Physical Activity Levels Predict Exercise-induced Hypoalgesia in Older Adults
Conclusions Older adults did not exhibit EIH after submaximal isometric exercise. However, those who did more MVPA per week experienced a greater magnitude of pain inhibition after acute exercise. (Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise)
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - September 15, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Applied Sciences Source Type: research

Factors Contributing to Medial Tibial Stress Syndrome in Runners: A Prospective Study
Purpose Medial tibial stress syndrome (MTSS) is one of the most common overuse injuries sustained by runners. Despite the prevalence of this injury, risk factors for developing MTSS remain unclear. The purpose of this study was to prospectively evaluate differences in passive range of motion, muscle strength, plantar pressure distributions, and running kinematics between runners who developed MTSS and those who did not. Methods Twenty-four National Collegiate Athletic Association Division 1 cross-country runners participated in this study. Participants underwent a clinical examination documenting passive range of moti...
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - September 15, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Applied Sciences Source Type: research

Thigh and Psoas Major Muscularity and Its Relation to Running Mechanics in Sprinters
Conclusions The sprinters in this study presented greater muscularity of the thigh and psoas major but not the monoarticular knee extensor or flexor muscles. The rectus femoris, in particular, may play an important role during the swing phase of sprinting. (Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise)
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - September 15, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Applied Sciences Source Type: research

Depressed Physical Performance Outlasts Hormonal Disturbances after Military Training
Conclusions One-week arduous military exercise resulted in reductions in body mass and performance, as well as considerable hormonal disturbances. Our most important observation was that whereas the hormonal systems was normalized within 1 wk of rest and proper nutrition, lower body strength and jump performance were still depressed after 2 wk. (Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise)
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - September 15, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Applied Sciences Source Type: research

High-Intensity Interval or Continuous Moderate Exercise: A 24-Week Pilot Trial
Conclusion This pilot intervention was successful in increasing, and maintaining, free-living MVPA over a 24-wk period in individuals at high risk of T2D. Speculation that HIIT is inappropriate or unattainable for overweight individuals at high risk of T2D may be unfounded. (Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise)
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - September 15, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Applied Sciences Source Type: research

Glucose Tolerance is Linked to Postprandial Fuel Use Independent of Exercise Dose
Conclusion Independent of exercise dose and fat loss, short-term training improves glucose tolerance in relation to enhanced postprandial fuel use. (Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise)
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - September 15, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Basic Sciences Source Type: research

Adipose Tissue Responses to Breaking Sitting in Men and Women with Central Adiposity
Conclusions This study demonstrates that breaking sitting with short bouts of physical activity has very pronounced effects on systemic postprandial glucose and insulin concentrations, but this does not translate into corresponding effects within adipose tissue. (Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise)
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - September 15, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Basic Sciences Source Type: research

Maternal Physical Activity and Sex Impact Markers of Hepatic Mitochondrial Health
In this study, we investigated whether maternal physical activity would attenuate maternal western diet (WD)–induced steatosis in young adult rats. Methods Female Wistar rats (7–8 wk of age) were randomized into WD (42% fat, 27% sucrose) or normal chow diet (ND), and further randomized into physical activity (RUN) or sedentary (SED) conditions for a total of four groups. Dams returned to ND/SED conditions after parturition. Postweaning, offspring were maintained in ND/SED conditions for 18 wk. Results Maternal WD-induced increases in male offspring body mass was attenuated in the WD/RUN offspring (P (Sour...
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - September 15, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Basic Sciences Source Type: research

The Effects of Exercise, Aspirin, and Celecoxib in an Atherogenic Environment
Conclusions Effective strategies to maintain a healthy endothelium, and therefore resistance vessel health, need to include exercise-levels of shear stress to be effective. (Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise)
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - September 15, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Basic Sciences Source Type: research

Moderate Exercise Enhances Endothelial Progenitor Cell Exosomes Release and Function
Conclusions Our data demonstrate that exercise can increase EPC-EX release and miR-126 level and enhance the effects of EPC-EX on protecting EC against injury through the SPRED1/VEGF pathway. (Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise)
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - September 15, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Basic Sciences Source Type: research

Hypothermia Decreases O2 Cost for Ex Vivo Contraction in Mouse Skeletal Muscle
Conclusions Together, O2 cost for muscle contraction (force–time integral per O2 consumed) was greater at 37°C than at 25°C. Levels of high-energy phosphates were consistent with greater energy demand at 37°C compared with 25°C. In conclusion, these results indicate that muscle contraction that occurs at subnormal temperature requires less O2 than at 37°C. (Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise)
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - September 15, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Basic Sciences Source Type: research

Residual Force Enhancement Is Attenuated in a Shortening Magnitude-dependent Manner
Introduction The isometric force attained after active stretch is greater than that attained in a purely isometric contraction. This property is referred to as residual force enhancement (RFE). Although RFE is thought to contribute to the enhanced force and power in stretch-shortening cycles (SSCs), it is unclear whether shortening that occurs after active stretch eliminates the RFE induced by active stretch. Therefore, we evaluated the influence of shortening on RFE. Methods Skinned rabbit soleus fibers (N = 43) were used for all tests. Residual force enhancement was compared between the stretch-only condition and th...
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - September 15, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Basic Sciences Source Type: research

Cleveland Clinic Postural Stability Index Norms for the Balance Error Scoring System
Introduction Despite the widespread utilization of the Balance Error Scoring System (BESS) in the evaluation of concussion, it has been criticized for its error-based scoring that is susceptible to floor and ceiling effects and substantial inter-rater variability. A biomechanical outcome, Cleveland Clinic Postural Stability Index (CC-PSI), has been developed as an alternative to subjective BESS scoring. The CC-PSI uses inertial sensor data within a mobile device to provide an objective measure of postural sway during the BESS. This project aimed to determine the effect of age and sex on the CC-PSI and report normative va...
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - September 15, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Clinical Sciences Source Type: research

Pulse Oximetry and Arterial Oxygen Saturation during Cardiopulmonary Exercise Testing
Conclusions In the present study, pulse oximetry commonly overestimated the SaO2. Increased carboxyhemoglobin levels are independently associated with the difference between SpO2 and SaO2, a finding particularly relevant in smokers. (Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise)
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - September 15, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Clinical Sciences Source Type: research

Exercise Periodization over the Year Improves Metabolic Syndrome and Medication Use
Conclusions Two yearly 16-wk high-intensity interval training programs are enough exercise to chronically lower MetS while preventing the reductions in cardiorespiratory fitness associated to aging. Of clinical relevance, yearly exercise training halts the increase in medicine use that occurs in non-exercising MetS individuals. (Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise)
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - September 15, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Clinical Sciences Source Type: research

The Biomechanics of Impact Injury: Biomechanical Response, Mechanisms of Injury, Human Tolerance and Simulation
No abstract available (Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise)
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - August 17, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: SPECIAL COMMUNICATIONS: Book Reviews Source Type: research

Orthopaedic Neurology: A Diagnostic Guide to Neurologic Levels, 2nd Edition
No abstract available (Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise)
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - August 17, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: SPECIAL COMMUNICATIONS: Book Reviews Source Type: research

Physiological and Functional Alterations after Spaceflight and Bed Rest
Conclusion Bed rest data indicate that body support unloading experienced during spaceflight contributes to postflight postural control dysfunction. Further, the bed rest results in the exercise group of subjects confirm that resistance and aerobic exercises performed during spaceflight can play an integral role in maintaining neuromuscular and cardiovascular functions, which can help in reducing decrements in functional performance. These results indicate that a countermeasure to mitigate postflight postural control dysfunction is required to maintain functional performance. (Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise)
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - August 17, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: SPECIAL COMMUNICATIONS: Commentary Source Type: research

Myocellular Responses to Concurrent Flywheel Training during 70 Days of Bed Rest
Purpose This investigation evaluated myocellular responses to an integrated resistance and aerobic training program during 70 d of bed rest. Methods Training was 6 d·wk−1 on a small-footprint gravity-independent flywheel resistance and aerobic device; 3 d of maximal flywheel supine quadriceps and calf exercises with continuous rowing separated by 4 to 6 h, and 3 d of interval rowing. Vastus lateralis (VL) and soleus (SOL) muscle biopsies were obtained from eight healthy males (age, 28 ± 4 yr; BMI, 25 ± 3 kg·m−2; V˙O2max, 42 ± 6 mL·kg−1·min−1) be...
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - August 17, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: SPECIAL COMMUNICATIONS: Commentary Source Type: research

Efficacy of Exercise and Testosterone to Mitigate Atrophic Cardiovascular Remodeling
Purpose Early and consistent evaluation of cardiac morphology and function throughout an atrophic stimulus is critically important for the design and optimization of interventions. This randomized controlled trial was designed 1) to characterize the time course of unloading-induced morphofunctional remodeling and 2) to examine the effects of exercise with and without low-dose testosterone supplementation on cardiac biomarker, structural, and functional parameters during unloading. Methods Twenty-six subjects completed 70 d of head-down tilt bed rest (BR): 9 were randomized to exercise training (Ex), 8 to EX and low-do...
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - August 17, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: SPECIAL COMMUNICATIONS: Commentary Source Type: research

Efficacy of Testosterone plus NASA Exercise Countermeasures during Head-Down Bed Rest
Conclusions Addition of a testosterone countermeasure enhanced the preventative actions of exercise against body composition changes during long-term HDBR in healthy eugonadal men. This is the first report to demonstrate that cycled, low-dose testosterone treatment increases LBM under conditions of strict exercise control. These results are clinically relevant to the development of safe and effective therapies against muscle atrophy during long-term bed rest, aging, and disease where loss of muscle mass and strength is a risk. The potential space flight applications of such countermeasure combinations deserve further inv...
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - August 17, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: SPECIAL COMMUNICATIONS: Commentary Source Type: research

Exercise Training Mitigates Multisystem Deconditioning during Bed Rest
Conclusions This is the first trial to evaluate multisystem deconditioning and the role of an integrated exercise countermeasure. These findings have important implications for the design and implementation of exercise-based countermeasures on future long-duration spaceflight missions. (Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise)
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - August 17, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: SPECIAL COMMUNICATIONS: Commentary Source Type: research

Overview of the NASA 70-day Bed Rest Study
Conclusion Long-duration head-down tilt bed rest provided a suitable platform for examining physiologic effects of spaceflight and testing countermeasures in a ground-based model. Integrating studies into a complement is an effective way to support multiple investigations while minimizing the number of subjects to answer many research questions. (Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise)
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - August 17, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: SPECIAL COMMUNICATIONS: Commentary Source Type: research

Bed Rest Studies as Analogs of Conditions Encountered in Space and in Diseases
No abstract available (Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise)
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - August 17, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: SPECIAL COMMUNICATIONS: Commentary Source Type: research

Effects of p-Synephrine and Caffeine Ingestion on Substrate Oxidation during Exercise
Purpose Caffeine and p-synephrine are substances usually included in commercially available products for weight loss because of their purported thermogenic effects. However, scientific information is lacking about the effects of combining these substances on substrate oxidation during exercise. The purpose of this investigation was to determine the isolated and combined effects of p-synephrine and caffeine on fat oxidation rate during exercise. Methods In a double-blind randomized experiment, 13 healthy subjects participated in four experimental trials after the ingestion of a capsule containing a placebo, 3 mg·...
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - August 17, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Applied Sciences Source Type: research

Temporal Changes in Cardiovascular Remodeling Associated with Football Participation
This study sought to compare the cardiovascular response to HS versus collegiate ASF participation. Methods The ASF participants (HS, n = 61; collegiate, n = 87) were studied at preseason and postseason time points with echocardiography and applanation tonometry. Primary outcome variables included: left ventricular (LV) mass index, LV diastolic function (early relaxation velocity [E′]), and arterial stiffness (pulse wave velocity [PWV]). Results High school (17.1 ± 0.4 yr) and collegiate ASF participants (18 ± 0.4 yr) experienced similar LV hypertrophy (ΔLV mass HS = 10.5 ± 10 vs coll...
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - August 17, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Applied Sciences Source Type: research

Effects of Age and Sex on Inspiratory Muscle Activation Patterns during Exercise
Purpose To characterize the effects of age, sex, and their interaction on inspiratory muscle activation patterns during exercise. Methods Twenty younger (20–30 yr, n = 10 women) and 20 older (60–80 yr, n = 10 women) subjects performed an incremental cycle exercise test. Electromyography (EMG) of the scalene (EMGsca) and EMG of the sternocleidomastoid (EMGscm) muscles were measured using skin surface electrodes, whereas diaphragm EMG (EMGdi) and esophageal and transdiaphragmatic pressures were measured using an esophageal catheter. Electromyography data were transformed into root mean square with a 100-ms t...
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - August 17, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Applied Sciences Source Type: research

Black Carbon Reduces the Beneficial Effect of Physical Activity on Lung Function
Conclusions We found that lung function improved with physical activity at low black carbon levels. This beneficial effect decreased in higher air pollution concentrations. Our results suggest a greater need to reduce air pollution exposures during physical activity. (Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise)
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - August 17, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Applied Sciences Source Type: research

The Associations between Adiposity, Cognitive Function, and Achievement in Children
Conclusion In conclusion, the results suggest that VAT was selectively and negatively related with cognition among children with obesity. Along with the dangerous metabolic nature of VAT, its detrimental relationship with obese children’s intellectual and cognitive functioning is concerning. (Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise)
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - August 17, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Applied Sciences Source Type: research

Heat Loss Is Impaired in Older Men on the Day after Prolonged Work in the Heat
Purpose Prolonged work in the heat may exacerbate the rise in core temperature on the next work day, especially in older workers who display impairments in whole-body heat loss that increase body heat storage and core temperature relative to young adults during heat stress. We therefore evaluated whether whole-body heat loss in older adults was impaired on the day after prolonged work in the heat. Methods Whole-body heat exchange and heat storage were assessed in nine older (53–64 yr) men during three 30-min bouts of semirecumbent cycling at fixed rates of metabolic heat production (150 [Ex1], 200 [Ex2], 250 W&m...
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - August 17, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Applied Sciences Source Type: research

Benefits of 8-wk Mindfulness-based Stress Reduction or Aerobic Training on Seasonal Declines in Physical Activity
Conclusion Data from participants in a randomized controlled trial showed that although AET increases MVPA bouts compared with no treatment, MBSR training may also mitigate the influence of shorter day length and cooler weather on participation in physical activities. Future research is needed to determine how MBSR affects exercise to inform interventions. Interventions combining MBSR and exercise may be particularly successful at increasing physical activity participation. (Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise)
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - August 17, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Applied Sciences Source Type: research

The Role of Task Difficulty in Learning a Visuomotor Skill
Conclusions The optimal challenge point framework does not capture the complex relationship between task difficulty and motor learning. Previously reported effects of task difficulty on the magnitude of motor learning are probably mediated by perceived mental workload. Task difficulty did not affect the magnitude of visuomotor skill learning but it affected how learning occurred. The data have implications on how athletes learn new motor skills and patients relearn injury-impaired motor skills during rehabilitation. (Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise)
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - August 17, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Applied Sciences Source Type: research

Relationships between Habitual Cadence, Footstrike, and Vertical Load Rates in Runners
Conclusions We found no relationships between habitual running cadence and vertical load rates. The highest load rates were in injured RFS runners, and the lowest load rates were in FFS runners, regardless of injury status. Future studies of gait retraining to increase CAD and reduce load rates should follow runners long term to examine this relationship once CAD has become habituated. (Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise)
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - August 17, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Applied Sciences Source Type: research

Biomechanical Model for Stress Fracture–related Factors in Athletes and Soldiers
Conclusions Thigh muscle fatigue, load carriage, and a slender tibia were detected as factors that may contribute to the development of SF. The methodology presented here is a novel tool for investigating the pathophysiology of SF. (Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise)
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - August 17, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Applied Sciences Source Type: research

High-Intensity Interval Training in the Real World: Outcomes from a 12-Month Intervention in Overweight Adults
Conclusions HIIT was well accepted by overweight adults, and opting for HIIT as an alternative to standard exercise recommendations led to no difference in health outcomes after 12 months. Although regular participation in unsupervised HIIT declined rapidly, those apparently adherent to regular HIIT demonstrated beneficial weight loss and visceral fat reduction. Trial Registration: Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ACTRN12615000010594), retrospectively registered. (Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise)
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - August 17, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Applied Sciences Source Type: research

Bone and Inflammatory Responses to Training in Female Rowers over an Olympic Year
Conclusions In this population of young female athletes with suitable energy availability, sclerostin and inflammation markers responded to fluctuations in training load, whereas BMD and bone mineral content were stable during the season, suggesting that training load periodization is not harmful for the bone health in athletes. (Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise)
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - August 17, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Applied Sciences Source Type: research

Community-associated Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Infection Rates and Management among Student-Athletes
Conclusions Despite increased awareness of CA-MRSA, more educational efforts focusing on best practices and education are needed, especially with athletes and the medical community involved in their care. (Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise)
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - August 17, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Epidemiology Source Type: research

A Review of Accelerometer-based Activity Monitoring in Cancer Survivorship Research
Conclusions This narrative review highlights inconsistency in the methods used to collect, process, and report accelerometry data across cancer survivor studies. Accelerometry has potential to add detailed knowledge of the levels and patterns of physical activities and sedentary behaviors across the cancer spectrum. Recommendations are made to improve data processing and reporting methods to maximize the scientific validity of future accelerometer research in this field. (Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise)
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - August 17, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Older E-bike Users: Demographic, Health, Mobility Characteristics, and Cycling Levels
Conclusion E-bikes may provide an opportunity to promote cycling among older adults, particularly among subgroups at risk for physical inactivity. (Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise)
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - August 17, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Epidemiology Source Type: research

A Longitudinal Study of the Effect of Organized Physical Activity on Free Active Play
Purpose The relationship between organized sport participation and positive youth development is well established. However, overinvolvement in sport and organized physical activity has been identified as having a potentially negative effect. Overscheduling and its impact on free play is one concern, given the importance of free play to overall health and development. Currently, it is not known if greater participation in organized sport has a positive or negative effect on discretionary free play in children and youth. Methods The Physical Health and Activity Study Team study was a 5-yr, longitudinal cohort study that...
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - August 17, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Size as an Important Determinant of Chest Blow–induced Commotio Cordis
Purpose Commotio cordis is sudden cardiac death caused by a relatively innocent blow to the left chest wall. Adolescents account for the majority of the cases; whether this is due to the higher frequency of adolescents playing ball sports or whether there is some maturational reduction of risk is not known. Methods In a swine model of commotio cordis, the effect of body weight/size (directly related to age) to the susceptibility of chest impact–induced ventricular fibrillation (VF) is examined. Methods Ball impacts were delivered at escalating velocities from 48.3 to 96.9 km·h−1 (30–60 mph)...
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - August 17, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Basic Sciences Source Type: research

Effects of Exercise on ASC Methylation and IL-1 Cytokines in Heart Failure
Introduction/Purpose Inflammation contributes to heart failure (HF) progression and the interleukin (IL)-1 cytokine IL-1β is implicated in this process. The adaptor protein apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a caspase recruitment domain (ASC) is necessary for inflammasome activation of IL-1β. Lower ASC methylation is associated with worse outcomes in HF. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of exercise on changes in ASC methylation and activation of the IL-1 family cytokine IL-1β in persons with HF. Methods Participants (N = 54) were randomized to receive exercise interve...
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - August 17, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Basic Sciences Source Type: research

Detection of Persisting Concussion Effects on Neuromechanical Responsiveness
Conclusions Performance on dual-task VMRT tests and the WBRA test identified neuromechanical responsiveness deficiencies among elite athletes who reported a history of concussion. (Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise)
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - August 17, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Clinical Sciences Source Type: research

Short-Term (
Background and Aim Exercise training regimes can lead to improvements in measures of cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF), improved general health, and reduced morbidity and overall mortality risk. High-intensity interval training (HIIT) offers a time-efficient approach to improve CRF in healthy individuals, but the relative benefits of HIIT compared with traditional training methods are unknown in across different disease cohorts. Methods This systematic review and meta-analysis compares CRF gains in randomized controlled trials of short-term ( (Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise)
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - August 17, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Clinical Sciences Source Type: research

Effects of Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation in People with Spinal Cord Injury
Introduction Muscle force production is usually impaired in people with spinal cord injury (SCI). The use of high-intensity neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) strength training can help promote metabolically active lean muscle mass and, thus, increase muscle mass and improve physical health and quality of life (QoL). Nonetheless, NMES is usually used at low-stimulation intensities, and there is limited evidence on the effects of high-intensity NMES strength training into improving muscle force and mass, symptoms of spasticity, or physical health and QoL in people with SCI. Methods Five individuals with chroni...
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - August 17, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Clinical Sciences Source Type: research

Is Exercise the Right Medicine for Dystrophic Muscle?
Conclusions To safely prescribe exercise as a therapy to DMD patients, multisystemic investigations are needed including the evaluation of respiratory and cardiac muscle. (Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise)
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - August 17, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Clinical Sciences Source Type: research

Three Weeks of Overload Training Increases Resting Muscle Sympathetic Activity—Corrigendum
No abstract available (Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise)
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - July 14, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: SPECIAL COMMUNICATIONS: Corrigendum Source Type: research

The Pediatric Anterior Cruciate Ligament: Evaluation and Management Strategies
No abstract available (Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise)
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - July 14, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: SPECIAL COMMUNICATIONS: Book Reviews Source Type: research

Shoulder and Elbow Injuries in Athletes: Prevention, Treatment, and Return to Sport
No abstract available (Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise)
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - July 14, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: SPECIAL COMMUNICATIONS: Book Reviews Source Type: research

Response
No abstract available (Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise)
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - July 14, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: SPECIAL COMMUNICATIONS: Letters to the Editor-in-Chief Source Type: research