High Habitual Physical Activity Improves Acute Energy Compensation in Nonobese Adults
This study examined the effect of objectively measured PA level on homeostatic (energy compensation) and hedonic (liking and wanting) responses to high-energy (HEP), low-energy (LEP), and control preloads. Methods: Thirty-four nonobese individuals were grouped by tertiles of accelerometry-measured habitual moderate-to-vigorous PA (low, LoMVPA; moderate, ModMVPA; high, HiMVPA), similar in age, sex, and body mass index. After a preliminary assessment, EI (fixed-energy breakfast and ad libitum lunch, dinner, and evening snack box meals) was determined for three probe meal days in which preloads varying in energy content (HEP...
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - October 18, 2017 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Applied Sciences Source Type: research

Assessment of Knee Kinematics in Older Adults Using High-Speed Stereo Radiography
Conclusions: Pivoting and step descending during walking had greater internal–external rotation and anterior–posterior translation than normal gait. Internal–external rotation and anterior–posterior translation were shown to have greater activity dependence, whereas varus–valgus rotation was consistent across activities. These results were similar to prior measurements in younger cohorts, though a trend toward reduced range of motion in the older adults was observed. (Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise)
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - October 18, 2017 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Applied Sciences Source Type: research

The Influence of External Load on Quadriceps Muscle and Tendon Dynamics during Jumping
Discussion: External loading positively influenced peak FT and RFDT but tendon strain appeared unaffected, suggesting no additive effect of external loading on patellar tendon lengthening during human jumping. Temporal analysis revealed that external loading resulted in a large initial RFDT that may have caused dynamic stiffening of the tendon and attenuated tendon strain throughout the movement. These results suggest that external loading influences tendon lengthening in both a load- and movement-dependent manner. (Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise)
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - October 18, 2017 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Applied Sciences Source Type: research

Effects of Two Years of Calorie Restriction on Aerobic Capacity and Muscle Strength
Conclusions: Two years of modest CR without a structured exercise component did not appear to compromise aerobic capacity in healthy nonobese adults. The clinical implications of the observed changes in V˙O2max and muscle strength will be important to explore in future studies. (Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise)
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - October 18, 2017 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Applied Sciences Source Type: research

A Ball Skills Intervention in Preschoolers: The CHAMP Randomized Controlled Trial
This study examined the effects of a ball skills intervention on ball skill competence among preschool-aged boys and girls. Methods: This is a two-armed randomized controlled trial. A total of 124 preschoolers (Mage ± SD = 48.14 ± 6.62 months) were randomly assigned to one of two groups, the Children’s Health Activity Motor Program (CHAMP; n = 81) or control (n = 43). FMS were measured before, after (9 wk), and at retention (18 wk) using the object control subscale of the Test of Gross Motor Development, Second Edition. Changes in ball skill scores were calculated (pretest–posttest, pretest&ndash...
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - October 18, 2017 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Applied Sciences Source Type: research

Changes in Health and Fitness in Firefighter Recruits: An Observational Cohort Study
Purpose: To observe longitudinal changes in health and fitness among firefighter recruits. Methods: Body composition, aerobic capacity, muscular power, muscular strength, and muscular endurance measures were longitudinally collected among 27 male firefighter recruits (mean ± SD, age = 29.9 ± 4.1 yr; height, 179.8 ± 4.6 cm; body mass, 87.2 ± 9.7 kg) at the beginning (W1) and end (W14) of their firefighter training academy, as well as at the end of their probationary period (W38). Results: Repeated-measures multivariate analyses of variance (RM MANOVA) identified significant changes across time ...
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - October 18, 2017 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Applied Sciences Source Type: research

Fitness Moderates Glycemic Responses to Sitting and Light Activity Breaks
Conclusions: Individuals with low CRF gained the most metabolic benefit from breaking prolonged sitting with regular bouts of light walking. (Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise)
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - October 18, 2017 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Applied Sciences Source Type: research

Cardiorespiratory Reference Data in Older Adults: The Generation 100 Study
Conclusions: This study represents the largest reference material on directly measured CRF and cardiorespiratory function in older men and women, with and without CVD. This novel information will help researchers and clinicians to interpret data form cardiopulmonary testing in older adults. (Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise)
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - October 18, 2017 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Applied Sciences Source Type: research

Power Training–induced Increases in Muscle Activation during Gait in Old Adults
Conclusions: Power training increased neuromuscular activation during isometric contractions and level gait in old adults. The power training–induced neuromuscular adaptations were associated with increases in isometric muscle strength and partly with increases in fast gait velocity. (Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise)
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - October 18, 2017 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Applied Sciences Source Type: research

Meta-analysis of Cigarette Smoking and Musculoskeletal Injuries in Military Training
Conclusions: Smoking is a moderate risk factor for musculoskeletal injury and may account for a meaningful proportion of injuries among men and women due to the high prevalence of smoking and injury in this population. Although enlistees are not allowed to smoke during basic training, their risk of injury remains high, indicating that smokers may remain at increased risk for medium- to long-term duration. (Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise)
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - October 18, 2017 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Individualized Estimation of Physical Activity in Older Adults with Type 2 Diabetes
Purpose: Compare physical activity intensity in older adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) using individualized, relative cutpoints with standard, absolute cutpoints. Methods: One hundred older adults with T2DM (68.9 ± 5.1 yr, 65% male, 32.7 ± 6.3 kg·m−2, 7.2% ± 1.1% glycosylated hemoglobin) completed a two-speed walking protocol (varying, walking between 1 and 2.5 mph), followed by a modified Bruce peak exercise test. Participants wore an accelerometer-based physical activity monitor at their waist, and oxygen consumption was measured. Afterward, participants wore the activity mon...
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - October 18, 2017 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Physical Activity Dimensions Associated with Impaired Glucose Metabolism
Purpose: Physical activity (PA) is important in the prevention of Type 2 diabetes, yet little is known about the role of specific dimensions of PA, including sedentary time in subgroups at risk for impaired glucose metabolism (IGM). We applied a data-driven decision tool to identify dimensions of PA associated with IGM across age, sex, and body mass index (BMI) groups. Methods: This cross-sectional study included 1501 individuals (mean (SD) age, 65.6 (6.8) yr) at high risk for Type 2 diabetes from the ADDITION-PRO study. PA was measured by an individually calibrated combined accelerometer and heart rate monitor worn for 7...
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - October 18, 2017 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Effects of a Long-Term Physical Activity Program on Activity Patterns in Older Adults
Conclusions: The PA intervention increased PA by shifting the composition of activity toward higher-intensity activity in longer-duration bouts. However, a long-term structured PA intervention did not completely eliminate overall declines in total daily activity experienced by mobility-impaired older adults. (Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise)
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - October 18, 2017 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Longitudinal Associations between Physical Activity and Educational Outcomes
Conclusion: The results provide evidence that physical activity in adolescence may not only predict academic success during compulsory basic education but also boost educational outcomes later in life. (Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise)
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - October 18, 2017 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Greater Oxidative Capacity in Primary Myotubes from Endurance-trained Women
Purpose: Exercise training promotes skeletal muscle mitochondrial biogenesis and an increase in maximal oxygen consumption. Primary myotubes retain some metabolic properties observed in vivo but it is unknown whether this includes exercise-induced mitochondrial adaptations. The goal of this study was to test if primary myotubes from exercise-trained women have higher mitochondrial content and maximal oxygen consumption compared with untrained women. Methods: Six trained and nine untrained white women participated in this study. Muscle biopsies from the vastus lateralis muscle of the right leg were obtained and primary mus...
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - October 18, 2017 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Basic Science Source Type: research

Impact of HSCT Conditioning and Glucocorticoid Dose on Exercise Adherence and Response
Conclusions: Exercise adherence during inpatient period is significantly affected by dose of GC treatment but not by condition regimen. However, given the reasonable adherence rates also in the GC-high group, data support the feasibility and importance of exercising for all allo-HSCT patients during the inpatient period. (Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise)
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - October 18, 2017 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Clinical Science Source Type: research

72-h Kinetics of High-Sensitive Troponin T and Inflammatory Markers after Marathon—Corrigendum
No abstract available (Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise)
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - September 19, 2017 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: SPECIAL COMMUNICATIONS: Corrigendum Source Type: research

Activity Recognition in Youth Using Single Accelerometer Placed at Wrist or Ankle—Erratum
No abstract available (Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise)
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - September 19, 2017 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: SPECIAL COMMUNICATIONS: Erratum Source Type: research

The Brain Injury Rehabilitation Workbook
No abstract available (Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise)
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - September 19, 2017 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: SPECIAL COMMUNICATIONS: Book Reviews Source Type: research

Writing Case Reports: A Practical Guide from Conception through Publication
No abstract available (Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise)
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - September 19, 2017 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: SPECIAL COMMUNICATIONS: Book Reviews Source Type: research

Pulmonary Vascular Function and Aerobic Exercise Capacity at Moderate Altitude
Purpose: There has been suggestion that a greater “pulmonary vascular reserve” defined by a low pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) and a high lung diffusing capacity (DL) allow for a superior aerobic exercise capacity. How pulmonary vascular reserve might affect exercise capacity at moderate altitude is not known. Methods: Thirty-eight healthy subjects underwent an exercise stress echocardiography of the pulmonary circulation, combined with measurements of DL for nitric oxide (NO) and carbon monoxide (CO) and a cardiopulmonary exercise test at sea level and at an altitude of 2250 m. Results: At rest, moderat...
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - September 19, 2017 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Applied Sciences Source Type: research

Breaks in Sitting Time: Effects on Continuously Monitored Glucose and Blood Pressure
We examined the effects of interrupting prolonged sitting with multiple 2-min walking breaks or one 30-min continuous walking session on glucose control and ambulatory blood pressure (ABP). Methods: Ten overweight/obese, physically inactive participants (five men; 32 ± 5 yr; BMI, 30.3 ± 4.6 kg·m−2) participated in this randomized four-trial crossover study, with each trial performed on a separate, simulated workday lasting 9 h: 1) 30 min of continuous moderate-intensity (30-min MOD) walking at 71% ± 4% HRmax; 2) 21 × 2 min bouts of moderate-intensity (2-min MOD) walking at 53% &plus...
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - September 19, 2017 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Applied Sciences Source Type: research

Providing Choice in Exercise Influences Food Intake at the Subsequent Meal
Conclusions: A lack of choice in exercise is associated with greater energy intake from “unhealthy” foods in recovery. This finding highlights the importance of facilitating an autonomy supportive environment during exercise prescription and instruction. (Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise)
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - September 19, 2017 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Applied Sciences Source Type: research

Effect of Prior Injury on Changes to Biceps Femoris Architecture across an Australian Football League Season
Conclusions: Athletes with a history of HSI end the season with shorter fascicles than they start. Limbs without a history of HSI display similar BFlh fascicle lengths at the end of the season as they begin with. All athletes increase fascicle length at the beginning of the season; however, the extent of the increase differed based on history of HSI. These findings show that a HSI history may influence structural adaptation of the BFlh in-season. (Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise)
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - September 19, 2017 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Applied Sciences Source Type: research

Environmental and Physiological Factors Affect Football Head Impact Biomechanics
Conclusions: We did not find any single or combination of predictors for impact severity. Rotational acceleration was approaching significance between our early experimental sessions when compared with our control session. More research should be conducted to better understand if rotational accelerations are a component of impact magnitudes that are affected due to changes in environmental conditions, body temperature, and hydration status. (Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise)
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - September 19, 2017 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Applied Sciences Source Type: research

Do Dynamic Fat and Fat-Free Mass Changes follow Theoretical Driven Rules in Athletes?
Introduction: Maximizing fat mass (FM) loss while preserving or increasing fat-free mass (FFM) is a central goal for athletic performance but the composition of body weight (BW) changes over time with training are largely unknown. Purpose: We aimed to analyze FM and FFM contributions to BW changes and to test if these contributions follow established rules and predictions over one athletic season. Methods: Seventy athletes (42 men; handball, volleyball, basketball, triathlon, and swimming) were evaluated from the beginning to the competitive stage of the season and were empirically divided into those who lost (n = 20) or...
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - September 19, 2017 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Applied Sciences Source Type: research

Longitudinal Physical Activity, Body Composition, and Physical Fitness in Preschoolers
This study aimed to investigate longitudinal associations of objectively measured physical activity (PA) and sedentary behavior (SB) with body composition and physical fitness at a 12-month follow-up in healthy Swedish 4-yr-old children. Methods: The data from the population-based MINISTOP trial were collected between 2014 and 2016, and this study included the 138 children who were in the control group. PA and SB were assessed using the wrist-worn ActiGraph (wGT3x-BT) accelerometer during seven 24-h periods and, subsequently, defined as SB, light-intensity PA, moderate-intensity PA, vigorous-intensity PA (VPA), and modera...
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - September 19, 2017 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Applied Sciences Source Type: research

Physical Activity, Not Sedentary Time, Predicts Dual-Energy X-ray Absorptiometry–measured Adiposity Age 5 to 19 Years
Conclusions: This study supports current PA guidelines focusing on MVPA rather than SED. The contribution of high TV, but not high SED, to high levels of adiposity suggests that TV’s contribution to obesity is not just a function of low energy expenditure. (Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise)
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - September 19, 2017 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Applied Sciences Source Type: research

Physical Activity and Abdominal Fat Distribution in Greenland
We examined how total volume of physical activity and reallocation of time spent at various objectively measured intensities of physical activity (PA) were associated with overall and abdominal fat distribution in adult Inuit in Greenland. Methods: Data were collected as part of a countrywide cross-sectional health survey in Greenland. A combined accelerometer and HR monitor measured total physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE) and intensities of PA (N = 1536). Visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) were assessed by ultrasonography. Isotemporal substitution modeling was used to analyze th...
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - September 19, 2017 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Applying the ACSM Preparticipation Screening Algorithm to U.S. Adults: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2001–2004
Conclusions: Although additional validation is needed to determine whether the algorithm correctly identifies those at risk for cardiovascular complications, the revised ACSM algorithm referred fewer respondents than other screening tools. A lower referral proportion may mitigate an important barrier of medical clearance from exercise participation. (Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise)
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - September 19, 2017 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Consistently High Level of Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Incidence of Type 2 Diabetes
Conclusions: Consistently higher level of CRF over time was associated with lower risk of T2DM. (Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise)
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - September 19, 2017 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Television Viewing Time and Inflammatory-Related Mortality
Conclusions: In summary, before adjustment for leisure-time physical activity, TV time was associated with increased risk of inflammatory-related mortality. This is consistent with the hypothesis that high TV viewing may be associated with a chronic inflammatory state. (Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise)
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - September 19, 2017 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Epidemiology Source Type: research

A Cluster RCT to Reduce Workers’ Sitting Time: Impact on Cardiometabolic Biomarkers
Purpose: To evaluate the initial and long-term impacts on cardiometabolic health indicators of the Stand Up Victoria intervention—a 12-month, multicomponent workplace-delivered intervention that successfully reduced overall sitting time, primarily by increasing standing time. Methods: Office worksites (≥1 km apart) from a single organization were cluster randomized to intervention (n = 7) or control (n = 7). Participants were 136 intervention and 95 control desk-based workers (5–39 per worksite; 68% women; mean ± SD age = 45.6 ± 9.4 yr). Outcomes, assessed at baseline (0 months), 3, and 12 mon...
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - September 19, 2017 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Systolic and Diastolic Left Ventricular Mechanics during and after Resistance Exercise
Purpose: To improve the current understanding of the impact of resistance exercise on the heart, by examining the acute responses of left ventricular (LV) strain, twist, and untwisting rate (“LV mechanics”). Methods: LV echocardiographic images were recorded in systole and diastole before, during and immediately after (7–12 s) double-leg press exercise at two intensities (30% and 60% of maximum strength, one-repetition maximum). Speckle tracking analysis generated LV strain, twist, and untwisting rate data. Additionally, beat-by-beat blood pressure was recorded and systemic vascular resistance (SVR) and ...
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - September 19, 2017 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Basic Sciences Source Type: research

Beetroot Juice Increases Human Muscle Force without Changing Ca2+-Handling Proteins
This study aimed to examine the effects of 7 d of beetroot juice (BRJ) supplementation on SkM contractile characteristics and function. Methods: Recreationally active males (n = 8) underwent transcutaneous electrical muscle stimulation of the vastus lateralis for the evaluation of contractile characteristics before and after 7 d of BRJ supplementation (280 mL·d−1, ~26 mmol NO3−). An additional group of individuals (n = 8) followed the same supplementation protocol but underwent SkM biopsies pre- and post-supplementation for the determination of proteins associated with calcium handling via Western blott...
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - September 19, 2017 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Basic Sciences Source Type: research

Physical Activity and Sleep Quality in Breast Cancer Survivors: A Randomized Trial
Purpose: Data from large randomized controlled trials confirming sleep quality improvements with aerobic physical activity have heretofore been lacking for post–primary treatment breast cancer survivors. Our primary purpose for this report was to determine the effects of a physical activity behavior change intervention, previously reported to significantly increase physical activity behavior, on sleep quality in post–primary treatment breast cancer survivors. Methods: Post–primary treatment breast cancer survivors (n = 222) were randomized to a 3-month physical activity behavior change intervention (Bett...
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - September 19, 2017 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Clinical Sciences Source Type: research

Achilles Tendon Load is Progressively Increased with Reductions in Walking Speed
This study used transmission-mode ultrasound to evaluate the influence of walking speed on loading of the human Achilles tendon in vivo. Methods: Axial transmission speed of ultrasound was measured in the right Achilles tendon of 33 adults (mean ± SD: age, 29 ± 3 yr; height, 1.725 ± 0.069 m; weight, 71.4 ± 19.9 kg) during unshod, steady-state treadmill walking at three speeds (slow, 0.85 ± 0.12 ms; preferred, 1.10 ± 0.13 m·s−1; fast, 1.35 ± 0.20 m·s−1). Ankle kinematics, spatiotemporal gait parameters and vertical ground reaction force were simulta...
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - September 19, 2017 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Clinical Sciences Source Type: research

Children with Burn Injury Have Impaired Cardiac Output during Submaximal Exercise
Introduction: Burn trauma damages resting cardiac function; however, it is currently unknown if the cardiovascular response to exercise is likewise impaired. We tested the hypothesis that, in children, burn injury lowers cardiac output (Q˙) and stroke volume (SV) during submaximal exercise. Methods: Five children with 49% ± 4% total body surface area (BSA) burned (two female, 11.7 ± 1 yr, 40.4 ± 18 kg, 141.1 ± 9 cm) and eight similar nonburned controls (five female, 12.5 ± 2 yr, 58.0 ± 17 kg, 147.3 ± 12 cm) with comparable exercise capacity (peak oxygen consumption [peak V...
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - September 19, 2017 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Clinical Sciences Source Type: research

Calculated versus Measured MVV—Surrogate Marker of Ventilatory CPET
Introduction: Maximum voluntary ventilation (MVV), a surrogate marker of maximum ventilatory capacity, allows for measuring ventilatory reserve during cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET), which is necessary to assess ventilatory limitation. MVV can be measured directly during a patient maneuver or indirectly by calculating from forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1 × 40). We investigated for a potential difference between calculated MVV and measured MVV in pediatric subjects, and which better represents maximum ventilatory capacity during CPET. Methods: Data were collected retrospectively from CPET conducted in ...
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - September 19, 2017 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Clinical Sciences Source Type: research

Scaling the Oxygen Uptake Efficiency Slope for Body Size in Cystic Fibrosis
Conclusions: Only allometric scaling of either BM or BSA, and not ratio-standard scaling, successfully eliminates the influence of body size upon OUES. Therefore, this enables a more direct comparison of the OUES between patients with CF and healthy controls. (Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise)
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - September 19, 2017 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Clinical Sciences Source Type: research

Solid Organ Laceration in an Adolescent Soccer Player: A Case Report
Pediatric solid organ lacerations are a relatively uncommon but potentially dangerous injury that must be addressed urgently once recognized. Seen most often during recreational or team sports, they usually occur after a blunt or deceleration mechanism to the abdomen or flank. Depending on the severity of injury, solid organ laceration may not be immediately apparent clinically. This emphasizes the importance of sideline witnessing and evaluation, acting quickly once symptoms develop, and placing importance on safe sporting technique. In addition, management has changed over time to favor medical management for minor injur...
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - September 19, 2017 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Clinical Sciences Source Type: research

Surgical Exposures in Orthopaedics: The Anatomic Approach, Fifth Edition
No abstract available (Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise)
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - August 17, 2017 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: SPECIAL COMMUNICATIONS: Book Reviews Source Type: research

Evolutionary Thinking in Medicine: From Research to Policy and Practice
No abstract available (Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise)
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - August 17, 2017 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: SPECIAL COMMUNICATIONS: Book Reviews Source Type: research

Ensemble Methods for Classification of Physical Activities from Wrist Accelerometry
Conclusions: Combining multiple individual classifiers using conventional or custom ensemble learning methods can improve activity recognition accuracy from wrist-worn accelerometer data. (Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise)
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - August 17, 2017 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: SPECIAL COMMUNICATIONS: Methodological Advances Source Type: research

Slow Intermuscular Oscillations are Associated with Cocontraction Steadiness
Purpose: Voluntary muscle contraction often involves low-frequency correlated neural oscillations across muscles, which may degrade steady cocontraction between antagonistic muscles with distinct levels of activation per each muscle (unbalanced cocontraction). The purposes of the study were 1) to determine whether there is an association between the low-frequency correlated EMG oscillations and the performance of steady unbalanced cocontraction across individuals and 2) to determine whether a bout of out-of-phase cocontraction practice reduces the in-phase low-frequency correlated neural oscillations and improves the perfo...
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - August 17, 2017 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Applied Sciences Source Type: research

Practicing the Test Produces Strength Equivalent to Higher Volume Training
Conclusions: These findings suggest that neither exercise volume nor the change in muscle size from training contributed to greater strength gains compared with just practicing the test. (Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise)
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - August 17, 2017 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Applied Sciences Source Type: research

Physical Activity Assessment with the ActiGraph GT3X and Doubly Labeled Water
Conclusions: Accelerometer measures that represent total activity volume, including TAC per day, steps per day, and PAEE, were more highly correlated with DLW-determined PAEE than MVPA using traditional thresholds and should be considered by researchers seeking to reduce accelerometer data to a single metric. (Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise)
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - August 17, 2017 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Applied Sciences Source Type: research

Acute Metabolic Response, Energy Expenditure, and EMG Activity in Sitting and Standing
Purpose: While merely standing up interrupts sedentary behavior, it is important to study acute metabolic responses during single bouts of sitting and standing to understand the physiological processes affecting the health of office workers. Methods: Eighteen healthy middle-age women 49.4 ± 7.9 yr old (range: 40–64) with a body mass index of 23.4 ± 2.8 kg·m−2 volunteered for this laboratory-based randomized crossover trial where they performed 2 h desk work in either sitting or standing postures after overnight fasting. Muscle activity (normalized to walking at 5 km·h−1), resp...
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - August 17, 2017 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Applied Sciences Source Type: research

Technical Alterations during an Incremental Field Test in Elite Male Tennis Players
Purpose: We investigated technical and physiological responses along with their relationships during an incremental field test to exhaustion specific to tennis (TEST) in elite players. Methods: Twenty male elite tennis players completed TEST, which consisted of hitting alternatively forehand and backhand strokes at increasing ball frequency (ball machine) every minute. Ball accuracy (BA), ball velocity (BV), and tennis performance (TP) index (TP = BA × BV) were determined by radar and video analysis for each stroke, in addition to cardiorespiratory responses and blood lactate concentrations. Results: At low intensi...
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - August 17, 2017 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Applied Sciences Source Type: research

The Gas Sampling Interval Effect on V˙O2peak Is Independent of Exercise Protocol
Introduction: There is a plethora of gas sampling intervals available during cardiopulmonary exercise testing to measure peak oxygen consumption (V˙O2peak). Different intervals can lead to altered V˙O2peak. Whether differences are affected by the exercise protocol or subject sample is not clear. The purpose of this investigation was to determine whether V˙O2peak differed because of the manipulation of sampling intervals and whether differences were independent of the protocol and subject sample. Methods: The first subject sample (24 ± 3 yr; V˙O2peak via 15-breath moving averages: 56.2 ± 6.8 mL·kg&...
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - August 17, 2017 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Applied Sciences Source Type: research