Effects of Joint Kinetics on Energy Cost during Repeated Vertical Jumping
Purpose The present study was designed to investigate the effects of lower limb joint kinetics on energy cost during jumping. Methods Eight male middle and long-distance runners volunteered for the study. The subjects were asked to repeat vertical jumps at a frequency of 2 Hz for 3 min on a force platform in three different surface inclination conditions: Incline (+8°), Level (0°), and Decline (−8°). Sagittal plane kinematics were obtained using a high-speed video camera. Simultaneously, ground reaction forces and EMG of the lower limb muscles were recorded. Energy cost was calculated using steady-st...
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - February 16, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: APPLIED SCIENCES Source Type: research

Energy Flow Analysis to Investigate Youth Pitching Velocity and Efficiency
Conclusions Energy flow analysis is an effective tool providing quantitative assessment of the kinetic chain to gain a deeper understanding of how energy moves through an athlete, and how specific pitching mechanics impact this movement. The results of this study support the importance of generating energy flow throughout the body to produce high velocities and energy flow through the trunk to increase pitch efficiency. (Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise)
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - February 16, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: APPLIED SCIENCES Source Type: research

Evidence for an Upper Threshold for Resistance Training Volume in Trained Women
Introduction The purpose of the present study was to compare the effects of different volumes of resistance training (RT) on muscle performance and hypertrophy in trained women. Methods The study included 40 volunteers that performed RT for 24 wk divided into groups that performed 5 (G5), 10 (G10), 15 (G15), and 20 (G20) sets per muscle group per session. Ten-repetition maximum (10RM) tests were performed for the bench press, lat pulldown, 45° leg press, and stiff-legged deadlift. Muscle thickness (MT) was measured using ultrasound at biceps brachii, triceps brachii, pectoralis major, quadriceps femoris, and glute...
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - February 16, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: APPLIED SCIENCES Source Type: research

Cardiorespiratory Fitness, Adiposity, and Heart Rate Variability: The Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults Study
Purpose The importance of cardiorespiratory fitness versus adiposity in determining heart rate variability (HRV) is unclear. Methods From the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults study, an observational cohort study, we included 2316 participants (mean age = 45.2 ± 3.6 yr at year 20, 57% female, 43% Black) with HRV measured in 2005–2006 (year 20) and graded exercise test duration (GXTd) and adiposity measures (body mass index and waist circumference) obtained in 1985–1986 (baseline) and 2005–2006. HRV measures (SD of all normal RR intervals [SDNN] and square root of the mean value ...
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - February 16, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: EPIDEMIOLOGY Source Type: research

Associations of Resistance Exercise with Cardiovascular Disease Morbidity and Mortality
Purpose Resistance exercise (RE) can improve many cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors, but specific data on the effects on CVD events and mortality are lacking. We investigated the associations of RE with CVD and all-cause mortality and further examined the mediation effect of body mass index (BMI) between RE and CVD outcomes. Methods We included 12,591 participants (mean age, 47 yr) who received at least two clinical examinations 1987–2006. RE was assessed by a self-reported medical history questionnaire. Results During a mean follow-up of 5.4 and 10.5 yr, 205 total CVD events (morbidity and mortality ...
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - February 16, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: EPIDEMIOLOGY Source Type: research

Physical Activity, Television Viewing Time, and DNA Methylation in Peripheral Blood
Introduction Physical activity may affect health via DNA methylation. The epigenetic influences of sedentary behaviors such as television viewing are unknown. We performed a genomewide study of DNA methylation in peripheral blood in relation to physical activity and television viewing time. Methods DNA methylation was measured using the Illumina Infinium HumanMethylation450K BeadChip array in blood samples collected at baseline (N = 5513) and follow-up (N = 1249) from participants in the Melbourne Collaborative Cohort Study. At baseline, times per week of leisure-time physical activity were self-reported. At follow-up...
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - February 16, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: EPIDEMIOLOGY Source Type: research

Twenty-Year Trajectories of Physical Activity Types from Midlife to Old Age
Conclusions Physical activity trajectories from middle to old age vary by activity type. The predictors of these trajectories and effects of major life events, such as retirement, are also specific to the type of PA. (Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise)
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - February 16, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: EPIDEMIOLOGY Source Type: research

Walking Pace Is Associated with Lower Risk of All-Cause and Cause-Specific Mortality
Conclusions Walking pace is associated with lower risk of a wide range of important health conditions, independently of overall time spent walking. (Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise)
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - February 16, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: EPIDEMIOLOGY Source Type: research

Longitudinal Associations of Fitness, Motor Competence, and Adiposity with Cognition
Conclusions Higher MC at baseline predicted better cognition during the first two school years in boys but not in girls. CRF or adiposity was not associated with cognition in boys or girls. (Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise)
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - February 16, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: EPIDEMIOLOGY Source Type: research

The 24-Hour Activity Cycle: A New Paradigm for Physical Activity
This article considers the 24-h Activity Cycle (24-HAC) model as a paradigm for exploring inter-relatedness of health effects of the four activities. It discusses how to measure time spent in each of the four activities, as well as the analytical and statistical challenges in analyzing data based on the model, including the inevitable challenge of confounding among activities. The potential usefulness of this model is described by reviewing selected research findings that aided in the creation of the model and discussing future applications of the 24-HAC model. (Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise)
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - February 16, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: EPIDEMIOLOGY Source Type: research

Adenosine Triphosphate Production of Muscle Mitochondria after Acute Exercise in Lean and Obese Humans
Introduction Current evidence indicates mitochondrial dysfunction in humans with obesity. Acute exercise appears to enhance mitochondrial function in the muscle of nonobese humans, but its effects on mitochondrial function in muscle of humans with obesity are not known. We sought to determine whether acute aerobic exercise stimulates mitochondrial function in subsarcolemmal (SS) and intermyofibrillar (IMF) mitochondria in humans with obesity. Methods We assessed maximal adenosine triphosphate production rate (MAPR) and citrate synthase (CS) activity in isolated SS and IMF mitochondria from subjects with body mass inde...
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - February 16, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: BASIC SCIENCES Source Type: research

Sucrose but Not Nitrate Ingestion Reduces Strenuous Cycling–induced Intestinal Injury
Purpose Strenuous exercise induces intestinal injury, which is likely related to splanchnic hypoperfusion and may be associated with gastrointestinal complaints commonly reported during certain exercise modalities. Increasing circulating nitric oxide (NO) levels or inducing postprandial hyperemia may improve splanchnic perfusion, thereby attenuating intestinal injury during exercise. Therefore, we investigated the effects of both dietary nitrate ingestion and sucrose ingestion on splanchnic perfusion and intestinal injury induced by prolonged strenuous cycling. Methods In a randomized crossover manner, 16 well-trained...
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - February 16, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: BASIC SCIENCES Source Type: research

Exercise Training Increases Metaboreflex Control in Patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnea
Introduction/Purpose We demonstrated that patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) have reduced muscle metaboreflex control of muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA). In addition, exercise training increased muscle metaboreflex control in heart failure patients. Objective We tested the hypothesis that exercise training would increase muscle metaboreflex control of MSNA in patients with OSA. Methods Forty-one patients with OSA were randomized into the following two groups: 1) nontrained (OSANT, n = 21) and 2) trained (OSAT, n = 20). Muscle sympathetic nerve activity was assessed by microneurography technique, m...
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - February 16, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: CLINICAL SCIENCES Source Type: research

Caffeine Augments the Prothrombotic but Not the Fibrinolytic Response to Exercise
Caffeine, a popular ergogenic supplement, induces neural and vascular changes that may influence coagulation and/or fibrinolysis at rest and during exercise. Purpose The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of a single dose of caffeine on measures of coagulation and fibrinolysis before and after a single bout of high-intensity exercise. Methods Forty-eight men (age, 23 ± 3 yr; body mass index, 24 ± 3 kg·m−2) completed two trials, with 6 mg·kg−1 of caffeine (CAFF) or placebo (PLAC), in random order, followed by a maximal cycle ergometer test. Plasma concentrations of f...
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - February 16, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: CLINICAL SCIENCES Source Type: research

Regional Vastus Medialis and Vastus Lateralis Activation in Females with Patellofemoral Pain
This study aimed to investigate whether regional activation patterns in the vasti muscles differ between females with and without patellofemoral pain (PFP), and whether muscle activation patterns correlate with knee extension strength. Methods Thirty-six females with PFP and 20 pain-free controls performed a standardized knee flexion–extension task. The activation of vastus medialis (VM) and vastus lateralis (VL) was collected using high-density surface EMG and analyzed using principal component (PC) analysis. Spatial locations and temporal coefficients of the PC, and the percent variance they explain, were compar...
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - February 16, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: CLINICAL SCIENCES Source Type: research

Exercise-induced Changes in Soluble ST2 Concentrations in Marathon Runners
Purpose Previous studies have suggested that extreme endurance exercise may induce cardiac microdamage that could lead to subsequent myocardial fibrosis. Soluble suppression of tumorigenicity 2 (sST2) is a cardiac biomarker for assessment of myocardial fibrosis, inflammation, and strain. We evaluated baseline and exercise-induced sST2 concentrations in a heterogeneous cohort of marathon runners to identify predictors for sST2 concentrations. Methods Ninety-two runners supplied demographic data, health status, physical activity levels, and marathon experience. Before (baseline) and immediately after (finish) the marath...
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - February 16, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: CLINICAL SCIENCES Source Type: research

Impaired Thermoregulatory Function during Dynamic Exercise in Multiple Sclerosis
Conclusion Taken together, MS blunts sweating responses during exercise while cutaneous vasculature responses are preserved. Altered mechanisms of body temperature regulation in persons with MS may lead to temporary worsening of disease symptoms and limit exercise tolerance under more thermally challenging conditions. (Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise)
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - February 16, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: CLINICAL SCIENCES Source Type: research

Team Physician, Team Subspecialist: A Potential Scientific Conflict of Interest?
No abstract available (Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise)
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - February 16, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: EDITORIAL Source Type: research

Sports Medicine in the Pediatric Office: A Multimedia Case-Based Text with Video, 2nd Edition
No abstract available (Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise)
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - January 16, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: SPECIAL COMMUNICATIONS: Book Reviews Source Type: research

Assessment in Applied Sport Psychology
No abstract available (Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise)
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - January 16, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: SPECIAL COMMUNICATIONS: Book Reviews Source Type: research

Response
No abstract available (Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise)
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - January 16, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: SPECIAL COMMUNICATIONS: Letters to the Editor-in-Chief Source Type: research

Comments on “HIIT in the Real World”
No abstract available (Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise)
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - January 16, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: SPECIAL COMMUNICATIONS: Letters to the Editor-in-Chief Source Type: research

Exercise Increases Mucosal-associated Invariant T Cell Cytokine Expression but Not Activation or Homing Markers
Conclusions The MAIT cell numbers undergo a partial biphasic response after submaximal exercise and appear to be preferentially mobilized within T cells; however, the magnitude of the submaximal response was attenuated relative to maximal exercise. Stimulated MAIT cells increase TNFα expression, indicating greater responsiveness to pathogens after acute exercise. (Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise)
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - January 16, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: APPLIED SCIENCES Source Type: research

Dynamic Cerebral Autoregulation Is Maintained during High-Intensity Interval Exercise
This study assessed the effect of HIIE on dynamic CA. Methods Nine healthy men (age, 24 ± 3 yr; mean ± SD) warmed up at 50%–60% maximal workload (Wmax) for 5 min before HIIE including four 4-min bouts of exercise at 80%–90% Wmax interspaced by four 3-min bouts at 50% to 60% Wmax. Transcranial Doppler determined middle cerebral artery mean blood velocity (MCA Vmean), and brachial artery catheterization determined mean arterial pressure (MAP). Dynamic CA was evaluated by transfer function analysis of changes in MAP and MCA Vmean. Results The HIIE increased MAP (from 92 ± 9 to 104 &plusm...
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - January 16, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: APPLIED SCIENCES Source Type: research

Effects of Sprint-Interval and Endurance Respiratory Muscle Training Regimens
Conclusion One month of RMSIT and RMET shows similar improvements in respiratory muscle performance despite different duration of training sessions. Also, muscular adaptations might differ. (Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise)
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - January 16, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: APPLIED SCIENCES Source Type: research

The Effect of Dietary Protein on Protein Metabolism and Performance in Endurance-trained Males
This study aimed to determine how varying protein intakes, including a new tracer-derived safe intake, alter whole body protein metabolism and exercise performance during training. Methods Using a double-blind randomized crossover design, 10 male endurance-trained runners (age, 32 ± 8 yr; V˙O2peak, 65.9 ± 7.9 mL O2·kg−1·min−1) performed three trials consisting of 4 d of controlled training (20, 5, 10, and 20 km·d−1, respectively) while consuming diets providing 0.94 (LOW), 1.20 (MOD), and 1.83 (HIGH) g protein·kg−1·d−1. Whole body protein sy...
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - January 16, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: APPLIED SCIENCES Source Type: research

Metabolic Costs of Standing and Walking in Healthy Military-Age Adults: A Meta-regression
Conclusion Practitioners can use the new LCDA walking equation to calculate energy expenditure during standing and walking at speeds (Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise)
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - January 16, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: APPLIED SCIENCES Source Type: research

Effects of Napping on Alertness, Cognitive, and Physical Outcomes of Karate Athletes
Conclusions A 30-min nap enhances cognitive outcomes. It is also an effective strategy to overcome the cognitive and physical deteriorations in performances caused either by sleep loss or by fatigue induced by exhaustive trainings in the afternoon. (Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise)
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - January 16, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: APPLIED SCIENCES Source Type: research

Survival of the Fastest: The Multivariate Optimization of Performance Phenotypes
Conclusions These performance trade-offs among the disciplines preclude the realization of a generalist athlete except in the most elite triathletes, a result similar to the “big houses, big cars” phenomenon in life history evolution. This distinction between trait combinations that are favored for optimal performance versus constrained by trade-offs was only apparent when accounting for individual level variation in athletic performance. Our results provide further evidence that meaningful trade-offs may be missed if individual variation in quality is disregarded. (Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise)
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - January 16, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: APPLIED SCIENCES Source Type: research

Fitness Mediates Activity and Sedentary Patterns Associations with Adiposity in Youth
Conclusions Time in MVPA and accumulating ST in shorter sedentary bouts is inversely related to adiposity. However, these associations may be mediated by CRF. Emphasis should be given to programs that target increases in MVPA, which may influence CRF while reducing sedentary recreational behaviors. (Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise)
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - January 16, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: APPLIED SCIENCES Source Type: research

Individual Variability in Waist Circumference and Body Weight in Response to Exercise
Conclusions Substantial variability in response to standardized exercise was observed for change in both WC and body weight after accounting for the variability not attributed to exercise. Potential determinants of the interindividual variability in response to exercise remain unclear. (Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise)
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - January 16, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: APPLIED SCIENCES Source Type: research

Critical Velocity during Intermittent Running with Changes of Direction
Conclusions The CVST provides a reliable and accurate determination of CV and can be used by coaches, athletes, and trainers to better understand the physiological impact specific to practice or competitions involving intermittent change of direction running. (Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise)
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - January 16, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: APPLIED SCIENCES Source Type: research

Effects of EPO on Blood Parameters and Running Performance in Kenyan Athletes
Conclusions Four weeks of rHuEpo increased the HGB and HCT of Kenyan endurance runners to a lesser extent than in SCO (~17% vs ~10%, respectively) and these alterations were associated with similar improvements in running performance immediately after the rHuEpo administration (~5%) and 4 wk after rHuEpo (~3%). (Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise)
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - January 16, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: APPLIED SCIENCES Source Type: research

Type 1 Muscle Fiber Hypertrophy after Blood Flow–restricted Training in Powerlifters
Purpose To investigate the effects of blood flow–restricted resistance exercise (BFRRE) on myofiber areas (MFA), number of myonuclei and satellite cells (SC), muscle size and strength in powerlifters. Methods Seventeen national level powerlifters (25 ± 6 yr [mean ± SD], 15 men) were randomly assigned to either a BFRRE group (n = 9) performing two blocks (weeks 1 and 3) of five BFRRE front squat sessions within a 6.5-wk training period, or a conventional training group (Con; n = 8) performing front squats at 60%–85% of one-repetition maximum (1RM). The BFRRE consisted of four sets (first and l...
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - January 16, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: APPLIED SCIENCES Source Type: research

Physical Activity Associates with Muscle Insulin Sensitivity Postbariatric Surgery
Purpose Bariatric surgery is considered as an effective therapeutic strategy for weight loss in severe obesity. Remission of type 2 diabetes is often achieved after the surgery. We investigated whether increase in self-reported habitual physical activity associates with improved skeletal muscle insulin sensitivity and reduction of fat depots after bariatric surgery. Methods We assessed self-reported habitual physical activity using Baecke questionnaire in 18 diabetic and 28 nondiabetic patients with morbid obesity (median age, 46 yr; body mass index, 42.0 kg·m−2) before and 6 months after bariatric surger...
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - January 16, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: CLINICAL SCIENCES Source Type: research

Validation of the 6-min Walk Test for Predicting Peak V˙O2 in Cancer Survivors
Purpose To assess the quality of the relationship between V˙O2peak estimated from patient outcomes on the 6-min walk test (6MWT) and the V˙O2peak calculated from patient outcomes on the University of Northern Colorado Cancer Rehabilitation Institute (UNCCRI) treadmill protocol. Methods Cancer survivors (N = 187) completed the UNCCRI treadmill protocol and a 6MWT 1 wk apart in randomized order to obtain V˙O2peak. Values from the UNCCRI treadmill protocol were compared against four common 6MWT V˙O2peak prediction equations. Results All four 6MWT prediction equations significantly (P (Source: Medicine and Science ...
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - January 16, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: CLINICAL SCIENCES Source Type: research

Baseline Concussion Clinical Measures Are Related to Sensory Organization and Balance
This study aimed to examine relationships among baseline demographics, symptom severity, computerized neurocognitive outcomes, and balance performance in collegiate athletes. Methods Collegiate varsity athletes (N = 207, age = 19.3 ± 1.0 yr) participating in an ongoing clinical research program who completed concussion baseline assessments including a demographic questionnaire, a graded symptom checklist, a neurocognitive assessment, and the Sensory Organization Test (SOT) were included in this study. The SOT composite equilibrium score (COMP) and three sensory ratio scores—vestibular (VEST), visual (VIS), ...
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - January 16, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: CLINICAL SCIENCES Source Type: research

Health-related Outcomes after a Youth Sport–related Knee Injury
Conclusion Youth that suffer a sport-related knee injury demonstrate on average more negative health-related outcomes consistent with future osteoarthritis compared with uninjured matched controls 3–10 yr after injury. These negative outcomes differ by sex and time since injury. (Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise)
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - January 16, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: CLINICAL SCIENCES Source Type: research

Walking Ground Reaction Force Post-ACL Reconstruction: Analysis of Time and Symptoms
Conclusion Relative to asymptomatic individuals, symptomatic individuals are more likely to underload the ACLR limb early after ACLR (i.e., 24 months). We propose these differences in lower-extremity loading during walking might have implications for long-term knee health, and should be considered when designing therapeutic interventions for individuals with an ACLR. (Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise)
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - January 16, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: CLINICAL SCIENCES Source Type: research

Two-Year Agility Maintenance Training Slows the Progression of Parkinsonian Symptoms
Introduction Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative condition and it is unclear if long-term nonpharmaceutical interventions can slow the progression of motor and nonmotor symptoms and lower drug dose. Methods In a randomized trial, after an initial 3-wk-long, 15-session supervised high-intensity sensorimotor agility exercise (E) program designed to improve postural instability, the exercise+maintenance (E + M, n = 19) group continued to exercise three times per week for 2 yr, whereas E (n = 16), and the no exercise and no maintenance control (C, n = 20) continued habitual living. Eight outc...
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - January 16, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: CLINICAL SCIENCES Source Type: research

Role of Relative Malnutrition in Exercise Hypogonadal Male Condition
Conclusion Significant reversible hypogonadism can develop after intensive and prolonged exercise. One of the mechanisms of hypogonadism in endurance athletes performing intensive exercise could be relative malnutrition. Further studies to evaluate the role of nutrition and body mass index in male endurance athletes presenting with hypogonadism are needed to identify the underlying mechanism of this condition. (Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise)
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - January 16, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: CLINICAL SCIENCES Source Type: research

Sodium Hyaluronate and Platelet-Rich Plasma for Partial-Thickness Rotator Cuff Tears
Conclusion Our study provided evidence of the efficacy of PRP injection in the healing of small to medium PTRCT. Moreover, the combined injection of SH and PRP yielded a better clinical outcome than SH or PRP alone. (Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise)
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - January 16, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: CLINICAL SCIENCES Source Type: research

Motor Control and Learning: A Behavioral Emphasis, 6th Edition
No abstract available (Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise)
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - December 15, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: SPECIAL COMMUNICATIONS: Book Reviews Source Type: research

Essentials of Biostatistics in Public Health, 3rd Edition
No abstract available (Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise)
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - December 15, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: SPECIAL COMMUNICATIONS: Book Reviews Source Type: research

The Health Risks of Obesity Have Not Been Exaggerated
No abstract available (Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise)
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - December 15, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: SPECIAL COMMUNICATIONS: Contrasting Perspectives Source Type: research

The Health Risks of Obesity Have Been Exaggerated
No abstract available (Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise)
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - December 15, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: SPECIAL COMMUNICATIONS: Contrasting Perspectives Source Type: research

Beneficial Intervertebral Disc and Muscle Adaptations in High-Volume Road Cyclists
Conclusion Despite previous studies reporting higher than average prevalence of back pain in cyclists, the high-volume road cyclists in our cohort showed no anatomical or functional deficiency in spinal structures. By contrast, we found evidence for beneficial adaptations to the IVD and psoas muscles in high-volume cyclists compared with referents. These data support the notion that cycling is not detrimental to the spine, rather, by contrast, may be associated with beneficial changes at the spine. (Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise)
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - December 15, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: APPLIED SCIENCES Source Type: research

Mediating Effect of Muscle on the Relationship of Physical Activity and Bone
Conclusions Using robust mediation analysis, this is the first study addressing the indirect effect (through muscle) of PA across childhood and adolescence on proximal femur bone parameters. To improve bone health at the proximal femur, the results suggest PA interventions during growth that increase muscle mass, particularly in females. (Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise)
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - December 15, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: APPLIED SCIENCES Source Type: research

Fat-free Mass Characteristics of Muscular Physique Athletes
Purpose Simple body composition models, such as two-compartment models, use assumptions which may be violated in specific athletic populations (e.g., the constancy of fat-free mass density [DFFM] and hydration [TBW:FFM]). The present analysis examined FFM characteristics of muscular physique athletes. Methods Twenty-six athletes (16 males: 94.5 ± 9.9 kg, 12.2% ± 4.2% fat; 10 females: 63.8 ± 5.7 kg, 19.7% ± 4.9% fat) completed duplicate assessments of dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA), bioimpedance spectroscopy (BIS), and single-frequency and multifrequency bioelectrical impedance analy...
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - December 15, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: APPLIED SCIENCES Source Type: research

Supraspinal Fatigue and Neural-evoked Responses in Lowlanders and Sherpa at 5050 m
Conclusions Although neither MVC torque loss nor development of supraspinal fatigue was different between groups, neural-evoked responses and cerebral oxygenation indices were less perturbed in Sherpa. This represents an advantage for maintenance of homeostasis, presumably due to bequeathed genotype and long-term altitude adaptations. (Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise)
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - December 15, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: APPLIED SCIENCES Source Type: research