Acidosis, but Not Alkalosis, Affects Anaerobic Metabolism and Performance in a 4-km Time Trial
This study aimed to determine the effect of preexercise metabolic acidosis and alkalosis on power output (PO) and aerobic and anaerobic energy expenditure during a 4-km cycling time trial (TT). Methods: Eleven recreationally trained cyclists (V˙O2peak 54.1 ± 9.3 mL·kg−1·min−1) performed a 4-km TT 100 min after ingesting in a double-blind matter 0.15 g·kg−1 of body mass of ammonium chloride (NH4Cl, acidosis), 0.3 g·kg−1 of sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3, alkalosis), or 0.15 g·kg−1 of CaCO3 (placebo). A preliminary study (n = 7) was conducted to establish ...
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - August 17, 2017 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Applied Sciences Source Type: research

Information Acquisition Differences between Experienced and Novice Time Trial Cyclists
Purpose: To use eye-tracking technology to directly compare information acquisition behavior of experienced and novice cyclists during a self-paced, 10-mile (16.1 km) time trial (TT). Method: Two groups of novice (n = 10) and experienced cyclists (n = 10) performed a 10-mile self-paced TT on two separate occasions during which a number of feedback variables (speed, distance, power output, cadence, HR, and time) were projected within their view. A large RPE scale was also presented next to the projected information and participants. Participants were fitted with a head-mounted eye tracker and HR monitor. Results: Experien...
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - August 17, 2017 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Applied Sciences Source Type: research

Athletes Intending to Use Sports Supplements Are More Likely to Respond to a Placebo
Conclusions: Information about a harmful supplement worsened repeat sprint performance (a mean nocebo effect), whereas information about a beneficial supplement did not improve performance (no mean placebo effect was observed). However, participants' intention to use sport supplements influenced the direction and magnitude of subsequent placebo responses, with participants intending to use supplements more likely to respond to the positive intervention. (Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise)
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - August 17, 2017 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Applied Sciences Source Type: research

The Effects of Exercise Training on Anxiety in Fibromyalgia Patients: A Meta-analysis
Conclusion: Exercise training improves anxiety symptoms among FM patients. The findings also suggest that larger anxiety symptom reductions will be achieved by focusing on longer exercise programs while promoting long-term adherence. Future well-designed investigations are required to examine the potential moderating effect of pain-related improvements in FM patients. (Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise)
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - August 17, 2017 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Applied Sciences Source Type: research

Alpine Skiing as Winter-Time High-Intensity Training
Conclusions: Across all exercise modes and HIT protocols, high cardiorespiratory and metabolic responses were achieved regardless of age, sex, or fitness. EE during AS can be maximized by choosing the skiing mode “short turn skiing” in combination with an HITint to prolong the duration of continuous high-intensity loading during each descent. Therefore, all exercise modes and both HIT protocols are applicable and feasible in a broad spectrum of healthy subjects. (Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise)
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - August 17, 2017 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Applied Sciences Source Type: research

High-Intensity Interval Training, Appetite, and Reward Value of Food in the Obese
Conclusions: This study suggests that chronic HIIT has no independent effect on appetite or food reward when compared with an isocaloric program of MICT in obese individuals. (Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise)
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - August 17, 2017 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Applied Sciences Source Type: research

School and County Correlates Associated with Youth Body Mass Index
Conclusions: The results of the current study advance research on the correlates that are associated with youth obesity at both school and county levels. These factors should be taken into account by policy makers and researchers interested in childhood obesity research. (Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise)
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - August 17, 2017 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Risk of Fatty Liver: The Young Finns Study
Conclusions: In a population-based sample of adults, cardiorespiratory fitness is strongly, inversely and independently related with the risk of fatty liver. Importantly, the association is evident also among obese. (Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise)
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - August 17, 2017 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Cardiometabolic Correlates of Physical Activity and Sedentary Patterns in U.S. Youth
Conclusions: There is some indication that patterns, in addition to the total amount of physical activity and sedentary behavior, may be important for cardiovascular health in youth. Longitudinal studies are needed to examine associations between physical activity and sedentary behavior patterns and changes in CVD risk factors. (Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise)
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - August 17, 2017 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Objective Measures of Physical Activity and Cardiometabolic and Endocrine Biomarkers
Conclusions: Our data suggest that greater physical activity is modestly associated with favorable levels of cardiometabolic and endocrine biomarkers, where the strongest associations were found with accelerometer-measured physical activity. These associations may be only partially mediated through BMI, further supporting the role of physical activity in the reduction of cardiometabolic and endocrine disease risk, independent of adiposity. (Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise)
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - August 17, 2017 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Epidemiology Source Type: research

A Mechanism Underlying Preventive Effect of High-Intensity Training on Colon Cancer
We examined effects of high-intensity training on chemically induced aberrant crypt foci (ACF) in rat colon. We also investigated mechanisms that may underlie the results obtained, with a focus on secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine (SPARC), which has been proposed as an exercise-related factor of colon cancer prevention. Methods: After an administration of 1,2-dimethylhydrazine, F344 rats executed high-intensity intermittent swimming training (HIIST) (twelve 20-s swimming with a weight [16% body weight] with 10-s pauses between the bouts) 5 d·wk−1 for 4 wk. The acute and chronic effects of the HIIST...
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - August 17, 2017 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Basic Sciences Source Type: research

Are All Heat Loads Created Equal?
Purpose: We evaluated physiological responses during exercise at a fixed evaporative requirement for heat balance (Ereq) but varying combinations of metabolic and environmental heat load. Methods: Nine healthy, physically active males (age: 46 ± 8 yr) performed four experimental sessions consisting of 75 min of semirecumbent cycling at various ambient temperatures. Whole-body dry heat loss (direct calorimetry) was monitored continuously as was heat production (indirect calorimetry), which was adjusted to achieve an Ereq of 400 W. The resultant metabolic heat productions and ambient temperatures for the sessions wer...
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - August 17, 2017 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Basic Sciences Source Type: research

A Ketone Ester Drink Increases Postexercise Muscle Glycogen Synthesis in Humans
Introduction: Physical endurance can be limited by muscle glycogen stores, in that glycogen depletion markedly reduces external work. During carbohydrate restriction, the liver synthesizes the ketone bodies, D-β-hydroxybutyrate, and acetoacetate from fatty acids. In animals and in the presence of glucose, D-β-hydroxybutyrate promotes insulin secretion and increases glycogen synthesis. Here we determined whether a dietary ketone ester, combined with plentiful glucose, can increase postexercise glycogen synthesis in human skeletal muscle. Methods: After an interval-based glycogen depletion exercise protocol, 12 we...
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - August 17, 2017 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Basic Sciences Source Type: research

Effects of Dopamine and Norepinephrine on Exercise-induced Oculomotor Fatigue
Conclusion: Overall, our findings suggest that alterations in norepinephrinergic and dopaminergic neurotransmission are linked with the development of fatigue within circuits that control eye movements. Psychiatric medications that target central catecholamines can exert a protective effect on eye movements after prolonged exercise. (Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise)
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - August 17, 2017 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Basic Sciences Source Type: research

Angiopoietin-like 4 Enhances the Proliferation and Migration of Tendon Fibroblasts
Conclusion: Taken together, these findings provide novel molecular insights into the effect of ANGPTL4, a multifunctional protein that regulates the physiological response to exercise, on fundamental tendon cell functions. (Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise)
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - August 17, 2017 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Basic Sciences Source Type: research

Comparisons of Noninvasive Methods Used to Assess Exercise Stroke Volume in Heart Failure with Preserved Ejection Fraction
Conclusions: Constituting a clinically impactful step towards construct validation testing, these data suggest SVACET, SVECHO, and O2pulse demonstrate moderate-to-strong concurrent validity for measuring/predicting exercise SV in HFpEF. (Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise)
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - August 17, 2017 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Clinical Sciences Source Type: research

Sildenafil: Possible Prophylaxis against Swimming-induced Pulmonary Edema
We present a case of a 46-yr-old female ultratriathlete with a history of at least five SIPE episodes. During a study of an exercise submerged in 20°C water, physiological parameters before and after sildenafil 50 mg orally were as follows: O2 consumption 1.75, 1.76 L·min−1; HR 129, 135 bpm; arterial pressure 189/88 (mean 121.5), 172/85 (mean 114.3) mm Hg; mean PA pressure 35.3, 28.8 mm Hg; and PA wedge pressure 25.3, 19.7 mm Hg. She has had no recurrences during 20 subsequent triathlons while taking 50 mg sildenafil before each swim. This case supports sildenafil as an effective prophylactic agent against...
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - August 17, 2017 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Clinical Sciences Source Type: research

Medical Therapeutic Yoga: Biopsychosocial Rehabilitation and Wellness Care
No abstract available (Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise)
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - July 18, 2017 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: SPECIAL COMMUNICATIONS: Book Reviews Source Type: research

Musculoskeletal Physical Examination: An Evidence-Based Approach, 2nd Edition
No abstract available (Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise)
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - July 18, 2017 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: SPECIAL COMMUNICATIONS: Book Reviews Source Type: research

Firefighter Work Duration Influences the Extent of Acute Kidney Injury
Purpose: We tested the hypothesis that elevations in biomarkers of acute kidney injury are influenced by the magnitude of hyperthermia and dehydration elicited by two common firefighter work durations. Methods: Twenty-nine healthy adults (10 females) wearing firefighter protective clothing completed two randomized trials where they walked at 4.8 km·h−1, 5% grade in a 38°C, 50% RH environment. In the short trial, subjects completed two 20-min exercise bouts. In the long trial (LONG), subjects completed three 20-min exercise bouts. Each exercise bout was separated by 10 min of standing rest in an ~20°C ...
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - July 18, 2017 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Applied Sciences Source Type: research

Multiple-Transportable Carbohydrate Effect on Long-Distance Triathlon Performance
Conclusions: Multiple-transportable (2:1 maltodextrin/glucose–fructose) compared with single-transportable carbohydrate ingested in differing format provided a small benefit to long-distance triathlon performance, inferred as adoption worthy. Large sample in-competition randomized trials offer ecological validity, high participant throughput, compliance, and sensitivity for evaluation of health and performance interventions in athletes. (Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise)
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - July 18, 2017 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Applied Sciences Source Type: research

Energy Balance over One Athletic Season
Introduction: Magnitude and variation in energy balance (EB) components over an athletic season are largely unknown. Purpose: We investigated the longitudinal changes in EB over one season and explored the association between EB variation and change in the main fat-free mass (FFM) components in highly trained athletes. Methods: Eighty athletes (54 males; handball, volleyball, basketball, triathlete, and swimming) were evaluated from the beginning of the season to the main competition stage. Resting and total energy expenditure (REE and TEE, respectively) were assessed by indirect calorimetry and doubly labeled water, res...
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - July 18, 2017 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Applied Sciences Source Type: research

Comparable Neutrophil Responses for Arm and Intensity-matched Leg Exercise
Introduction: Arm exercise is performed at lower absolute intensities than lower body exercise. This may impact on intensity-dependent neutrophil responses, and it is unknown whether individuals restricted to arm exercise experience the same changes in the neutrophil response as found for lower body exercise. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the importance of exercise modality and relative exercise intensity on the neutrophil response. Methods: Twelve moderately trained men performed three 45-min constant load exercise trials after determination of peak oxygen uptake for arm exercise (V˙O2peak arms) and cycling (V˙O2p...
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - July 18, 2017 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Applied Sciences Source Type: research

Iron Deficiency and Anemia among Collegiate Athletes: A Retrospective Chart Review
Purpose: To describe the prevalence of anemia among incoming female college athletes and to characterize the results and expenses of iron-related testing at one National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I institution. Methods: In this retrospective medical record review, hemoglobin (Hgb) and ferritin laboratory values were obtained for student-athletes at a single institution, 2002 to 2014. Laboratories were collected either as part of the preparticipation examination (PPE) for female athletes, routine screening for cross-country athletes, or as needed for medical evaluation. Anemia was defined as Hgb (Source: Med...
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - July 18, 2017 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Applied Sciences Source Type: research

Sex-Specific Maximum Predicted Heart Rate and Its Prognosis for Mortality and Myocardial Infarction
Purpose: Maximum predicted heart rate (MPHR) is traditionally calculated by (220 − age). However, this formula's validity has been questioned in women. The purpose of this study was to derive sex-specific formulas for MPHR in a clinical population and compare their prognostic significance with the traditional formula. Methods: This was a retrospective cohort of adults referred for exercise treadmill testing between 1991 and 2009. Peak heart rate versus age was plotted by sex, and linear regression analysis was used to derive sex-specific MPHR formulas. Cox models were used to calculate risk of death and myocardial i...
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - July 18, 2017 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Applied Sciences Source Type: research

Variable Accuracy of Wearable Heart Rate Monitors during Aerobic Exercise
Purpose: Athletes and members of the public increasingly rely on wearable HR monitors to guide physical activity and training. The accuracy of newer, optically based monitors is unconfirmed. We sought to assess the accuracy of five optically based HR monitors during various types of aerobic exercise. Methods: Fifty healthy adult volunteers (mean ± SD age = 38 ± 12 yr, 54% female) completed exercise protocols on a treadmill, a stationary bicycle, and an elliptical trainer (±arm movement). Each participant underwent HR monitoring with an electrocardiogaphic chest strap monitor (Polar H7), forearm monito...
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - July 18, 2017 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Applied Sciences Source Type: research

Endocannabinoid and Mood Responses to Exercise in Adults with Varying Activity Levels
This study aimed to examine eCB and mood responses to prescribed and preferred exercises among individuals with low, moderate, and high levels of physical activity. Methods: Thirty-six healthy adults (21 ± 4 yr) were recruited from low (≤60 min moderate–vigorous physical activity [MVPA] per week), moderate (150–299 min MVPA per week), and high (≥300 MVPA per week) physical activity groups. Participants performed both prescribed (approximately 70%–75% max) and preferred (i.e., self-selected) aerobic exercise on separate days. Mood states and eCB concentrations were assessed before and after e...
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - July 18, 2017 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Applied Sciences Source Type: research

Effects of Mental Fatigue on Endurance Performance in the Heat
Purpose: Mental fatigue is a psychobiological state caused by prolonged periods of demanding cognitive activity and has been observed to decrease time trial (TT) endurance performance by ∼3.5% in normal ambient temperatures. Recently, it has been suggested that heat may augment the negative effect of mental fatigue on cognitive performance, raising the question whether it may also amplify the effect of mental fatigue on TT performance. Methods: In 30°C and 30% relative humidity, 10 endurance-trained male athletes (mean ± SD; age = 22 ± 3 yr, Wmax = 332 ± 41 W) completed two experimental condit...
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - July 18, 2017 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Applied Sciences Source Type: research

Effect of Knee Joint Angle and Contraction Intensity on Hamstrings Coactivation
This study investigated the effect of knee joint angle and contraction intensity on the coactivation of the hamstring muscles (when acting as antagonists to the quadriceps) in young and older individuals of both sexes. Methods: A total of 25 young (24 ± 2.6 yr) and 26 older (70 ± 2.5 yr) healthy men and women participated. Maximal voluntary isometric contraction of the knee extensors and flexors was assessed at two knee joint angles (90° and 60°, 0° = full extension). At each angle, participants performed submaximal contractions of the knee extensors (20%, 50%, and 80% maximal voluntary isometric...
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - July 18, 2017 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Applied Sciences Source Type: research

Contributions to Leg Stiffness in High- Compared with Low-Arched Athletes
Purpose: High-arched (HA) athletes exhibit greater lower extremity stiffness during functional tasks than low-arched (LA) athletes. The contributions of skeletal and muscular structures to stiffness may underlie the distinct injury patterns observed in these athletes. The purpose of this study was to compare skeletal and muscular contributions to leg stiffness in HA and LA athletes during running and landing tasks. Methods: Ten HA and 10 LA female athletes performed five overground running trials at a self-selected pace and five step off bilateral landing trials from a height of 30 cm. Three-dimensional kinematics and kin...
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - July 18, 2017 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Applied Sciences Source Type: research

Movement Strategies among Groups of Chronic Ankle Instability, Coper, and Control
Conclusions: CAI patients displayed altered movement strategies, perhaps in an attempt to avoid perceived positions of risk. Although sagittal joint positions seemed to increase the external torque on the knee and hip extensors, frontal joint positions appeared to reduce the muscular demands on evertor and hip abductor muscles. (Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise)
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - July 18, 2017 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Applied Sciences Source Type: research

The Preferred Movement Path Paradigm: Influence of Running Shoes on Joint Movement
Conclusions: Many runners stay in the same movement path (the preferred movement path) when running in various different footwear conditions. The percentage of runners maintaining their preferred movement path depends on the magnitude of the change introduced by the footwear condition. (Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise)
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - July 18, 2017 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Applied Sciences Source Type: research

Short-Term Exercise Training Alters Leukocyte Chemokine Receptors in Obese Adults
Obesity is characterized by chronic low-grade inflammation driven by activation and tissue infiltration of circulating leukocytes. Although exercise has anti-inflammatory effects, the impact of exercise on mediators of leukocyte migration is unclear. Purpose: To determine the impact of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) versus moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT), in the absence of weight/fat loss, on circulating chemokines and leukocyte chemokine receptors. Methods: Thirty-seven inactive obese adults were randomized to 2 wk (10 sessions) of HIIT or MICT with fasting blood samples collected before and after...
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - July 18, 2017 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Applied Sciences Source Type: research

Age Reduces Microvascular Function in the Leg Independent of Physical Activity
Conclusions: Aging was associated with reduced microvascular function in leg muscles, independent of PA. The findings also revealed good reliability for BOLD magnetic resonance imaging in OA for the soleus and anterior compartment muscles. (Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise)
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - July 18, 2017 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Applied Sciences Source Type: research

Effects of Descending Stair Walking on Health and Fitness of Elderly Obese Women
This study investigated the hypothesis that DSW would improve insulin sensitivity, lipid profiles and physical fitness better than ascending stair walking (ASW). Methods: Elderly (≥60 yr) obese women were placed to either DSW or ASW group (n = 15 per group). An elevator was used to eliminate ascending stairs for DSW, and descending stairs for ASW. Descending stair walking and ASW were performed twice a week for 12 wk by increasing the repetitions gradually. Overnight fasting blood samples were taken 3 d before the first training session and 4 d after the last training session, and analyzed for insulin sensitivity and l...
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - July 18, 2017 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Applied Sciences Source Type: research

Physical Activity and Global Self-worth in a Longitudinal Study of Children
Conclusion: Physical activity is associated with greater GSW, and this relationship appears to be mediated by BMI and aerobic fitness. These findings reinforce the importance of physical behaviors and physical characteristics in shaping GSW in children. (Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise)
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - July 18, 2017 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Physical Activity and Lifetime Risk of Cardiovascular Disease and Cancer
Conclusions: Compared with a poor PA level, the PA recommended by the World Health Organization was associated with lower lifetime risk of CVD, but not total cancer, in both men and women. (Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise)
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - July 18, 2017 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Using Activity Monitors to Measure Sit-to-Stand Transitions in Overweight/Obese Youth
Introduction: Reducing sedentary behavior has emerged as an important health intervention strategy. Although hip-worn, and more recently wrist-worn, accelerometers are commonly used for measuring physical activity and sedentary behavior, they may not provide accurate measures of postural changes. The current study examined the validity of commonly used hip- and wrist-worn accelerometer cut points and the thigh-worn activPAL activity monitor for measuring sit-to-stand transitions as compared with direct observation in youth with overweight and obesity. Methods: Nine children wore three activity monitors while being directl...
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - July 18, 2017 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Sedentary Behavior, Physical Activity, and Fitness—The Maastricht Study
Conclusions: Modest associations between sedentary behavior and CRF were observed. Replacing ST with LPA was associated with higher CRF, which could be of particular importance for individuals who cannot engage in HPA. Nonetheless, replacing ST with HPA was associated with greatest estimated change in CRF. (Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise)
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - July 18, 2017 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Targeting Reductions in Sitting Time to Increase Physical Activity and Improve Health
This report provides a knowledge update reflecting the rapid accumulation of new evidence related to sedentary behavior and health among adults. Recent observational studies suggest that leveraging the time-inverse relationship between sedentary and active behaviors by replacing sitting with standing, light- or moderate-intensity activity can have important health benefits, particularly among less active adults. Clinical studies are providing evidence of the probable physiologic mechanisms underlying these associations, as well as insights into the cardiometabolic impact of breaking up and reducing sedentary behavior. In c...
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - July 18, 2017 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Effect of Resistance Exercise on Muscle Metabolism and Autophagy in sIBM
Conclusions: These results demonstrate that RE had a preventive effect on sIBM induced by CQ treatment in an animal model. However, because the results were from an animal experiment, a more detailed study should be conducted over a longer period, and the effectiveness of different RE programs should also be investigated. (Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise)
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - July 18, 2017 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Basic Sciences Source Type: research

Lack of Activation of Mitophagy during Endurance Exercise in Human
This study aimed to determine whether fission and mitophagy are activated by acute endurance exercise in human skeletal muscle and to investigate if this activation is dependent upon the nutritional state. Methods: Trained athletes (n = 7) cycled for 2 h at 70% V˙O2peak in a fed or fasted state. Vastus lateralis muscle biopsies were obtained at baseline, before, immediately after, and 1 h after exercise. Protein and mRNA markers for mitophagy, mitochondrial biogenesis, fission, and fusion were analyzed using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western blot. Results: Fission, assessed by phospho-DRP1Ser6...
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - July 18, 2017 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Basic Sciences Source Type: research

Increased Fatigue Response to Augmented Deceptive Feedback during Cycling Time Trial
This study aimed to investigate the effect of different magnitudes of deception on performance and exercise-induced fatigue during cycling time trial. Methods: After three familiarization visits, three women and eight men performed three 5-km cycling time trials while following a simulated dynamic avatar reproducing either 100% (5K100%), 102% (5K102%), or 105% (5K105%) of the subject’s previous fastest trial. Quadriceps muscle activation was quantified with surface electromyography. Fatigue was quantified by preexercise to postexercise (10 s through 15 min recovery) changes in quadriceps maximal voluntary contractio...
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - July 18, 2017 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Basic Sciences Source Type: research

Central Contribution to Electrically Induced Fatigue depends on Stimulation Frequency
This study analyzed the impact of several protocols of neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES), matched with a similar total torque-time integral, on muscle activation pathways and neuromuscular fatigue. Methods: Ten young healthy participants (age, 24.6 ± 4.2 yr) performed three randomized NMES sessions on the triceps surae muscles with 20-, 60-, or 100-Hz stimulation frequencies (pulse duration, 1 ms), with pulse amplitude (IES) set at 20% of isometric maximal voluntary contraction (MVC). Muscle activity during NMES was assessed by means of the twitch, the soleus H-reflex and M wave responses evoked by single...
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - July 18, 2017 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Basic Sciences Source Type: research

Squatting Biomechanics in Individuals with Symptomatic Femoroacetabular Impingement
This study aimed to determine whether hip and pelvis biomechanics differ between individuals with and without symptomatic FAI during an unconstrained deep squat and a constrained squat designed to limit compensation by the pelvis and trunk. Methods: Fifteen participants with symptomatic cam-type or combined (cam plus pincer) FAI who were scheduled for arthroscopic surgery and 14 age- and sex-matched controls without FAI underwent three-dimensional motion analysis during the two squatting tasks. Trunk, pelvis, and hip kinematics and hip kinetics were compared between groups. Results: There were no between-group difference...
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - July 18, 2017 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Clinical Sciences Source Type: research

Continuous Cardiac Autonomic and Hemodynamic Responses to Isometric Exercise
Purpose: Elevated arterial blood pressure (BP) is associated with autonomic dysfunction and impaired hemodynamic control mechanisms. Isometric exercise (IE) training has been demonstrated effective at reducing BP; however, the continuous cardiovascular responses during IE are underinvestigated. We hypothesized that reflex autonomic cardiovascular control is an important mediator in reducing BP. To test our hypothesis, we investigated continuous cardiac autonomic modulation and baroreceptor reflex sensitivity (BRS) in response to IE. Methods: Twenty-five prehypertensive participants performed a single IE wall squat trainin...
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - July 18, 2017 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Clinical Sciences Source Type: research

Exercise Improves V˙O2max and Body Composition in Androgen Deprivation Therapy–treated Prostate Cancer Patients
We examined the effect of a 6-month program of aerobic and resistance exercise aimed at improving body composition and cardiorespiratory health in this population. Methods: Ninety-seven men (43–90 yr) with localized prostate cancer receiving ADT were randomized to either exercise (EX, n = 50) or usual care (CON, n = 47). Supervised exercise was undertaken twice weekly at moderate to high intensity. Measures of cardiorespiratory capacity (V˙O2max), resting metabolic rate, central blood pressure, hemodynamic variables, blood markers, and body composition were assessed. Results: There was a significant group–ti...
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - July 18, 2017 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Clinical Sciences Source Type: research

Mortality Risk Reductions from Substituting Screen Time by Discretionary Activities: Erratum
No abstract available (Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise)
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - June 17, 2017 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: SPECIAL COMMUNICATIONS: Errata Source Type: research

Effect of Exercise Intensity and Duration on Postexercise Executive Function—Erratum
No abstract available (Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise)
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - June 17, 2017 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: SPECIAL COMMUNICATIONS: Errata Source Type: research

Understanding Clinical Data Analysis: Learning Statistical Principles from Published Clinical Research
No abstract available (Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise)
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - June 17, 2017 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: SPECIAL COMMUNICATIONS: Book Reviews Source Type: research