Brukner and Khan’s Clinical Sports Medicine—Volume 1: Injuries, 5th Edition
No abstract available (Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise)
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - May 16, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: SPECIAL COMMUNICATIONS: Book Reviews Source Type: research

Complications in Foot and Ankle Surgery: Management Strategies
No abstract available (Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise)
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - May 16, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: SPECIAL COMMUNICATIONS: Book Reviews Source Type: research

Response
No abstract available (Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise)
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - May 16, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: SPECIAL COMMUNICATIONS: Letters to the Editor-in-Chief Source Type: research

Equity in Physical Activity is a Misguided Goal
No abstract available (Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise)
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - May 16, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: SPECIAL COMMUNICATIONS: Letters to the Editor-in-Chief Source Type: research

Comparison of Two Generations of ActiGraph Accelerometers: The CARDIA Study
This study aimed to examine the comparability of the ActiGraph 7164 and wGT3X-BT wear time, count-based estimates, and average time per day in physical activity of different intensities. Methods We studied 87 Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) participants 48–60 yr of age who simultaneously wore the 7164 and wGT3X-BT accelerometers at the waist in 2015–2016, with wear time of ≥4 of 7 d, ≥10 h·d−1 for both monitors. Freedson cutpoints (counts per minute) were used to define sedentary ( (Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise)
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - May 16, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: SPECIAL COMMUNICATIONS: Methodological Advances Source Type: research

Beyond Cut Points: Accelerometer Metrics that Capture the Physical Activity Profile
Purpose Commonly used physical activity metrics tell us little about the intensity distribution across the activity profile. The purpose of this paper is to introduce a metric, the intensity gradient, which can be used in combination with average acceleration (overall activity level) to fully describe the activity profile. Methods A total of 1669 adolescent girls (sample 1) and 295 adults with type 2 diabetes (sample 2) wore a GENEActiv accelerometer on their nondominant wrist for up to 7 d. Body mass index and percent body fat were assessed in both samples and physical function (grip strength, Short Physical Performa...
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - May 16, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: SPECIAL COMMUNICATIONS: Methodological Advances Source Type: research

Video-Recorded Validation of Wearable Step Counters under Free-living Conditions
Purpose The purpose of this study was to determine the accuracy of 14-step counting methods under free-living conditions. Methods Twelve adults (mean ± SD age, 35 ± 13 yr) wore a chest harness that held a GoPro camera pointed down at the feet during all waking hours for 1 d. The GoPro continuously recorded video of all steps taken throughout the day. Simultaneously, participants wore two StepWatch (SW) devices on each ankle (all programmed with different settings), one activPAL on each thigh, four devices at the waist (Fitbit Zip, Yamax Digi-Walker SW-200, New Lifestyles NL-2000, and ActiGraph GT9X (AG))...
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - May 16, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Applied Sciences Source Type: research

Video-Recorded Direct Observation: A Step Forward for Physical Activity Measurement
No abstract available (Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise)
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - May 16, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Applied Sciences Source Type: research

Predicting Basal Metabolic Rate in Men with Motor Complete Spinal Cord Injury
This study aimed to assess the accuracy of existing basal metabolic rate (BMR) prediction equations in men with chronic (>1 yr) spinal cord injury (SCI). The primary aim is to develop new SCI population-specific BMR prediction models, based on anthropometric, body composition, and/or demographic variables that are strongly associated with BMR. Methods Thirty men with chronic SCI (paraplegic, n = 21, tetraplegic, n = 9) 35 ± 11 yr old (mean ± SD) participated in this cross-sectional study. Criterion BMR values were measured by indirect calorimetry. Body composition (dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry) and ...
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - May 16, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Applied Sciences Source Type: research

Active and Inactive Leg Hemodynamics during Sequential Single-Leg Interval Cycling
This study examined the cardiovascular and skeletal muscle hemodynamic responses during double-leg and sequential single-leg cycling. Methods Ten young healthy adults (28 ± 6 yr) completed six 1-min double-leg intervals interspersed with 1 min of passive recovery and, on a separate occasion, 12 (six with one leg followed by six with the other leg) 1-min single-leg intervals interspersed with 1 min of passive recovery. Oxygen consumption, heart rate, blood pressure, muscle oxygenation, muscle blood volume, and power output were measured throughout each session. Results Oxygen consumption, heart rate, and power ...
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - May 16, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Applied Sciences Source Type: research

Physiological Responses to Overdressing and Exercise-Heat Stress in Trained Runners
Conclusion These data support the idea that overdressing during exercise in a temperate environment may produce the high Tre, Tsk, HR, and SR necessary for adaptation, but these responses do not match those in hot, dry environments. It is possible that greater exercise stimulus, warmer environment, or more clothing may be required to allow for a similar level of acclimation. (Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise)
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - May 16, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Applied Sciences Source Type: research

Exercise Thresholds on Trial: Are They Really Equivalent?
Purpose The interchangeable use of whole-body exercise thresholds and breakpoints (BP) in the local oxygenation response, as measured via near-infrared spectroscopy, has recently been questioned in scientific literature. Therefore, the present study aimed to longitudinally investigate the interrelationship of four commonly used exercise thresholds: critical power (CP), the respiratory compensation point (RCP), and BP in muscle (m[HHb]BP) and brain (c[O2Hb]BP) oxygenation. Methods Nine male participants (21.8 ± 1.2 yr) completed 6 wk of cycling interval training. Before and after this intervention period, subjec...
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - May 16, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Applied Sciences Source Type: research

Effects of Acute Salbutamol Intake on Peripheral and Central Fatigue in Trained Men
Conclusions These results indicate that acute SAL intake had no effect on central and peripheral mechanisms of neuromuscular fatigue and did not improve quadriceps endurance. (Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise)
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - May 16, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Applied Sciences Source Type: research

No Effect of Muscle Stretching within a Full, Dynamic Warm-up on Athletic Performance
Conclusion Participants felt they were more likely to perform well when stretching was performed as part of the warm-up, irrespective of stretch type. However, no effect of muscle stretching was observed on flexibility and physical function compared with no stretching. On the basis of the current evidence, the inclusion of short durations of either static or dynamic stretching is unlikely to affect sprint running, jumping, or change of direction performance when performed as part of a comprehensive physical preparation routine. (Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise)
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - May 16, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Applied Sciences Source Type: research

Exercise Effects on Adipose Tissue Postprandial Lipolysis and Blood Flow in Children
Poor suppression of lipolysis and blunted increase in blood flow after meal ingestion in obese adults may indicate resistance to the antilipolytic action of insulin. Exercise may be used to normalize lipolytic responses to food intake by increasing insulin sensitivity. Purpose To determine if acute bouts of aerobic exercise and/or excise training alter lipolytic and blood flow responses to food intake in lean (LN) and obese (OB) children. Methods Sixty-five children (9–11 yr) were randomized into acute exercise (EX: 16 LN and 28 OB) or control (CON: 9 LN and 12 OB) groups that exercised (EX), or rested (CON) be...
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - May 16, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Applied Sciences Source Type: research

Kinetic Asymmetry during Running at Preferred and Nonpreferred Speeds
Conclusion Results show small effects of altering running speed on kinetic asymmetry, but responses are individual specific with interactions occurring between joints to maintain overall movement symmetry. Further research is needed to understand the mechanical and neuromuscular mechanisms underpinning these compensations. (Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise)
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - May 16, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Applied Sciences Source Type: research

Can Functional Movement Assessment Predict Football Head Impact Biomechanics?
Purpose The purposes of this study was to determine functional movement assessments’ ability to predict head impact biomechanics in college football players and to determine whether head impact biomechanics could explain preseason to postseason changes in functional movement performance. Methods Participants (N = 44; mass, 109.0 ± 20.8 kg; age, 20.0 ± 1.3 yr) underwent two preseason and postseason functional movement assessment screenings: 1) Fusionetics Movement Efficiency Test and 2) Landing Error Scoring System (LESS). Fusionetics is scored 0 to 100, and participants were categorized into the fo...
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - May 16, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Applied Sciences Source Type: research

Effects of Strength Training on Postpubertal Adolescent Distance Runners
Purpose Strength training activities have consistently been shown to improve running economy (RE) and neuromuscular characteristics, such as force-producing ability and maximal speed, in adult distance runners. However, the effects on adolescent ( (Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise)
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - May 16, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Applied Sciences Source Type: research

EASY—An Instrument for Surveillance of Physical Activity in Youth
Purpose Physical activity (PA) promotion among youth is a public health priority, and there is a need for robust surveillance systems to help support such initiatives. Existing youth PA self-report instruments that are used for surveillance lack information regarding the types and contexts of activity. Further, these instruments have limited validity with accelerometry. The purpose of the present study was to develop a self-report instrument, with sound psychometric properties, for monitoring compliance with PA guidelines in youth. Methods In focus groups, 162 middle school students identified 30 forms of PA that are ...
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - May 16, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Declining Physical Activity and Motivation from Middle School to High School
Conclusions Consistent with Self-Determination Theory, the findings encourage interventions that target autonomous motivation among youths. The results extend prior evidence in three ways. First, the cohort was tracked for 3 yr using an objective measure of physical activity. Second, influences of intrinsic motivation and integrated regulation on changing physical activity were not direct. They interacted with changing goals, indicating that interventions should also focus on specific goals for physical activity as effect modifiers. Third, interventions focused on autonomous motivation should consider that controlled, in...
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - May 16, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Community-level Sports Group Participation and Older Individuals’ Depressive Symptoms
Conclusions We found a contextual preventive relationship between community-level sports group participation and depressive symptoms in older individuals. Therefore, promoting sports groups in a community may be effective as a population-based strategy for the prevention of depression in older individuals. Furthermore, the benefit may favor male sports group participants. (Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise)
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - May 16, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Physical Inactivity from Youth to Adulthood and Risk of Impaired Glucose Metabolism
Conclusions Persistently physically inactive lifestyle from youth to adulthood is associated with increased risk of impaired glucose metabolism in adulthood. Importantly, a moderate increase in PA lowered the risk. The results highlight the importance of avoiding physically inactive lifestyle at all stages of life. (Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise)
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - May 16, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Residual Force Enhancement Is Preserved for Conditions of Reduced Contractile Force
Conclusion RFE was preserved in the reduced contractile force states. (Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise)
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - May 16, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Basic Sciences Source Type: research

Effects of Different Exercise Modes on Arterial Stiffness and Nitric Oxide Synthesis
This study aimed to clarify the difference of different exercise effects on endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) signaling pathway and arterial stiffness in rats and humans. Methods In the animal study, forty 10-wk-old male Sprague–Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups: sedentary control (CON), AT (treadmill running, 60 min at 30 m·min−1, 5 d·wk−1 for 8 wk), RT (ladder climbing, 8–10 sets per day, 3 d·wk−1 for 8 wk), and HIIT (14 repeats of 20-s swimming session with 10-s pause between sessions, 4 d·wk−1 for 6 wk from 12-wk-old) groups (n =...
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - May 16, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Basic Sciences Source Type: research

Exercise Protects against Cancer-induced Cardiac Cachexia
This study aimed to determine the effect of exercise on tumor morphology and cardiac function. Methods Fisher 344 rats (n = 28) were assigned to one of four groups: 1) sedentary non-tumor bearing (SED), 2) sedentary tumor bearing (SED + T), 3) wheel run non-tumor bearing (WR), or 4) wheel run tumor bearing (WR + T). Rats remained sedentary or exercised for 6 wk. At week 4, rats in tumor groups were inoculated with MatBIII tumor cells. At week 6, cardiac function was measured. Results SED + T animals exhibited significantly lower left ventricular developed pressure when compared with SED, WR, and WR + T (P (Source: Me...
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - May 16, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Basic Sciences Source Type: research

Efficacy of Tandem Gait to Identify Impaired Postural Control after Concussion
Conclusions Participants completed TG significantly slower after concussion, whereas no change across time was detected for controls. In contrast, BESS and mBESS performances were similar at both testing times in both groups. Our AUC analysis was acceptable for TG, but a failure for both BESS and mBESS; thus, TG may be a useful alternative for clinicians conducting postconcussion postural control assessments. (Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise)
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - May 16, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Clinical Sciences Source Type: research

Strength Training Effects on Muscular Regeneration after ACL Reconstruction
Purpose Protracted quadriceps muscle atrophy is observed after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACL-R). The aim of this study was to assess if quadriceps strength training with eccentric overload (CON/ECC+) is more efficient to induce muscle regeneration after ACL-R than conventional concentric/eccentric (CON/ECC) strength training. Methods Biopsies from the vastus lateralis muscle were obtained from 37 recreational athletes after 12 wk of regular rehabilitation after ACL-R and again after 12 wk with twice a week of either conventional CON/ECC (n = 16) or CON/ECC+ (n = 21) one-legged supervised leg-press tra...
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - May 16, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Clinical Sciences Source Type: research

Health Benefits of an Innovative Exercise Program for Mitochondrial Disorders
Conclusions An intervention including novel exercises for mitochondrial disease patients (e.g., inspiratory muscle training) produced benefits in numerous indicators of physical capacity and induced a previously unreported shift toward a healthier body composition phenotype. (Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise)
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - May 16, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Clinical Sciences Source Type: research

Novel Methods for Reporting of Exercise Dose and Adherence: An Exploratory Analysis
Conclusions Novel methods for the conduct and reporting of exercise treatment adherence and tolerability may provide important information beyond conventional metrics in patients with cancer. (Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise)
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - May 16, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Clinical Sciences Source Type: research

New Reference Values for Cardiopulmonary Exercise Testing in Children
Conclusions We present Z score equations for several CRF parameters derived from a healthy pediatric population. These reference values provide updated predicted means and range of normality that are independent of sex and body size. Further testing is needed to assess if these reference values increase sensitivity and specificity to identify abnormal cardiorespiratory response in children with chronic diseases. (Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise)
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - May 16, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Clinical Sciences Source Type: research

Essential Epidemiology: An Introduction for Students and Health Professionals, 3rd Edition
No abstract available (Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise)
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - April 14, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: SPECIAL COMMUNICATIONS: Book Reviews Source Type: research

Monitoring Training and Performance in Athletes
No abstract available (Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise)
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - April 14, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: SPECIAL COMMUNICATIONS: Book Reviews Source Type: research

Female Athlete Issues for the Team Physician: A Consensus Statement—2017 Update
No abstract available (Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise)
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - April 14, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: SPECIAL COMMUNICATIONS: Team Physician Consensus Statement Source Type: research

Raw and Count Data Comparability of Hip-Worn ActiGraph GT3X+ and Link Accelerometers
To enable inter- and intrastudy comparisons it is important to ascertain comparability among accelerometer models. Purpose The purpose of this study was to compare raw and count data between hip-worn ActiGraph GT3X+ and GT9X Link accelerometers. Methods Adults (n = 26 (n = 15 women); age, 49.1 ± 20.0 yr) wore GT3X+ and Link accelerometers over the right hip for an 80-min protocol involving 12–21 sedentary, household, and ambulatory/exercise activities lasting 2–15 min each. For each accelerometer, mean and variance of the raw (60 Hz) data for each axis and vector magnitude (VM) were extracted in 30...
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - April 14, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Applied Sciences Source Type: research

Estimating Energy Expenditure with ActiGraph GT9X Inertial Measurement Unit
Conclusions The combined use of gyroscope and accelerometer at the hip and ankles improved individual-level prediction of EE compared with accelerometer only. For the wrists, adding gyroscope produced negligible changes. The magnetometer did not meaningfully improve estimates for any algorithms. (Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise)
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - April 14, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Applied Sciences Source Type: research

Protocol for Objective Measurement of Infants’ Physical Activity using Accelerometry
Conclusions Two and three measurement days with the accelerometer placed on the wrist and ankle, respectively, seemed to adequately represent a week of measurement. The accelerometer placed on the wrist had better acceptance by the infants and mothers. (Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise)
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - April 14, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Applied Sciences Source Type: research

Sex Differences in Mechanisms of Recovery after Isometric and Dynamic Fatiguing Tasks
Purpose The purpose of this study was to determine whether supraspinal mechanisms contribute to the sex difference in fatigability during and recovery from a dynamic and isometric fatiguing task with the knee extensors. Methods Transcranial magnetic stimulation and electrical stimulation were used to determine voluntary activation and contractile properties of the knee extensors in 14 men and 17 women (20.8 ± 1.9 yr) after a 1) 60-s sustained, maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC), and 2) dynamic fatiguing task involving 120 maximal voluntary concentric contractions with a 20% MVIC load. Results The...
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - April 14, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Applied Sciences Source Type: research

The Effects of Sex and Motoneuron Pool on Central Fatigue
Conclusion The findings do not support the concept that equivocal findings regarding sex differences in central fatigue are related to augmented effects of group III/IV afferent feedback in males compared with females. (Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise)
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - April 14, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Applied Sciences Source Type: research

Lower-Limb Dominance, Performance, and Fiber Type in Resistance-trained Men
Conclusions Several statistically and clinically relevant asymmetries were identified. The FT% differences between lower limbs were large and common. The findings also seem to conclude that DOM was stronger, moved faster, and contained more MHC I. However, only 23% of participants actually displayed that result. This highlights the need to analyze and report both group and individual data, particularly when interpreting findings across multiple related, but not necessarily causal, measurements. (Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise)
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - April 14, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Applied Sciences Source Type: research

Synchronizing Gait with Cardiac Cycle Phase Alters Heart Rate Response during Running
This study aimed to assess heart rate (HR) and metabolic responses to running when foot strikes are timed to occur exclusively during 1) the systolic phase of the cardiac cycle or 2) the diastolic phase. Methods Ten elite male distance runners performed a testing session on a treadmill at 4.72 m·s−1 while matching their steps to an auditory tone and wearing a chest strap that transmitted accelerometer and ECG signals. Testing comprised eight prompted 3-min stages, where a real-time adaptive auditory tone guided subjects to step with each ECG R-wave (systolic stepping) or alternatively, at 45% of each R-R in...
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - April 14, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Applied Sciences Source Type: research

Postexercise Fructose–Maltodextrin Ingestion Enhances Subsequent Endurance Capacity
Purpose Restoring skeletal muscle and hepatic glycogen content during short-term ( (Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise)
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - April 14, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Applied Sciences Source Type: research

Effect of Carbohydrate Mouth Rinse on Performance after Prolonged Submaximal Cycling
Conclusions Contrary to previous studies, this investigation utilized conditions of high ecological validity including a pretrial snack and CHO during SS. Significant changes in muscle recruitment and time over the last 20% of the TT, along with an average 1.7% improvement in TT time, suggest CHO mouth rinse helps maintain power output late in TT compared with placebo. Although marginal gains were achieved with a CHO mouth rinse (35 s), small performance effects can have significant outcomes in real-world competitions. (Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise)
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - April 14, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Applied Sciences Source Type: research

Perceptual Responses to High- and Moderate-Intensity Interval Exercise in Adolescents
We examined the acute affective, enjoyment, and perceived exertion responses to HIIE compared with moderate-intensity interval exercise (MIIE) in adolescents. Methods Thirteen adolescent boys (mean ± SD: age, 14.0 ± 0.5 yr) performed two counterbalanced exercise conditions: 1) HIIE: 8 × 1-min work intervals at 90% maximal aerobic speed; and 2) MIIE: between 9 and 12 × 1-min work intervals at 90% ventilatory threshold where the number of intervals performed were distance-matched to HIIE. HIIE and MIIE work intervals were interspersed with 75 s active recovery at 4 km·h−1. Affect, en...
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - April 14, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Applied Sciences Source Type: research

Differences in Hip and Knee Running Moments across Female Pubertal Development
This study aimed to investigate whether knee and hip running moments differ across stages of female pubertal development. Methods This was a cross-sectional study comparing the barefoot running moments of 91 prepubertal (n = 31, Tanner stage I), early/midpubertal (n = 30, Tanner stages II and III), and late/postpubertal (n = 30, Tanner stages IV and V) girls. External peak moments for knee abduction (KAbM), knee adduction (KAM), knee flexion (KFM), and knee internal rotation (KIRM) were analyzed. Secondary measures of hip adduction moment at the time of peak KAbM and hip flexion moment at the time of peak KFM were also ...
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - April 14, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Applied Sciences Source Type: research

PRIME: A Novel Low-Mass, High-Repetition Approach to Improve Function in Older Adults
Introduction The ability to maintain functional independence in a rapidly aging population results in an increased life expectancy without corresponding increases in health care costs. The accelerated decline in V˙O2peak after the age of 65 yr is primarily due to peripheral tissue changes rather than centrally mediated factors. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the Peripheral Remodeling through Intermittent Muscular Exercise (PRIME) approach, consisting of a low-mass, high-repetition/duration skeletal muscle focused training regimen would provide superior functional benefits in participants older than 7...
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - April 14, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Applied Sciences Source Type: research

Physical Education Classes, Physical Activity, and Sedentary Behavior in Children
Conclusion Attending PE classes is associated with a higher level of PA and a lower level of SB in and out of school during weekdays in children from countries at various levels of development. (Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise)
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - April 14, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Lower-Extremity Injury Increases Risk of First-Time Low Back Pain in the US Army
Conclusions These findings suggest that a potential second-order effect of LEI is an increased short-term risk for developing LBP, which should be considered during rehabilitation planning. (Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise)
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - April 14, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Physical Activity and Bone Accretion: Isotemporal Modeling and Genetic Interactions
This study aimed to determine if replacing time spent in high- and low-impact physical activity (PA) predicts changes in pediatric bone mineral density (BMD) and content (BMC). Methods We analyzed data from the longitudinal Bone Mineral Density in Childhood Study (N = 2337 with up to seven visits). The participants were age 5–19 yr at baseline, 51.2% were female, and 80.6% were nonblack. Spine, total hip, and femoral neck areal BMD and total body less head (TBLH) BMC Z-scores were calculated. Hours per day spent in high- and low-impact PA were self-reported. Standard covariate–adjusted (partition model) and ...
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - April 14, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Replacement of Sedentary Time with Physical Activity: Effect on Lipoproteins
Purpose Limited data on the relationship between physical activity and lipoprotein particle profiles exist. Our objective was to investigate associations between objectively measured physical activity and lipoprotein particle size and number, and specifically whether substituting daily sedentary behavior with light activity or moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) is associated with beneficial alterations to the lipoprotein profile among adults and those at increased cardiometabolic risk (obese and insulin-resistant subjects). Methods Sedentary behavior and physical activity intensity and duration were measure...
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - April 14, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Role of Chronic Stress and Exercise on Microvascular Function in Metabolic Syndrome
Conclusions The comorbidity between UCMS and MetS does not exacerbate the effects of one another on GA EDD responses, but does lead to the development of other vasculopathy adaptations, which can be partially explained by alterations in NO and ROS production. Importantly, exercise training alleviates most of the negative effects of UCMS on GA function. (Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise)
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - April 14, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Basic Sciences Source Type: research