Heavy-Load Lifting: Acute Response in Breast Cancer Survivors at Risk for Lymphedema
ConclusionsLow- and heavy-load resistance exercise elicited similar acute responses in arm swelling and breast cancer–related lymphedema symptoms in women at risk for lymphedema receiving adjuvant taxane-based chemotherapy. These represent important preliminary findings, which can be used to inform future prospective evaluation of the long-term effects of repeated exposure to heavy-load resistance exercise. Purpose Despite a paucity of evidence, prevention guidelines typically advise avoidance of heavy lifting in an effort to protect against breast cancer–related lymphedema. This study compared acute respon...
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - January 17, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Clinical Sciences Source Type: research

Exercise Prescription and Adherence for Breast Cancer: One Size Does Not FITT All
ABSTRACTPurposeTo prospectively assess adherence to oncologist-referred, exercise programming consistent with current recommendations for cancer survivors among women with early breast cancer across the trajectory of adjuvant treatment.MethodsSixty-eight women participated in supervised, hour-long, moderate-intensity, aerobic, and resistance exercise thrice per week during adjuvant chemotherapy ± radiation, with a step-down in frequency for 20 additional weeks. Adherence to exercise frequency (i.e., attendance), intensity, and time/duration, and barriers to adherence were tracked and compared during chemotherapy ver...
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - January 17, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Clinical Sciences Source Type: research

Greater Effect of East versus West Travel on Jet Lag, Sleep, and Team Sport Performance—Erratum
No abstract available (Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise)
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - January 16, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: SPECIAL COMMUNICATIONS: Errata Source Type: research

Calculated versus Measured MVV—Surrogate Marker of Ventilatory CPET—Erratum
No abstract available (Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise)
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - January 16, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: SPECIAL COMMUNICATIONS: Errata Source Type: research

Assessment of Parasympathetic Activity in Athletes: Comparing Two Different Methods—RETRACTION
No abstract available (Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise)
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - January 16, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: SPECIAL COMMUNICATIONS: Retraction Source Type: research

Athletic Footwear and Orthoses in Sports Medicine, 2nd Edition
No abstract available (Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise)
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - January 16, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: SPECIAL COMMUNICATIONS: Book Reviews Source Type: research

Muscle and Tendon Injuries: Evaluation and Management
No abstract available (Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise)
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - January 16, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: SPECIAL COMMUNICATIONS: Book Reviews Source Type: research

An Innovative Ergometer to Measure Neuromuscular Fatigue Immediately after Cycling
This study aimed to determine the reliability of an innovative cycling ergometer permitting the start of fatigue measurement within 1 s after cycling.MethodsTwelve subjects participated in two experimental sessions. Knee-extensor NMF was assessed by electrical nerve and transcranial magnetic stimulation with both a traditional chair setup (PRE- and POST-Chair, 2 min postexercise) and the new cycling ergometer (PRE, every 3 min during incremental exercise and POST-Bike, at task failure).ResultsThe reduction in maximal voluntary contraction force POST-Bike (63% ± 12% PRE; P (Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise)
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - January 16, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: SPECIAL COMMUNICATIONS: Methodological Advances Source Type: research

Exercise Oscillatory Ventilation: Interreviewer Agreement and a Novel Determination
ConclusionsInterreviewer agreement for EOV in patients with HF is fair to moderate, which can negatively affect risk stratification. VDI has strong predictive validity with EOV; as such, it might be a useful measure of prognosis in patients with HF. Introduction Determination of exercise oscillatory ventilation (EOV) is subjective, and the interreviewer agreement has not been reported. The purposes of this study were, among patients with heart failure (HF), as follows: 1) to determine the interreviewer agreement for EOV and 2) to describe a novel, objective, and quantifiable measure of EOV. Methods This was a second...
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - January 16, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: SPECIAL COMMUNICATIONS: Methodological Advances Source Type: research

Genetic Variants and Hamstring Injury in Soccer: An Association and Validation Study
This study aimed to investigate the association of candidate single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) with noncontact hamstring muscle injuries in elite soccer players and to create and validate a model to assess the risk of hamstring injury.MethodsA total of 107 elite male outfield players were prospectively followed for six seasons. Players were genotyped for 37 SNP previously investigated in relation to musculoskeletal injuries. The association of SNP, previous injury, age, level of play, position, and anthropometric data with 129 hamstring injuries (413 observations) was investigated in the discovery phase (2010–201...
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - January 16, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Applied Sciences Source Type: research

Mountain Cycling Ultramarathon Effects on Inflammatory and Hemoglobin Responses
ConclusionsPresent findings support a comodulatory influence of genetic- and exercise-associated factors on resulting inflammatory and hemoglobin catabolic marker Hp after highly demanding endurance exercise. Purpose This study aimed to analyze the cumulative physiological burden of repetitive, strenuous exercise held during mountain cycling ultramarathon on regulatory mechanisms of hemoglobin degradation. Methods Fifty-five nonprofessional athletes (mean age, 44.8 ± 7.1 yr) participating in a 9-consecutive-day mountain cycling ultramarathon (TransPortugal) underwent anthropometric, hematological, and biochem...
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - January 16, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Applied Sciences Source Type: research

The Effect of Acute Taurine Ingestion on Human Maximal Voluntary Muscle Contraction
ConclusionsTaurine ingestion is detrimental to maximal voluntary muscle power and both maximal isokinetic and isometric peak torque in noncaffeine consumers, whereas taurine ingestion in caffeine-deprived caffeine consumers improves maximal voluntary muscle power but has no effect on other aspects of contractile performance. Purpose This study aimed to examine the effect of taurine ingestion on maximal voluntary muscle torque and power in trained male athletes with different caffeine habits. Methods Fourteen male athletes 21.8 ± 2.5 yr old were separated into caffeine and noncaffeine consumers to control for ...
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - January 16, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Applied Sciences Source Type: research

Mechanisms of Fatigue and Recovery in Upper versus Lower Limbs in Men
ABSTRACTPurposeTo compare the mechanisms of fatigue and recovery between upper and lower limbs in the same subjects.MethodsTwelve healthy young men performed a 2-min sustained maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVC) of the knee extensors (KE) and on another day a 2-min MVC of the elbow flexors (EF). Neuromuscular function evaluations were performed with both transcranial magnetic and peripheral stimulations before (PRE), at the end of the 2-min MVC, and five more times within 8 min of recovery.ResultsDecreases in MVC and cortical voluntary activation were approximately 12% (P 0.05), whereas the increase in silent per...
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - January 16, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Applied Sciences Source Type: research

Exercise-induced Bronchoconstriction with Firefighting Contained Breathing Apparatus
ConclusionsThe SCBA does not increase the propensity or severity for EIB in subjects with BHR. Those subjects with asthma but no BHR to inhaled mannitol did not exhibit EIB. The BHR to a hyperosmolar stimulus maybe considered a useful screening tool for potential recruits with a history of asthma. Purpose Protective self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA) used for firefighting delivers decompressed (cold) dehumidified air that may enhance the severity of exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB) in those susceptible. We investigated the effect of SCBA during exercise on airway caliber in people with asthma and healt...
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - January 16, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Applied Sciences Source Type: research

Does a Prolonged Work Day in the Heat Impair Heat Loss on the Next Day in Young Men?
ConclusionsWhen assessed under controlled laboratory conditions in young men, prolonged work in the heat does not seem to impair whole-body heat loss or exacerbate heat storage on the following day. Purpose Heat strain is known to be exacerbated on the second of consecutive work days. We therefore evaluated whether prolonged work in the heat would impair whole-body heat loss capacity on the next day. Methods To evaluate this possibility, we assessed changes in whole-body heat exchange and heat storage in eight young (26 ± 4 yr) men during heat stress tests performed on the same day before (day 1) and on the d...
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - January 16, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Applied Sciences Source Type: research

Kinetic Compensations due to Chronic Ankle Instability during Landing and Jumping
ConclusionsCAI patients seemed to use a hip-dominant strategy by increasing the hip extension moment, stiffness, and eccentric and concentric power during landing and jumping. This apparent compensation may be due to decreased capabilities to produce sufficient joint moment, stiffness, and power at the ankle and knee. These differences might have injury risk and performance implications. Introduction Skeletal muscles absorb and transfer kinetic energy during landing and jumping, which are common requirements of various forms of physical activity. Chronic ankle instability (CAI) is associated with impaired neuromuscular...
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - January 16, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Applied Sciences Source Type: research

Maximum Skin Wettedness after Aerobic Training with and without Heat Acclimation
ABSTRACTPurposeTo quantify how maximum skin wettedness (ωmax); that is, the determinant of the boundary between compensable and uncompensable heat stress, is altered by aerobic training in previously unfit individuals and further augmented by heat acclimation.MethodsEight untrained individuals completed an 8-wk aerobic training program immediately followed by 8 d of hot/humid (38°C, 65%RH) heat acclimation. Participants completed a humidity ramp protocol pretraining (PRE-TRN), posttraining (POST-TRN), and after heat acclimation (POST-HA), involving treadmill marching at a heat production of 450 W for 105 min in 3...
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - January 16, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Applied Sciences Source Type: research

Physical Fitness in Young Men between 1975 and 2015 with a Focus on the Years 2005–2015
DiscussionThe present study shows that the increase in mean body mass of young male conscripts has slowed down during the last 10 yr. However, their aerobic capacity has still decreased during recent decades. In addition, the proportion of conscripts with poor muscle fitness has increased. From the national defense and health perspective, more initiatives are needed to encourage young men to increase their level of daily physical activity to be fit and ready for operations. Purpose The purpose of the present study was to investigate changes in physical fitness and anthropometry of young men entering the military servic...
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - January 16, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Applied Sciences Source Type: research

Epidemiology of Youth Boys’ and Girls’ Lacrosse Injuries in the 2015 to 2016 Seasons
ConclusionsBoys’ lacrosse has a higher injury incidence than girls’ lacrosse, reflecting the contact nature of the boys’ game. The high incidence of stick- and ball-related injuries suggests the need for youth-specific rules to better protect youth players. Purpose Examinations of injury among younger populations of lacrosse players that are beginning their development is limited. This study describes the epidemiology of youth boys’ and girls’ lacrosse injuries during the 2015 to 2016 seasons. Methods Surveillance data originated from a convenience sample of 10 leagues in five states wi...
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - January 16, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Objectively Measured Physical Activity and Risk of Knee Osteoarthritis
This study aimed to examine the association between objectively measured physical activity and risk of developing incident knee osteoarthritis (OA) in a community-based cohort of middle-age and older adults.MethodsWe used data from the Osteoarthritis Initiative, an ongoing prospective cohort study of adults 45 to 83 yr of age at initial enrollment with elevated risk of symptomatic knee OA. Moderate–vigorous physical activity (MVPA) was measured by a uniaxial accelerometer for seven continuous days in two data collection cycles and was categorized as inactive ( (Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise)
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - January 16, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Measurement of Active and Sedentary Behavior in Context of Large Epidemiologic Studies
ConclusionsNew exposure assessments suitable for use in large epidemiologic studies (ACT24, ActiGraph) were more accurate and had higher correlations than a traditional questionnaire. Use of better more comprehensive measures in future epidemiologic studies could yield new etiologic discoveries and possibly new opportunities for prevention. Introduction/Purpose To assess the utility of measurement methods that may be more accurate and precise than traditional questionnaire-based estimates of habitual physical activity and sedentary behavior we compared the measurement properties of a past year questionnaire (AARP) and ...
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - January 16, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Accelerometer-assessed Physical Activity in Epidemiology: Are Monitors Equivalent?
ConclusionsGENEActiv and Axivity data processed in GGIR are largely equivalent. If GENEActiv or Axivity is compared with the ActiGraph, time spent within intensity cut points has good agreement. These findings can be used to inform selection of appropriate outcomes if outputs from these accelerometer brands are compared. Purpose Accelerometers are increasingly being used to assess physical activity in large-scale surveys. Establishing whether key physical activity outcomes can be considered equivalent between three widely used accelerometer brands would be a significant step toward capitalizing on the increasing availa...
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - January 16, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Epidemiology Source Type: research

A Youth Compendium of Physical Activities: Activity Codes and Metabolic Intensities
ConclusionThis Youth Compendium of Physical Activities uses pediatric data exclusively, addresses the age dependency of METy, and imputes missing METy values and thus represents advancement in physical activity research and practice. This Youth Compendium will be a valuable resource for stakeholders interested in evaluating interventions, programs, and policies designed to assess and encourage physical activity in youth. Purpose A Youth Compendium of Physical Activities (Youth Compendium) was developed to estimate the energy costs of physical activities using data on youth only. Methods On the basis of a literature ...
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - January 16, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Caffeine Ingestion Attenuates Fatigue-induced Loss of Muscle Torque Complexity
ABSTRACTThe temporal structure, or complexity, of muscle torque output decreases with neuromuscular fatigue. The role of central fatigue in this process is unclear.PurposeWe tested the hypothesis that caffeine administration would attenuate the fatigue-induced loss of torque complexity.MethodsEleven healthy participants performed intermittent isometric contractions of the knee extensors to task failure at a target torque of 50% maximal voluntary contraction, with a 60% duty factor (6-s contraction, 4-s rest), 60 min after ingesting 6 mg·kg−1 caffeine or a placebo. Torque and surface EMG signals were sampled co...
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - January 16, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Basic Sciences Source Type: research

Effect of Losartan on the Acute Response of Human Elderly Skeletal Muscle to Exercise
ConclusionsIn general, there does not seem to be any effect of AT1R blocking on satellite cell number or myogenic pathways in elderly men in the days after one bout of heavy-resistance exercise. However, the greater suppression of myostatin may prove to be beneficial over a long-term intervention designed to induce hypertrophy. Purpose To investigate the effect of blocking the angiotensin II Type I receptor (AT1R) upon the response to acute heavy-resistance exercise in elderly human skeletal muscle. The hypothesis was that AT1R blocking would result in a superior myogenic response accompanied by down-regulation of tran...
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - January 16, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Basic Sciences Source Type: research

Neural Correlates to the Increase in Maximal Force after Dexamethasone Administration
This study investigated the effects of short-term glucocorticoid administration on voluntary activation and intracortical inhibitory and facilitatory circuits.MethodsSeventeen healthy men participated in a pseudorandomized double-blind study to receive either dexamethasone (8 mg·d−1, n = 9 subjects) or placebo (n = 8 subjects) for 7 d. The ankle dorsiflexion torque, corresponding EMG of the tibialis anterior, and voluntary activation assessed by the interpolated twitch method using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) were measured during a maximal voluntary contraction (MVC). Short-latency intracortical in...
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - January 16, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Basic Sciences Source Type: research

Quadriceps Function and Knee Joint Ultrasonography after ACL Reconstruction
ABSTRACTPurposeIndividuals with anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR) are at greater risk for knee osteoarthritis, partially because of chronic quadriceps dysfunction. Articular cartilage is commonly assessed using magnetic resonance imaging and radiography, but these methods are expensive and lack portability. Ultrasound imaging may provide a cost-effective and portable alternative for imaging the femoral cartilage. The purpose of this study was to compare ultrasonography of the femoral cartilage between the injured and uninjured limbs of individuals with unilateral ACLR, and to examine the association between ...
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - January 16, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Clinical Sciences Source Type: research

Challenges with Percent Predicted Maximal V˙O2 in Patients with Heart Failure
This study aimed to describe the influence of different equations to predict maximal oxygen uptake (MV˙O2) on the percent predicted MV˙O2 (ppMV˙O2) and the resultant categorization of patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction into high or low risk.MethodsIn this retrospective cohort study, ppMV˙O2 was calculated using six different equations to predict MV˙O2 among 1168 patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (33% women). Repeated-measures ANOVA was used to compare within-subject differences in mean ppMV˙O2 between the prediction equations. Cochrane’s Q test was used to compar...
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - January 16, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Clinical Sciences Source Type: research

Absence of Fitness Improvement Is Associated with Outcomes in Heart Failure Patients
This study aimed to examine the clinical effect of cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and improvements in CRF after cardiac rehabilitation (CR) in heart failure (HF) patients for their risk for all-cause mortality and unplanned hospitalization and to investigate possible factors associated with the absence of improvement in CRF after rehabilitation.MethodsWe included 155 HF patients receiving CR between October 2009 and January 2015. Patients performed an incremental bicycle test to assess CRF through peak oxygen uptake (V˙O2-peak) before and after CR-based supervised exercise training. Patients were classified as responders...
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - January 16, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Clinical Sciences Source Type: research

Heavy-Load Lifting: Acute Response in Breast Cancer Survivors at Risk for Lymphedema
ConclusionsLow- and heavy-load resistance exercise elicited similar acute responses in arm swelling and breast cancer–related lymphedema symptoms in women at risk for lymphedema receiving adjuvant taxane-based chemotherapy. These represent important preliminary findings, which can be used to inform future prospective evaluation of the long-term effects of repeated exposure to heavy-load resistance exercise. Purpose Despite a paucity of evidence, prevention guidelines typically advise avoidance of heavy lifting in an effort to protect against breast cancer–related lymphedema. This study compared acute respon...
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - January 16, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Clinical Sciences Source Type: research

Exercise Prescription and Adherence for Breast Cancer: One Size Does Not FITT All
ABSTRACTPurposeTo prospectively assess adherence to oncologist-referred, exercise programming consistent with current recommendations for cancer survivors among women with early breast cancer across the trajectory of adjuvant treatment.MethodsSixty-eight women participated in supervised, hour-long, moderate-intensity, aerobic, and resistance exercise thrice per week during adjuvant chemotherapy ± radiation, with a step-down in frequency for 20 additional weeks. Adherence to exercise frequency (i.e., attendance), intensity, and time/duration, and barriers to adherence were tracked and compared during chemotherapy ver...
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - January 16, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Clinical Sciences Source Type: research

Applying Comparative Effectiveness Data to Medical Decision Making: A Practical Guide
No abstract available (Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise)
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - December 19, 2017 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: SPECIAL COMMUNICATIONS: Book Reviews Source Type: research

Epidemiology for Athletic Trainers: Integrating Evidence-Based Practice
No abstract available (Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise)
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - December 19, 2017 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: SPECIAL COMMUNICATIONS: Book Reviews Source Type: research

Validity, Reliability, and Inertia of Four Different Temperature Capsule Systems
ABSTRACTPurposeTelemetric temperature capsule systems are wireless, relatively noninvasive, and easily applicable in field conditions and have therefore great advantages for monitoring core body temperature. However, the accuracy and responsiveness of available capsule systems have not been compared previously. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the validity, reliability, and inertia characteristics of four ingestible temperature capsule systems (i.e., CorTemp, e-Celsius, myTemp, and VitalSense).MethodsTen temperature capsules were examined for each system in a temperature-controlled water bath during three tr...
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - December 19, 2017 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Applied Sciences Source Type: research

Work Rate during Self-paced Exercise is not Mediated by the Rate of Heat Storage
ABSTRACTPurposeTo date, there have been mixed findings on whether greater anticipatory reductions in self-paced exercise intensity in the heat are mediated by early differences in rate of body heat storage. The disparity may be due to an inability to accurately measure minute-to-minute changes in whole-body heat loss. Thus, we evaluated whether early differences in rate of heat storage can mediate exercise intensity during self-paced cycling at a fixed rate of perceived exertion (RPE of 16; hard-to-very-hard work effort) in COOL (15°C), NORMAL (25°C), and HOT (35°C) ambient conditions.MethodsOn separate days, n...
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - December 19, 2017 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Applied Sciences Source Type: research

Interval Walking Training and Nutritional Intake to Increase Plasma Volume in Elderly
ABSTRACTPurposeAerobic training-induced plasma volume (PV) expansion improves thermoregulation, and carbohydrate (CHO) + whey protein supplementation enhanced the effects in older people; however, these were suggested by studies on gym-based cycling training but not on home-based interval walking training (IWT). Moreover, long-term walking training effects on PV remain unknown.MethodsSeventeen male and 10 female subjects (~69 yr), having performed IWT for ≥24 months before the study, were used. After pre-intervention measurement (PRE) of PV, plasma albumin content (Albcont), fasting glucose concentration ([Glc]f), and H...
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - December 19, 2017 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Applied Sciences Source Type: research

Effects of Creatine and Carbohydrate Loading on Cycling Time Trial Performance
This study examined the metabolic and performance effects of a combined CR and CHO loading regiment on time trial (TT) cycling bouts.MethodsEighteen well-trained (~65 mL·kg−1·min−1 V˙O2peak) men completed three performance trials (PT) that comprised a 120-km cycling TT interspersed with alternating 1- and 4-km sprints (six sprints each) performed every 10 km followed by an inclined ride to fatigue (~90% V˙O2peak). Subjects were pair matched into either CR-loaded (20 g·d−1 for 5 d + 3 g·d−1 for 9 d) or placebo (PLA) groups (n = 9) after the completion of PT1. All subject...
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - December 19, 2017 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Applied Sciences Source Type: research

Caffeine Increases Work Done above Critical Power, but Not Anaerobic Work
ABSTRACTPurposeThe assumption that the curvature constant (W′) of the power–duration relationship represents anaerobic work capacity is a controversial, unresolved question. We investigated if caffeine ingestion could increase total work done above critical power (CP), and if this would be accompanied by greater anaerobic energy expenditure and by an enhanced maintenance of maximal oxidative metabolic rate.MethodsNine men (26.6 ± 5.3 yr, V˙O2max 40.6 ± 5.8 mL·kg−1·min−1) cycled until exhaustion at different exercise intensities on different days to determine the CP and W...
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - December 19, 2017 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Applied Sciences Source Type: research

High-Intensity Exercise Enhances Conduit Artery Vascular Function in Older Adults
This study aimed to investigate the potential intensity–dependent effects of an acute bout of exercise on conduit and resistance artery function in healthy older adults.MethodsEleven healthy older adults (five males/six females, 66 ± 1 yr) completed 30 min of recumbent cycling at 50%–55% (low intensity) and 75%–80% (high intensity) of their age-predicted HRmax on two separate study visits. Doppler ultrasound measures of brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD) and reactive hyperemia were taken at baseline, 10 min postexercise, and 1 h postexercise. In addition, cardiovascular hemodynamics and b...
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - December 19, 2017 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Applied Sciences Source Type: research

Low FODMAP: A Preliminary Strategy to Reduce Gastrointestinal Distress in Athletes
ConclusionsPreliminary findings suggest that short-term FODMAP reduction may be a beneficial intervention to minimize daily GI symptoms in runners with exercise-related GI distress. Introduction Gastrointestinal (GI) distress in endurance athletes is prevalent and detrimental to performance. Adverse GI symptomatology can be analogous with irritable bowel syndrome, where fermentable oligosaccharide, disaccharide, monosaccharide, and polyols (FODMAP) reduction has demonstrated efficacy. This study investigated the effects of low FODMAP (LFOD) diet on GI distress parameters in runners with a history of nonclinical exercis...
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - December 19, 2017 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Applied Sciences Source Type: research

Ischemic Preconditioning Blunts Muscle Damage Responses Induced by Eccentric Exercise
ABSTRACTPurposeIschemic preconditioning (IPC) is known to reduce muscle damage induced by ischemia and reperfusion injury during surgery. Because of similarities between the pathophysiological formation of ischemia and reperfusion injury and eccentric exercise–induced muscle damage (EIMD), as characterized by an intracellular accumulation of Ca2+, an increased production of reactive oxygen species, and increased proinflammatory signaling, the purpose of the present study was to investigate whether IPC performed before eccentric exercise may also protect against EIMD.MethodsNineteen healthy men were matched to an ecce...
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - December 19, 2017 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Applied Sciences Source Type: research

The Influence of Foot-Strike Technique on the Neuromechanical Function of the Foot
ConclusionsForefoot running increases loading about the longitudinal arch and also increases the mechanical work performed by the intrinsic foot muscles. These findings have substantial implications in terms of injury prevention and management for runners who transition from a rearfoot to a forefoot running technique. Purpose The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of foot-strike technique on longitudinal arch mechanics and intrinsic foot muscle function during running. Methods Thirteen healthy participants ran barefoot on a force-instrumented treadmill at 2.8 ms−1 with a forefoot (FFS) and rear...
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - December 19, 2017 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Applied Sciences Source Type: research

Circulating Progenitor Cell Response to Exercise in Wheelchair Racing Athletes
ABSTRACTIntroductionCirculating progenitor cells (CPC) are a heterogeneous population of stem/progenitor cells in peripheral blood that participate in tissue repair. CPC mobilization has been well characterized in able-bodied persons but has not been previously investigated in wheelchair racing athletes. The purpose of this study was to characterize CPC and CPC subpopulation mobilization in elite wheelchair racing athletes in response to acute, upper-extremity aerobic exercise to determine whether CPC responses are similar to ambulatory populations.MethodsEight participants (three females; age = 27.5 ± 4.0 yr, supin...
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - December 19, 2017 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Applied Sciences Source Type: research

Different Patterns of Walking and Postprandial Triglycerides in Older Women
ConclusionsAccumulating walking in short bouts limits postprandial TG in at-risk, inactive older women with fasting hypertriglyceridemia. Purpose Although a single bout of continuous exercise (≥30 min) reduces postprandial triglyceride (TG), little evidence is available regarding the effect of multiple short (≤10 min) bouts of exercise on postprandial TG in individuals at increased risk for cardiovascular diseases. This study compared the effects of different patterns of walking on postprandial TG in postmenopausal, older women with hypertriglyceridemia. Methods Twelve inactive women (mean age ± SD, 71 ...
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - December 19, 2017 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Applied Sciences Source Type: research

Elite Distance Runners: A 45-Year Follow-up
ABSTRACTPurposeThe present longitudinal study assessed cardiorespiratory capacity and running economy of Olympic athletes over several decades to measure changes in fitness in an elite group during aging.MethodsTwenty-six male runners training for the 1968 Olympics were recruited. HR, V˙O2max, ventilation, and running economy were measured in 1968, 1993, and 2013. In 2013, 22 of the original runners participated: three passed away between 1993 and 2013 and one declined to participate.ResultsThe mean ± SD HRmax values (bpm) were 178 ± 10.6 in 1968, 176 ± 13.1 in 1993, and 168 ± 16.4 in 2013 with...
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - December 19, 2017 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Applied Sciences Source Type: research

Implementing Resistance Training in Secondary Schools: A Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial
ConclusionsThe school-based RT intervention resulted in immediate and sustained improvements in upper body MF and RT skill competency, demonstrating an effective and scalable approach to delivering RT within secondary schools. Purpose Guidelines recommend that young people engage in muscle-strengthening activities on at least 3 d·wk−1. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of a school-based intervention focused on resistance training (RT) for adolescents. Methods The “Resistance Training for Teens” intervention was evaluated using a cluster-randomized, controlled trial with 607...
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - December 19, 2017 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Swimming Training Reduces Neuroma Pain by Regulating Neurotrophins
ConclusionsSwimming exercise not only inhibits neuroma formation induced by nerve transection but also relieves pain behavior. These effects might be associated with the modulation of NT. Introduction Neuroma formation after peripheral nerve transection leads to severe neuropathic pain in amputees. Previous studies suggested that physical exercise could bring beneficial effect on alleviating neuropathic pain. However, the effect of exercise on neuroma pain still remained unclear. In addition, long-term exercise can affect the expression of neurotrophins (NT), such as nerve growth factor (NGF) and brain-derived neurotro...
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - December 19, 2017 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Basic Sciences Source Type: research

Hyperthermia-induced Neural Alterations Impair Proprioception and Balance
ABSTRACTPurposeHyperthermia has been shown to affect both central and peripheral nervous systems. However, the consequences of these alterations on the proprioceptive mechanisms underlying human movement control remain unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of passive hyperthermia on various measures of proprioception and balance, two key components of injury prevention and movement efficiency.MethodsAfter a familiarization session, 14 volunteers (8 males, 6 females) completed two experimental sessions in temperate (CON, 24°C) and hot (HOT, 44°C–50°C) conditions, in a counterbalanced...
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - December 19, 2017 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Basic Sciences Source Type: research

Temporal Response of Angiogenesis and Hypertrophy to Resistance Training in Young Men
ABSTRACTAlthough endurance exercise training promotes angiogenesis and improves metabolic health, the effect of resistance training on this process is less well defined. We hypothesized that capillarization would increase proportionally, and concurrently, with muscle fiber hypertrophy in response to resistance training in young men.MethodsIn this double-blind, randomized control trial, 36 men (22 ± 1 yr) were randomized to placebo or protein supplementation, and participated in 12 wk of resistance training. Skeletal muscle biopsies were collected before and after 2, 4, 8, and 12 wk of training. Immunohistochemistry ...
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - December 19, 2017 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Basic Sciences Source Type: research

Feedback Leads to Better Exercise Quality in Adolescents with Patellofemoral Pain
ABSTRACTPurposeAdolescents with patellofemoral pain (PFP) do not comply with their exercise prescription, performing too few and too fast repetitions, compromising recovery. We investigated if real-time feedback on contraction time would improve the ability of adolescents with PFP to perform exercises as prescribed.MethodsA randomized, controlled, participant-blinded, superiority trial with a 6-wk intervention of three weekly sessions of three elastic band exercises was undertaken. Forty 15- to 19-yr-old adolescents with PFP were randomized to real-time BandCizer™-iPad feedback on contraction time or not by a physiot...
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - December 19, 2017 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Clinical Sciences Source Type: research