Activated Receptor 2 Attenuates Cutaneous Vasodilatation and Sweating in Older Men Exercising in the Heat
Conclusion: We show that while exogenous PAR2 activation induces cutaneous vasodilatation at rest under non-heat-stressed conditions, it attenuates cutaneous vasodilatation and sweating during and following an exercise-induced heat stress in older men.Skin Pharmacol Physiol (Source: Skin Pharmacology and Physiology)
Source: Skin Pharmacology and Physiology - June 20, 2019 Category: Dermatology Source Type: research

Formulation and Artificial Sebum Effects on the Percutaneous Absorption of Zinc Pyrithione through Excised Human Skin
Conclusion: These data are consistent with the hypothesis that ZnPT percutaneous absorption, as measured by [14C]PT kinetics, is controlled by particle dissolution and molecular speciation.Skin Pharmacol Physiol 2019;32:1 –11 (Source: Skin Pharmacology and Physiology)
Source: Skin Pharmacology and Physiology - June 14, 2019 Category: Dermatology Source Type: research

Comparison of Skin Structural and Functional Parameters in Well-Nourished and Moderately Undernourished Infants
Conclusion: These findings reveal a greater impact of moderate undernutrition on the development of the dermis and subcutis and suggest that critical epidermal functions such as skin barrier and pH are mostly maintained.Skin Pharmacol Physiol (Source: Skin Pharmacology and Physiology)
Source: Skin Pharmacology and Physiology - June 5, 2019 Category: Dermatology Source Type: research

A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial Assessing the Oral Administration of a Heat-Treated < b > < i > Lactobacillus paracasei   < /i > < /b > Supplement in Infants with Atopic Dermatitis Receiving Topical Corticosteroid Therapy
Conclusions: In this design, the probioticL. paracasei was not beneficial as a complementary approach to topical corticosteroids in infants with AD. However, slight beneficial effects may have been masked by the moderate potency corticoid.Skin Pharmacol Physiol (Source: Skin Pharmacology and Physiology)
Source: Skin Pharmacology and Physiology - May 23, 2019 Category: Dermatology Source Type: research

Atopic Patients Show Increased Interleukin 4 Plasma Levels but the Degree of Elevation Is Not Sufficient to Upregulate Interleukin-4-Sensitive Genes
Conclusion: Our data suggest that the IL-4 plasma levels of atopic patients are not high enough to impact the expression of IL-4-sensitive genes.Skin Pharmacol Physiol (Source: Skin Pharmacology and Physiology)
Source: Skin Pharmacology and Physiology - May 17, 2019 Category: Dermatology Source Type: research

Evaluation of Quantum Dot Skin Penetration in Porcine Skin: Effect of Age and Anatomical Site of Topical Application
Conclusions: There is minimal penetration of QDs through pig skin. Density and diameter of follicles in association with age of pigs and application site influenced the amount of QDs deposited in follicles. The structure of the stratum corneum, follicle density and diameter of NBPS are similar to human skin suggesting that NBPS is an appropriate model for human skin in the evaluation of topical applications of a range of chemicals including nanosystems.Skin Pharmacol Physiol (Source: Skin Pharmacology and Physiology)
Source: Skin Pharmacology and Physiology - May 14, 2019 Category: Dermatology Source Type: research

Nrf2 Activation by SK-119 Attenuates Oxidative Stress, UVB, and LPS-Induced Damage
Conclusion: These results indicate that SK-119 is an Nrf2 activator that can be used as a prototype molecule for the development of novel treatments of dermatological disorders related to oxidative stress.Skin Pharmacol Physiol (Source: Skin Pharmacology and Physiology)
Source: Skin Pharmacology and Physiology - May 10, 2019 Category: Dermatology Source Type: research

Side Effects of Frequently Used Antihypertensive Drugs on Wound Healing in vitro
Conclusion: Antihypertensive drugs have an influence on keratinocytes and fibroblasts; they are not neutral. Candesartan has the most positive effects on skin cells. For angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and thiazide diuretics, wound healing in a 3D model is delayed. β-Receptor blockers seem to improve wound healing to a small extent just like calcium channel blockers. These results should be evaluated in a clinical trial to verify their clinical relevance.Skin Pharmacol Physiol 2019;32:162 –172 (Source: Skin Pharmacology and Physiology)
Source: Skin Pharmacology and Physiology - April 24, 2019 Category: Dermatology Source Type: research

Dermal Peptide Delivery Using Enhancer Molecules and Colloidal Carrier Systems – Part IV: Search for an Alternative Model Membrane for Future ATR Permeation Studies Using PKEK as the Model Substance
The main barrier of the human skin is the stratum corneum (SC). Its properties (also depending on the health and age of the individual) and its influence on improved penetration of active ingredients into the skin are the subject of many research projects. Since the availability of human skin, as the ideal model membrane, is limited, the aim of this study was to find a suitable alternative model membrane from the animal kingdom. The alternative model membrane should be used in subsequent permeation experiments with the Teflon diffusion cell instead of human SC. Previous studies have already investigated the permeation prop...
Source: Skin Pharmacology and Physiology - April 4, 2019 Category: Dermatology Source Type: research

Permeation Mechanism of Caffeine and Naproxen through in vitro Human Epidermis: Effect of Vehicles and Penetration Enhancers
Conclusion: A permeation enhancer-induced alteration in diffusivity, rather than effects on SC solubility, was the main driving force behind increases in permeation flux of the hydrophilic molecule caffeine. For the more the lipophilic molecule naproxen, increased SC solubility drove the increases in permeation flux.Skin Pharmacol Physiol 2019;32:132 –141 (Source: Skin Pharmacology and Physiology)
Source: Skin Pharmacology and Physiology - March 31, 2019 Category: Dermatology Source Type: research

Noninvasive Determination of Epidermal and Stratum Corneum Thickness in vivo Using Two-Photon Microscopy and Optical Coherence Tomography: Impact of Body Area, Age, and Gender
Conclusion: 2PM provides a noninvasive method for imaging the epidermis and especially the SC in vivo and is optimally suited for the application of histological criteria.Skin Pharmacol Physiol 2019;32:142 –150 (Source: Skin Pharmacology and Physiology)
Source: Skin Pharmacology and Physiology - March 31, 2019 Category: Dermatology Source Type: research

Analysis of the Effect of Serum Estradiol Concentration on Facial Skin Moisture, Pore Width, Discoloration and Smoothness in 16- to 50-Year-Old Women at the 5th and 25th Days of the Menstrual Cycle
Conclusions: Skin moisture was related to the concentration of estradiol only in the oldest examined group of women regardless of the phase of menstrual cycle. In the 40- to 50-year-old group of women, the low level of estradiol on the 25th day of the cycle is better used to maintain a good facial skin appearance and has a positive influence not only on skin moisture, but also on pore width and skin smoothness.Skin Pharmacol Physiol 2019;32:125 –131 (Source: Skin Pharmacology and Physiology)
Source: Skin Pharmacology and Physiology - March 22, 2019 Category: Dermatology Source Type: research

Use of a Simple in vitro Test to Assess Loss of Chemical due to Volatility during an in vitro Human Skin Absorption Study
Conclusion: Our data support the use of a quick and simple test for volatility to account for the loss of MB in skin penetration experiment due to volatility. The best parameter to indicate the potential of a chemical to evaporate is the VP.Skin Pharmacol Physiol 2019;32:117 –124 (Source: Skin Pharmacology and Physiology)
Source: Skin Pharmacology and Physiology - March 20, 2019 Category: Dermatology Source Type: research

Tomato Phytonutrients Balance UV Response: Results from a Double-Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Study
Conclusion: This well-tolerated carotenoid-containing supplement significantly protected against UVB-induced erythema formation and upregulation of proinflammatory cytokines in healthy volunteers.Skin Pharmacol Physiol 2019;32:101 –108 (Source: Skin Pharmacology and Physiology)
Source: Skin Pharmacology and Physiology - March 7, 2019 Category: Dermatology Source Type: research

Dehydroabietic Acid Induces Regeneration of Collagen Fibers in Ultraviolet B-Irradiated Human Dermal Fibroblasts and Skin Equivalents
Conclusion: Our results suggest that DAA could be a useful agent for improving skin photoaging through the protection and regeneration of collagen fibers in skin.Skin Pharmacol Physiol 2019;32:109 –115 (Source: Skin Pharmacology and Physiology)
Source: Skin Pharmacology and Physiology - March 7, 2019 Category: Dermatology Source Type: research

Quantitative Analysis of Free Amino Acids and Urea Derived from Isolated Corneocytes of Healthy Young, Healthy Aged, and Diseased Skin
Conclusion: This study suggests that the levels of FAAs and urea in the skin are affected by age and skin conditions (healthy/diseased). However, further studies are needed to show the effects of different skin conditions on the levels of FAAs and urea.Skin Pharmacol Physiol 2019;32:94 –100 (Source: Skin Pharmacology and Physiology)
Source: Skin Pharmacology and Physiology - February 15, 2019 Category: Dermatology Source Type: research

Development of a Novel Approach to Studying Corneodesmosomes and Stratum Corneum Adhesion: Extending Knowledge on the Pathophysiology of Sensitive Skin
Conclusion: The developed novel and easy-to-apply approach allows investigation of corneodesmosome components. We confirm a role of altered corneocytes in the pathomechanism of SS. The disclosed protocol can further be optimized in studies of skin conditions with strongly affected corneodesmosomes.Skin Pharmacol Physiol 2019;32:81 –93 (Source: Skin Pharmacology and Physiology)
Source: Skin Pharmacology and Physiology - January 27, 2019 Category: Dermatology Source Type: research

Reconstructed Human Epidermis Predicts Barrier-Improving Effects of < b > < i > Lactococcus lactis < /i > < /b > Emulsion in Humans
Conclusions:Lactococcus emulsion improved the skin barrier function with good biocompatibility. Moreover, our study exemplifies the translational predictive capacity of testing on RHE with respect toLactococcus emulsion.Skin Pharmacol Physiol 2019;32:72 –80 (Source: Skin Pharmacology and Physiology)
Source: Skin Pharmacology and Physiology - January 13, 2019 Category: Dermatology Source Type: research

Influence of Storage and Preservation Techniques on Egg-Derived Carotenoids: A Substantial Source for Cutaneous Antioxidants
In conclusion, RRS is suitable for monitoring egg-derived carotenoid levels, and carotenoid levels in eggs are generally stable under common storage and preservation modalities. Boiling in contrast to broiling of eggs might be superior in terms of carotenoid preservation within food processing.Skin Pharmacol Physiol 2019;32:65 –71 (Source: Skin Pharmacology and Physiology)
Source: Skin Pharmacology and Physiology - January 4, 2019 Category: Dermatology Source Type: research

Evaluation of Serum Paraoxonase, Arylesterase, Prolidase Activities and Oxidative Stress in Patients with Alopecia Areata
Conclusion: This comprehensive work shows that the role of oxidative stress is very important in the pathogenesis of AA. In this study, we believe that we clarified the pathogenesis of oxidative stress for AA patients by investigating the TAS, TOS, OSI levels, PON1, arylesterase and prolidase enzyme activity parameters.Skin Pharmacol Physiol 2019;32:59 –64 (Source: Skin Pharmacology and Physiology)
Source: Skin Pharmacology and Physiology - December 14, 2018 Category: Dermatology Source Type: research

Current Data on Effects of Long-Term Missions on the International Space Station on Skin Physiological Parameters
Conclusion: In conclusion, we found that spaceflight under present conditions has no negative impact on skin physiological parameters.Skin Pharmacol Physiol 2019;32:43 –51 (Source: Skin Pharmacology and Physiology)
Source: Skin Pharmacology and Physiology - November 28, 2018 Category: Dermatology Source Type: research

Self-Reported Skin Changes by a Selected Number of Astronauts after Long-Duration Mission on ISS as Part of the Skin B Project
Conclusion: Based on these preliminary data, it is important to pay more attention to skin hygiene and maintenance in space.Skin Pharmacol Physiol 2019;32:52 –57 (Source: Skin Pharmacology and Physiology)
Source: Skin Pharmacology and Physiology - November 28, 2018 Category: Dermatology Source Type: research

In vivo Human Skin Penetration of the UV Filter Ethylhexyl Triazone: Effect of Lipid Microparticle Encapsulation
Conclusion: For the cream with the nonencapsulated sunscreen agent, the percentage of the applied EHT dose diffused into the stratum corneum was 21.9 ± 4.9%, not significantly different from that of the smaller-molecular-weight OMC (22.2 ± 7.6%) and BMDBM (20.5 ± 3.7%). A marked (45.7%) and statistically significant reduction in the in vivo skin penetration of EHT was attained with the cream containing microencapsulated EHT. The decreased perc utaneous penetration provided by the LMs should favor the efficacy of EHT and limit potential toxicological risks.Skin Pharmacol Physiol 2019;32:22 –31 (So...
Source: Skin Pharmacology and Physiology - October 31, 2018 Category: Dermatology Source Type: research

ZnO:SBA-15 Nanocomposites for Potential Use in Sunscreen: Preparation, Properties, Human Skin Penetration and Toxicity
Conclusion: Due to their suitable physicochemical properties and improved safety compared to bare ZnO nanoparticles, the ZnO:SBA-15 nanocomposites show promise for use in cosmetic applications.Skin Pharmacol Physiol 2019;32:32 –42 (Source: Skin Pharmacology and Physiology)
Source: Skin Pharmacology and Physiology - October 31, 2018 Category: Dermatology Source Type: research

Effect of Physical and Chemical Hair Removal Methods on Skin Barrier Function in vitro: Consequences for a Hydrophilic Model Permeant
Conclusion: Considering CRS and diffusion cell data, a moderate if significant decrease in skin barrier function was found after hair removal by dry shaving (physical skin/material interaction) and epilation methods (plucking out the entire hair, for example, by electrical epilation and waxing). Subsequent experiments will include testing of different permeants covering a broad range of physicochemical properties in vitro and confirming our findings in vivo.Skin Pharmacol Physiol 2019;32:8 –21 (Source: Skin Pharmacology and Physiology)
Source: Skin Pharmacology and Physiology - October 19, 2018 Category: Dermatology Source Type: research

Moisturizers versus Current and Next-Generation Barrier Repair Therapy for the Management of Atopic Dermatitis
We compare here the principal characteristics of over-the-counter moisturizers with physiologic lipid-based barrier repair therapy. Moisturizers are standard ancillary therapy for anti-inflammatory skin disorders, like atopic dermatitis (AD), and can attenuate the emergence of AD, the initial step in the “atopic march.” But not all moisturizers are beneficial; some can make skin function worse, and can even induce inflammation, possibly accounting for the frequent occurrence of “sensitive skin” in women. In contrast, physiologic lipid-based barrier repair therapy, if comprised of the 3 key s tratum ...
Source: Skin Pharmacology and Physiology - October 18, 2018 Category: Dermatology Source Type: research

Acknowledgment to the Reviewers
Skin Pharmacol Physiol 2018;31:337 –338 (Source: Skin Pharmacology and Physiology)
Source: Skin Pharmacology and Physiology - October 9, 2018 Category: Dermatology Source Type: research

Contents Vol. 31, 2018
Skin Pharmacol Physiol 2018;31:I –IV (Source: Skin Pharmacology and Physiology)
Source: Skin Pharmacology and Physiology - October 9, 2018 Category: Dermatology Source Type: research

Antioxidant Properties of Ferulic Acid and Its Possible Application
Ferulic acid has low toxicity and possesses many physiological functions (anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antimicrobial activity, anticancer, and antidiabetic effect). It has been widely used in the pharmaceutical, food, and cosmetics industry. Ferulic acid is a free radical scavenger, but also an inhibitor of enzymes that catalyze free radical generation and an enhancer of scavenger enzyme activity. Ferulic acid has a protective role for the main skin structures: keratinocytes, fibroblasts, collagen, elastin. It inhibits melanogenesis, enhances angiogenesis, and accelerates wound healing. It is widely applied in skin care...
Source: Skin Pharmacology and Physiology - September 20, 2018 Category: Dermatology Source Type: research

Tretinoin Loaded Nanoemulsion for Acne Vulgaris: Fabrication, Physicochemical and Clinical Efficacy Assessments
Conclusion: We successfully developed stable nanoparticles. It was a stable oil-in-water emulsion with particle size of about 150 nm, and containing circular and separated particles. In a pilot clinical study, the number of acne lesions as well as the size and intensity of porphyrin production significantly reduced after topical application of NE-TRE. This formula shows proper efficiency and good loading capacity of TRE in the drug delivery system.Skin Pharmacol Physiol 2018;31:316 –323 (Source: Skin Pharmacology and Physiology)
Source: Skin Pharmacology and Physiology - September 10, 2018 Category: Dermatology Source Type: research

Novel Facial Cream Containing Carnosine Inhibits Formation of Advanced Glycation End-Products in Human Skin
Conclusion: Topically applied carnosine protects against the glycation induced by MG. Novel FC-CARN significantly reduced levels of AGEs in both epidermis and reticular dermis in human skin explants.Skin Pharmacol Physiol 2018;31:324 –331 (Source: Skin Pharmacology and Physiology)
Source: Skin Pharmacology and Physiology - September 10, 2018 Category: Dermatology Source Type: research

Influence of Relative Humidity on Electrodermal Levels and Responses
Conclusion: This suggests that ambient humidity influences the recording of EDA levels and is important to consider when these parameters are used, but is not important in the recording or analysis of EDA responses.Skin Pharmacol Physiol 2018;31:298 –307 (Source: Skin Pharmacology and Physiology)
Source: Skin Pharmacology and Physiology - September 7, 2018 Category: Dermatology Source Type: research

Application of Photoacoustic Methods and Confocal Microscopy for Monitoring of Therapeutic Response in Plaque Psoriasis
In this study, photoacoustic imaging and confocal laser scanning microscopic (CLSM) methods were investigated for their suitability in psoriasis follow-up examinations. Using a high-resolution photoacoustic system, the vascular structures of 11 psoriatic patients and 6 healthy volunteers were investigated. No differences were detected with respect to the average vessel diameter and vasculature per unit volume in the tissue of healthy volunteers and non-lesional and lesional skin areas of psoriatic patients. By means of CLSM, the diameters of the dermal papillae of 6 volunteers and 6 psoriatic patients were determined. The ...
Source: Skin Pharmacology and Physiology - September 7, 2018 Category: Dermatology Source Type: research

Age- and Diabetes-Related Changes in the Free Fatty Acid Composition of the Human Stratum Corneum
Of particular importance for Stratum corneum (SC) lipids are the free fatty acids (FFAs). Age-related changes of the SC structure lead to diminished capacity for barrier compensation. The aims of this cross-sectional study were to identify even-numbered especially odd-numbered FFAs within the intercorneocytic lamellar lipid structures of the SC and to explore age- and diabetes-related changes in FFAs. Gas chromatography – flame ionisation detection was used to qualitatively and quantitatively assess FFAs extracted from the SC. 110 subjects aged over 60 years (elderly/healthy), 110 subjects aged 18–40 (young/hea...
Source: Skin Pharmacology and Physiology - August 21, 2018 Category: Dermatology Source Type: research

Antidermatophytic Activity and Skin Retention of Clotrimazole Microemulsion and Microemulsion-Based Gel in Comparison to Conventional Cream
Conclusion: Results revealed the capacity of ME and MBG in improving skin bioavailability of CTZ while reducing the risk of systemic side effects. Thereby, ME and MBG could increase the efficacy of CTZ for dermatophytosis treatment in comparison to conventional cream.Skin Pharmacol Physiol 2018;31:292 –297 (Source: Skin Pharmacology and Physiology)
Source: Skin Pharmacology and Physiology - August 21, 2018 Category: Dermatology Source Type: research

Epidermal Lamellar Granules
In the mid-1950s and 1960s, transmission electron microscopes became widely available, leading to many studies of the ultrastructure of various tissues including the epidermis. Most of these studies involved tissue fixation with formaldehyde and postfixation with osmium tetroxide. A few studies employed freeze-fracture electron microscopy. One set of these studies identified a small organelle variously called lamellar granules (LGs), lamellar bodies, membrane-coating granules, cementsomes, and Odland bodies. LGs are round to ovoid in shape, with a diameter of about 200 nm. They have a bounding membrane surrounding a stack ...
Source: Skin Pharmacology and Physiology - August 15, 2018 Category: Dermatology Source Type: research

A Pilot Study to Evaluate the Effects of Topically Applied Cosmetic Creams on Epidermal Responses
The objective of this study was to evaluate the changes in epidermal properties and inflammatory mediators after 4 days of topical application of 2 different polymers formulated in cosmetic creams. Ten healthy volunteers (mean age ± SD: 20.0 ± 2.4 years) completed the study. TEWL, color, and pH were not significantly different after repeated application of these polymers. Hydration was significantly lower at sites treated with polymer A after 5 days. Significant increases in IL-1α, IL-1RA, and IL-1β were observed after cr eam application at sites treated with polymer A. This is the first study to a...
Source: Skin Pharmacology and Physiology - August 15, 2018 Category: Dermatology Source Type: research

Controversy on the Use of Povidone-Iodine in Chronic Wounds
Skin Pharmacol Physiol 2018;31:261 (Source: Skin Pharmacology and Physiology)
Source: Skin Pharmacology and Physiology - August 8, 2018 Category: Dermatology Source Type: research