Physical Activity and the Prevention of Weight Gain in Adults: A Systematic Review
Purpose To conduct a systematic literature review to determine if physical activity is associated with prevention of weight gain in adults. Methods The primary literature search was conducted for the 2018 Physical Activity Guidelines Advisory Committee and encompassed literature through June 2017, with an additional literature search conducted to include literature published through March 2018 for inclusion in this systematic review. Results The literature review identified 40 articles pertinent to the research question. There is strong evidence of an association between physical activity and prevention of weight g...
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - May 16, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: SPECIAL COMMUNICATIONS Source Type: research

Physical Activity in Cancer Prevention and Survival: A Systematic Review
Conclusions Levels of physical activity recommended in the 2018 Guidelines are associated with reduced risk and improved survival for several cancers. More research is needed to determine the associations between physical activity and incidence for less common cancers and associations with survival for other cancers. Future studies of cancer incidence and mortality should consider these associations for population subgroups, to determine dose–response relationships between physical activity and cancer risk and prognosis, and to establish mechanisms to explain these associations. (Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise)
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - May 16, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: SPECIAL COMMUNICATIONS Source Type: research

Physical Activity, Cognition, and Brain Outcomes: A Review of the 2018 Physical Activity Guidelines
Conclusions There is moderate-to-strong support that PA benefits cognitive functioning during early and late periods of the life span and in certain populations characterized by cognitive deficits. (Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise)
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - May 16, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: SPECIAL COMMUNICATIONS Source Type: research

Sedentary Behavior and Health: Update from the 2018 Physical Activity Guidelines Advisory Committee
Conclusions The results of the updated search add further evidence on the association between sedentary behavior and health. Further research is required on how sex, age, race/ethnicity, socioeconomic status, and weight status may modify associations between sedentary behavior and health outcomes. (Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise)
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - May 16, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: SPECIAL COMMUNICATIONS Source Type: research

High-Intensity Interval Training for Cardiometabolic Disease Prevention
Conclusions HIIT by adults, especially those with overweight and obesity classification, can improve insulin sensitivity, blood pressure, and body composition, comparable with those resulting from moderate-intensity continuous training. (Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise)
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - May 16, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: SPECIAL COMMUNICATIONS Source Type: research

Association between Bout Duration of Physical Activity and Health: Systematic Review
This study aimed to conduct a systematic literature review to determine whether physical activity episodes of (Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise)
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - May 16, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: SPECIAL COMMUNICATIONS Source Type: research

Daily Step Counts for Measuring Physical Activity Exposure and Its Relation to Health
Conclusions Daily step count is a readily accessible means by which to monitor and set physical activity goals. Recent evidence supports previously limited evidence of an inverse dose–response relationship of daily steps with important health outcomes, including all-cause mortality, cardiovascular events, and type 2 diabetes. However, more independent studies will be required before these observations can be translated into public health guidelines. (Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise)
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - May 16, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: SPECIAL COMMUNICATIONS Source Type: research

The US Physical Activity Guidelines Advisory Committee Report—Introduction
No abstract available (Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise)
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - May 16, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: SPECIAL COMMUNICATIONS Source Type: research

Women Experience the Same Ergogenic Response to Caffeine as Men
This study aimed to determine whether 1) consumption of caffeine improves endurance cycling performance in women and 2) sex differences exist in the magnitude of the ergogenic and plasma responses to caffeine supplementation. Methods Twenty-seven (11 women and 16 men) endurance-trained cyclists and triathletes participated in this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study. Participants completed an incremental exercise test to exhaustion, two familiarization trials, and two performance trials. Ninety minutes before the performance trials, participants ingested opaque capsules containing either 3 mg&m...
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - May 16, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: APPLIED SCIENCES Source Type: research

Functional Resistance Training and Affective Response in Female College-Age Students
This study compared the effects of an acute bout of both a functional RT (FRT) and traditional RT (TRT) session on affect, state anxiety enjoyment and physiological measures. Methods Females (n = 34, mean age = 27 ± 4.5 yr) not currently meeting American College of Sports Medicine RT guidelines completed four sessions (2 FRT, 2 TRT) within 4 wk in a randomized crossover design. Session 1 familiarized participants to the RT exercises. Session 2 consisted of 2 × 10 moderate intensity repetitions. Outcome measures included affect and state anxiety (preexercise, postexercise, and 15 min postexercise); enjoyment...
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - May 16, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: APPLIED SCIENCES Source Type: research

Fast Running Does Not Contribute More to Cumulative Load than Slow Running
Conclusions Running at a combination of slow and fast speeds, rather than a single moderate speed, increased cumulative vertical average loading rate but not cumulative tibial load or free moment. Fast running can be included in a training program without necessarily increasing the cumulative load. Total distance and average speed may not be sufficient information to estimate cumulative load from running training. (Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise)
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - May 16, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: APPLIED SCIENCES Source Type: research

Physical Activity and Sedentary Time: Association with Metabolic Health and Liver Fat
Conclusions Greater sedentary time, independent of other levels of PA, is associated with being metabolically unhealthy; even in habitually active people, lesser sedentary time, and higher cardiorespiratory fitness and average daily METS is associated with lower liver fat. (Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise)
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - May 16, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: APPLIED SCIENCES Source Type: research

Physical Activity, Sleep, and Symptoms of Depression in Adults—Testing for Mediation
Purpose Physical activity, sleep problems, and symptoms of depression contribute to overall well-being. The factors are reciprocally associated, but the nature of these associations remains unclear. The present study examined whether sleep problems mediated the association between physical activity and depressive symptoms. Methods The eligible population (n = 3596) consisted of adults from the ongoing, population-based Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study started in 1980. Participants’ leisure-time physical activity was assessed with physical activity index (2007) and sleep problems with Jenkins’ Sleep...
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - May 16, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: EPIDEMIOLOGY Source Type: research

Physical Activity and Cardiovascular Risk among Kidney Transplant Patients
Purpose Research examining the relationship between physical activity (PA) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors among kidney transplant recipients (KTR) is limited. Accordingly, we sought to 1) describe the levels of PA in KTR and 2) analyze the associations between PA levels and CVD risk factors in KTR. Methods Baseline data from KTR participants in a large multiethnic, multicenter trial (the Folic Acid for Vascular Outcome Reduction in Transplantation) were examined. PA was categorized in tertiles (low, moderate, and high) derived from a modified PA summary score from the Yale Physical Activity Survey. CVD ...
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - May 16, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: EPIDEMIOLOGY Source Type: research

Exercise Arrangement Is Associated with Physical and Mental Health in Older Adults
Conclusions Exercising alone and with others were better than no exercise for maintaining better PA, PF, and MH in both sexes. Although exercise arrangement had little effect on maintaining PF, exercising with others appears to enhance PA levels and MH in both sexes. (Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise)
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - May 16, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: EPIDEMIOLOGY Source Type: research

Blood Flow Restriction Only Increases Myofibrillar Protein Synthesis with Exercise
Purpose Combining blood flow restriction (BFR) with exercise can stimulate skeletal muscle hypertrophy. Recent observations in an animal model suggest that BFR performed without exercise can also induce anabolic effects. We assessed the effect of BFR performed both with and without low-load resistance-type exercise (LLRE) on in vivo myofibrillar protein synthesis rates in young men. Methods Twenty healthy young men (age = 24 ± 1 yr, body mass index = 22.9 ± 0.6 kg·m−2) were randomly assigned to remain in resting condition (REST ± BFR; n = 10) or to perform LLRE (LLRE ± BFR at 2...
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - May 16, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: BASIC SCIENCES Source Type: research

Effects of Obesity and Exercise on Bone Marrow Progenitor Cells after Radiation
Introduction The late effects of radiation therapy can have significant consequences for the health and quality of life of long-term cancer survivors. Radiation induces persistent alterations in hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPC) and the bone marrow environment; however, how relevant host factors such as obesity and exercise differentially regulate HSPC content and the bone marrow environment after radiation exposure remains unknown. The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate how the combination of obesity and exercise training modulates HSPC and their niche after sublethal radiation exposure in mice. ...
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - May 16, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: BASIC SCIENCES Source Type: research

Regulation of Hepatic Follistatin Expression at Rest and during Exercise in Mice
Conclusions These data suggest that both glucagon and epinephrine regulate hepatic FST expression at rest; however, only glucagon is required for the exercise-induced increase. (Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise)
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - May 16, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: BASIC SCIENCES Source Type: research

Exercise Training Prevents Doxorubicin-induced Mitochondrial Dysfunction of the Liver
Conclusion These findings demonstrate that endurance exercise training protects against DOX-induced liver mitochondrial dysfunction, which was attributed to modifications in organelle oxidative capacity and mitochondrial protein acetylation. (Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise)
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - May 16, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: BASIC SCIENCES Source Type: research

HIIT Improves Left Ventricular Exercise Response in Adults with Type 2 Diabetes
This study aimed to determine whether 3 months of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) improves left ventricular function during exercise in adults with type 2 diabetes. Methods Participants performed a V˙O2peak test and received a DXA scan and total blood volume measurement at baseline. Left ventricular end-diastolic volume (LVEDV), left ventricular end-systolic volume (LVESV), and left ventricular stroke volume (LVSV) were then measured at rest and during low- and moderate-intensity semirecumbent exercise in adults with type 2 diabetes before and after 3 months of HIIT (n = 11) or no training (control) (n = 5). Th...
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - May 16, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: CLINICAL SCIENCES Source Type: research

Similar Isokinetic Strength Preinjury and at Return to Sport after Hamstring Injury
Conclusion The distribution of isokinetic strength differences when comparing strength at RTS with preinjury measures was similar, urging clinical caution when interpreting these results. Small changes in the isokinetic strength of the injured limb at RTS compared with preinjury strength suggest that isokinetic cutoff values are not useful to guide the restoration of strength as a criterion for RTS after hamstring injury. (Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise)
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - May 16, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: CLINICAL SCIENCES Source Type: research

Biceps Femoris Long-Head Architecture Assessed Using Different Sonographic Techniques—Corrigendum
No abstract available (Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise)
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - April 13, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: SPECIAL COMMUNICATIONS: Corrigenda Source Type: research

Wrist-Worn Accelerometer-Brand Independent Posture Classification—Corrigendum
No abstract available (Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise)
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - April 13, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: SPECIAL COMMUNICATIONS: Corrigenda Source Type: research

Biomechanics of Training and Testing: Innovative Concepts and Simple Field Methods
No abstract available (Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise)
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - April 13, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: SPECIAL COMMUNICATIONS: Book Reviews Source Type: research

Annual Review of Immunology—Volume 36, 2018
No abstract available (Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise)
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - April 13, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: SPECIAL COMMUNICATIONS: Book Reviews Source Type: research

A Simple Method to Quantify the V˙O2 Mean Response Time of Ramp-Incremental Exercise
Conclusions In conclusion, the novel method proposed in the current study was found to be valid and highly reproducible in a test-retest design. Therefore, we advocate the use of this approach when a precise and accurate determination of the MRT is needed to properly align the V˙O2 data with power output during ramp-incremental exercise. (Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise)
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - April 13, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: SPECIAL COMMUNICATIONS: Methodological Advances Source Type: research

Using Machine Learning to Predict Lower-Extremity Injury in US Special Forces
Introduction Musculoskeletal injury rates in military personnel remain unacceptably high. Application of machine learning algorithms could be useful in multivariate models to predict injury in this population. The purpose of this study was to investigate if interaction between individual predictors, using a decision tree model, could be used to develop a population-specific algorithm of lower-extremity injury (LEI) risk. Methods One hundred forty Air Force Special Forces Operators (27.4 ± 5.0 yr, 177.6 ± 5.8 cm, 83.8 ± 8.4 kg) volunteered for this prospective cohort study. Baseline testing include...
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - April 13, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: APPLIED SCIENCES Source Type: research

Contribution of High School Sport Participation to Young Adult Bone Strength
Conclusions Former male interscholastic sport participants and female interscholastic power sport participants have stronger bones than peers even when adjusting for current PA. Muscle power did not fully explain differences in all bone outcomes, suggesting that sport participation has additional bone health benefits. (Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise)
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - April 13, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: APPLIED SCIENCES Source Type: research

Sex-Specific Longitudinal Modeling of Short-Term Power in 11- to 18-Year-Olds
Purpose To investigate, longitudinally, short-term power output in relation to sex and concurrent changes in age, body mass, fat-free mass (FFM), and maturity status. Methods Multiplicative multilevel modeling which enables the effects of variables to be partitioned concurrently within an allometric framework was used to analyze the peak power (PP) and mean power (MP) of 388 11- to 18-yr-olds. Multilevel models were founded on 763 (405 from boys; 358 from girls) determinations of PP and MP from Wingate anaerobic tests, supported by anthropometric measures and maturity status. Results In both sexes, PP and MP were s...
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - April 13, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: APPLIED SCIENCES Source Type: research

ACSM Preparticipation Health Screening Guidelines: A UK University Cohort Perspective
Purpose Preparticipation health screening is recommended to detect individuals susceptible to serious adverse cardiovascular complications during exercise. Although expert opinion and best available scientific evidence have informed recent modifications, there remain limited experimental data to support or refute current practice. We therefore aimed to quantify the impact of change to the preparticipation health screening guidelines of the American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) on risk classification and referral for medical clearance in a large cohort of undergraduate university students. Methods Participants att...
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - April 13, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: APPLIED SCIENCES Source Type: research

Validation of a Mobile Application Water Planning Tool for Road Race Event Organizers
Water planning is an important risk management concern for road race event organizers. Purpose To compare water and cup prediction outputs from a mobile application (app) planning tool against: 1) measured group sweat losses, 2) documented event water and cup usage, and 3) traditional mathematical planning solutions. Methods Group mean sweating rates (L·h−1) from 12 published outdoor running studies were each compared to 12 composite averages using the Road Race Water Planner© (RRWP) app. Estimated water (gallons) and cup (number) needs were also compared with documented usage at a large marathon ev...
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - April 13, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: APPLIED SCIENCES Source Type: research

Validity of Field and Laboratory Three-Compartment Models in Healthy Adults
Conclusions The present study found that all modified 3C models and DXA exhibited acceptable errors. When performed by expert personnel, a field-based 3C model appears to be a viable alternative to laboratory-derived models in healthy adults. (Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise)
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - April 13, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: APPLIED SCIENCES Source Type: research

pQCT- and Ultrasound-based Muscle and Fat Estimate Errors after Resistance Exercise
Conclusion Unaccustomed resistance exercise can cause errors in pQCT- and ultrasound-based muscle and adipose estimates for at least 72 h. These errors are the result of muscle swelling likely caused by muscle blood flow and inflammation-dependent fluid shifts in muscle. These findings may have implications for measurements in other inflammatory conditions. (Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise)
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - April 13, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: APPLIED SCIENCES Source Type: research

Impact of Acute Dietary Nitrate Supplementation during Exercise in Hypertensive Women
Conclusions In summary, an acute NR supplement improved functional sympatholysis by ~50% versus an NP placebo condition. Improvements in functional sympatholysis may have important implications regarding exercise tolerance in hypertensive PMW. (Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise)
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - April 13, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: APPLIED SCIENCES Source Type: research

Which Cutoffs for Secondary V˙O2max Criteria Are Robust to Diurnal Variations?
Conclusions The proposed high cut-off values for secondary criteria provide some assurance that V˙O2max may have been achieved in athletes without increasing type II errors. However, type I errors may still occur indicating that further methods such as V˙O2-plateau or V˙O2-validation may be required. (Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise)
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - April 13, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: APPLIED SCIENCES Source Type: research

Metabolic Implications of Diet and Energy Intake during Physical Inactivity
This study determined whether mild energy restriction preserves glycemic control during physical inactivity and whether this preservation is more effectively achieved with a higher-protein diet. Methods Ten adults (24 ± 1 yr) consumed a control (64% carbohydrate, 20% fat, 16% protein) and higher-protein diet (50% carbohydrate, 20% fat, 30% protein) during two 10-d inactivity periods (>10,000 → ~5000 steps per day) in a randomized crossover design. Energy intake was decreased by ~400 kcal·d−1 to account for reduced energy expenditure associated with inactivity. A subset of subjects (n = 5) com...
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - April 13, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: APPLIED SCIENCES Source Type: research

Acute Effects of Exercise Intensity on Insulin Sensitivity under Energy Balance
Exercise is known to improve insulin sensitivity (SI); however, studies to date have been confounded by negative energy deficits after exercise. Purpose The primary objective of this study was to assess the effect of 8 to 16 wk of aerobic exercise training on the SI of untrained women under rigorously controlled energy-balanced conditions. The secondary objective was to determine if one acute bout of moderate-intensity continuous (MIC) or high-intensity interval (HII) exercise further affected SI. Methods Insulin sensitivity was assessed in 28 untrained women at baseline, after 8 to 16 wk of training with no-exercise...
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - April 13, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: APPLIED SCIENCES Source Type: research

The Utility of Functional Near-infrared Spectroscopy for Measuring Cortical Activity during Cycling Exercise
Conclusions This study shows that fNIRS can robustly measure motor and cognitive task-evoked changes in brain activation during cycling exercise comparable to rest. An implication of these new findings is that fNIRS can be used to determine real-time changes in brain function during exercise in healthy and clinical populations. (Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise)
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - April 13, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: APPLIED SCIENCES Source Type: research

The Transcriptional Signature of a Runner’s High
Introduction Endorphins, endocannabinoids, monoamines, and neurotrophins have all been implicated in the euphoric response to endurance running, known as a runner’s high (RH). The epitranscriptional mechanisms regulating this effect have not been defined. Here, we investigate peripheral micro–ribonucleic acid (miRNA) changes unique to athletes experiencing postrun euphoria, yielding insights into gene networks that control an RH. Methods A cohort study involving 25 collegiate runners (48% females, age = 20 ± 1 yr) examined salivary RNA levels before and after a long-distance run. Participants were d...
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - April 13, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: APPLIED SCIENCES Source Type: research

Acute Exercise Effects among Young Adults with Analogue Generalized Anxiety Disorder
This study replicated initial findings of positive effects of acute vigorous-intensity aerobic exercise on worry, state anxiety, and feelings of energy and fatigue among young adult women with analogue GAD, examined responses among young adult men with analogue GAD, and explored sex-related differences and moderation by physical activity level, trait anxiety, depression, and poor sleep status. Methods Thirty-five young adults (21.4 ± 2.3 yr; 19 males; 16 females) with Penn State Worry Questionnaire scores ≥45 (60 ± 8) completed two counterbalanced 30-min conditions: treadmill running at ~71.2% ± ...
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - April 13, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: APPLIED SCIENCES Source Type: research

Quadriceps Impairment Is Associated with Gait Mechanics in Young Adults with Obesity
This study aimed 1) to compare gait biomechanics and quadriceps function between individuals with and without obesity and 2) to examine the association between quadriceps function and gait biomechanics. Methods Forty-eight individuals with and 48 without obesity participated and were matched on age and sex. Gait biomechanics at standardized and self-selected speeds were used to assess peak vertical ground reaction force (vGRF), vertical loading rate (vLR), internal knee extension moment (KEM), peak knee flexion angle (KFA), knee flexion excursion (KFE), and knee joint stiffness. Quadriceps function was assessed using pe...
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - April 13, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: APPLIED SCIENCES Source Type: research

The Effect of Cadence on the Mechanics and Energetics of Constant Power Cycling
Conclusions Cycling at a higher cadence is preferred to ensure that the muscle’s ability to produce positive power remains high. Further investigations are required to examine what feedback mechanism could be responsible for the optimization of this motor pattern. (Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise)
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - April 13, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: APPLIED SCIENCES Source Type: research

Activity Tracker to Prescribe Various Exercise Intensities in Breast Cancer Survivors
Conclusions Increases in PA time and cardiopulmonary fitness/V˙O2max can be achieved with both lower- and higher-intensity PA interventions in breast cancer survivors. Reductions in sedentary time were also noted in the lower-intensity PA group. (Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise)
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - April 13, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: APPLIED SCIENCES Source Type: research

Effective Weight Loss and Maintenance by Intensive Start with Diet and Exercise
Introduction This 24-month study aimed to determine whether exercise intervention added to weight loss treatment at 6 months is effective for weight loss and maintenance. Methods A total of 120 obese subjects (body mass index> 30) were randomly assigned to intensified behavioral modification (iBM) (n = 30), behavioral modification + exercise from 0 to 3 months (circuit weight training group 1 [CWT1]) (n = 30), behavioral modification + exercise from 6 to 9 months (CWT2) (n = 30), and a control group (CON) (n = 30). Health behavior, weight, waist circumference, and 2-h glucose tolerance test with insulin measurement...
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - April 13, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: APPLIED SCIENCES Source Type: research

Effect of Endurance Training on Hemoglobin Mass and V˙O2max in Male Adolescent Athletes
Purpose It is unknown, whether endurance training stimulates hemoglobin mass (Hbmass) and maximal oxygen uptake (V˙O2max) increases during late adolescence. Therefore, this study assessed the influence of endurance training on Hbmass, blood volume parameters, and V˙O2max in endurance athletes and control subjects from age 16 to 19 yr. Methods Hemoglobin mass, blood volume parameters, V˙O2max and anthropometric parameters were measured in male elite endurance athletes from age 16 to 19 yr in 6-month intervals (n = 10), as well as in age-matched male controls (n = 12). Results Neither the level of Hbmass per lean ...
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - April 13, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: APPLIED SCIENCES Source Type: research

Ischemic Preconditioning, O2 Kinetics, and Performance in Normoxia and Hypoxia
Introduction Ischemic preconditioning (IPC) before exercise has been shown to be a novel approach to improve performance in different exercise modes in normoxia (NORM). Few studies have been conducted examining potential mechanisms behind these improvements, and less has been done examining its influence during exercise in hypoxia (HYP). Oxygen uptake and extraction kinetics are factors that have been implicated as possible determinants of cycling performance. We hypothesized that IPC would lead to improvements in oxygen extraction and peripheral blood flow kinetics, and this would translate to improvements in cycling ti...
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - April 13, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: APPLIED SCIENCES Source Type: research

Physical Activity and Sedentary Behavior among US Hispanic/Latino Youth: The SOL Youth Study
Conclusions Time, intensity, and type of physical activity and sedentary behavior varied among Hispanic/Latino youth. These findings can inform efforts to increase physical activity and reduce sedentary behavior among US Hispanic/Latino youth. (Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise)
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - April 13, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: EPIDEMIOLOGY Source Type: research

Physical Activity from Childhood to Adulthood and Cognitive Performance in Midlife
Conclusions Cumulative exposure to PA from childhood to adulthood was found to be associated with better midlife reaction time. Furthermore, cumulative PA exposure in young adulthood and adulthood was associated with better visual processing and sustained attention in men. All associations were independent of participants PA level in other measured age frames. Therefore, a physically active lifestyle should be adopted already in childhood, adolescence, and young adulthood and continued into midlife to ensure the plausible benefits of PA on midlife cognitive performance. (Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise)
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - April 13, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: EPIDEMIOLOGY Source Type: research

Influence of Sex, Menstrual Cycle, and Menopause Status on the Exercise Pressor Reflex
In this review, we highlight the underlying mechanisms responsible for the sex differences in the exercise pressor reflex (EPR), and, importantly, the impact of sex hormones and menopausal status. The EPR is attenuated in premenopausal women compared with age-matched men. Specifically, activation of the metaboreflex (a component of the EPR) results in attenuated increases in blood pressure and sympathetic vasomotor outflow compared with age-matched men. In addition, premenopausal women exhibit less transduction of sympathetic outflow to the peripheral vasculature than men. In stark contrast, postmenopausal women exhibit an...
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - April 13, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: BASIC SCIENCES Source Type: research

No Thermoregulatory Impairment in Skin Graft Donor Sites during Exercise-Heat Stress
Conclusions Well-healed donor sites retain the ability to increase skin blood flow and sweating during exercise heat stress, providing evidence against the inclusion of donor sites when determining whether a burn injury meets the Army’s Standards of Medical Fitness. (Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise)
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - April 13, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: CLINICAL SCIENCES Source Type: research