Three Weeks of Overload Training Increases Resting Muscle Sympathetic Activity—Corrigendum
No abstract available (Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise)
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - July 14, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: SPECIAL COMMUNICATIONS: Corrigendum Source Type: research

The Pediatric Anterior Cruciate Ligament: Evaluation and Management Strategies
No abstract available (Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise)
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - July 14, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: SPECIAL COMMUNICATIONS: Book Reviews Source Type: research

Shoulder and Elbow Injuries in Athletes: Prevention, Treatment, and Return to Sport
No abstract available (Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise)
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - July 14, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: SPECIAL COMMUNICATIONS: Book Reviews Source Type: research

Response
No abstract available (Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise)
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - July 14, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: SPECIAL COMMUNICATIONS: Letters to the Editor-in-Chief Source Type: research

Effort, Discomfort, Group III/IV Afferents, Bioenergetics, and Motor Unit Recruitment
No abstract available (Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise)
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - July 14, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: SPECIAL COMMUNICATIONS: Letters to the Editor-in-Chief Source Type: research

The Effectiveness of Standing on a Balance Board for Increasing Energy Expenditure
This study aimed to investigate differences in energy expenditure (EE), heart rate (HR), productivity, fatigue, and pain while performing desk work while sitting (SIT), standing (STAND), and standing on a balance board (BOARD). Methods Thirty healthy adults (60% female, age = 39.7 ± 11.8 yr, body mass index = 26.7 ± 5.0 kg·m−2) employed in sedentary-based jobs volunteered for this randomized crossover trial. Participants performed typing work in three different positions: SIT, STAND, and BOARD, each condition lasting 30 min. Oxygen consumption (V˙O2) was measured via indirect calorimetry, and...
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - July 14, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Applied Sciences Source Type: research

Influence of Estradiol Status on Physical Activity in Premenopausal Women
Conclusions PA levels seem to be maintained at a higher level in women undergoing pharmacological suppression of ovarian function with E2 add-back when compared with women treated with placebo. These data provide proof-of-concept data that E2 contributes to the regulation of PA in humans. However, given the exploratory nature of this study, future confirmatory investigations will be necessary. (Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise)
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - July 14, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Applied Sciences Source Type: research

Dehydration Impairs Cycling Performance, Independently of Thirst: A Blinded Study
Purpose The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of dehydration on exercise performance independently of thirst with subjects blinded of their hydration status. Methods Seven male cyclists (weight, 72 ± 9 kg; body fat, 14% ± 6%; peak oxygen uptake, 59.4 ± 6 mL·kg−1·min−1) exercised for 2 h on a cycle ergometer at 55% peak oxygen uptake, in a hot-dry environment (35°C, 30% relative humidity), with a nasogastric tube under euhydrated–non-thirst (EUH-NT) and dehydrated–non-thirst (DEH-NT) conditions. In both trials, thirst was matched by drinkin...
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - July 14, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Applied Sciences Source Type: research

Acute High-Intensity Interval Cycling Improves Postprandial Lipid Metabolism
Conclusion Acute MICE improved glucose and insulin metabolism immediately after exercise. However, HIIE performed in the evening exerts more favorable effects than MICE for decreasing postprandial insulin and triglyceride levels and increasing fat oxidation in the next morning. (Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise)
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - July 14, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Applied Sciences Source Type: research

Continuous Glucose Monitoring at High Altitude—Effects on Glucose Homeostasis
Purpose Exposure to high altitude has been shown to enhance both glucose and lipid utilization depending on experimental protocol. In addition, high and low blood glucose levels have been reported at high altitude. We hypothesized that gradual ascent to high altitude results in changes in glucose levels in healthy young adults. Methods Twenty-five adult volunteers, split into two teams, took part in the British Services Dhaulagiri Medical Research Expedition completing 14 d of trekking around the Dhaulagiri circuit in Nepal reaching a peak altitude of 5300 m on day 11 of the trek. Participants wore blinded continuous ...
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - July 14, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Applied Sciences Source Type: research

Intravenous Iron Does Not Augment the Hemoglobin Mass Response to Simulated Hypoxia
Conclusions Iron supplementation appears necessary for optimal erythropoietic adaptation to altitude exposure. IV iron supplementation during 3 wk of simulated live high–train low altitude training offered no additional benefit in terms of the magnitude of the erythropoietic response for nonanemic endurance athletes compared with oral supplementation. (Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise)
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - July 14, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Applied Sciences Source Type: research

Effects of Two Hours of Heavy-Intensity Exercise on the Power–Duration Relationship
Introduction Changes in the parameters of the power–time relationship (critical power (CP) and W′) during endurance exercise would have important implications for performance. We tested the hypotheses that CP and W′, estimated using the end-test power (EP) and the work done above EP (WEP), respectively, during a the 3-min all-out test (3MT), can be reliably determined, and would be lower, after completing 2 h of heavy-intensity exercise. Methods In study 1, six cyclists completed a 3MT immediately after 2 h of heavy-intensity exercise on two occasions to establish the reliability of EP and WEP. In st...
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - July 14, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Applied Sciences Source Type: research

Comparison between Slow Components of HR and V˙O2 Kinetics: Functional Significance
Conclusions The HR slow component occurred at a lower work rate and was more pronounced than the V˙O2 slow component. Exercise prescriptions at specific HR values, when carried out for periods longer than a few minutes, could lead to premature fatigue. (Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise)
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - July 14, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Applied Sciences Source Type: research

Mesocycles with Different Training Intensity Distribution in Recreational Runners
Purpose The aim was to compare mesocycles with progressively increasing workloads and varied training intensity distribution (TID), that is, high-intensity (HIGH,> 4 mmol·L−1 blood lactate), low-intensity (LOW, (Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise)
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - July 14, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Applied Sciences Source Type: research

Neuromuscular Adaptations to Work-matched Maximal Eccentric versus Concentric Training
Conclusion Eccentric training induces greater neuromuscular changes than concentric training even when matched for total work, whereas most of the strength gains during 10-wk training are attributable to the increased neural drive. (Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise)
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - July 14, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Applied Sciences Source Type: research

Genetic Determinants for Leisure-Time Physical Activity
Purpose Leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) is a well-established modifiable lifestyle determinant for multiple cardiometabolic outcomes. However, current understanding of the genetic architecture that may determine LTPA remains very limited. Therefore, we aimed to examine the role of genetic factors in affecting LTPA, which has yet to be investigated comprehensively and in-depth. Methods We conducted a genomewide analysis using 1000 Genomes Project imputed data from the Women’s Health Initiative (n = 11,865), the Jackson Heart Study (n = 3015), and the Framingham Heart Study (n = 7339). A series of secondary ...
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - July 14, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Prepregnancy Fitness and Risk of Gestational Diabetes: A Longitudinal Analysis
Conclusion Study findings indicate that objectively assessed prepregnancy fitness, but not self-reported MVPA or television time, is associated with GDM. Clinicians should counsel women on the benefits of improving fitness in the preconception period, particularly among women at greater risk for GDM. (Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise)
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - July 14, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Timing and Predictors of Mild and Severe Heat Illness among New Military Enlistees
Purpose Heat illnesses are important and potentially fatal conditions among physically active individuals. We determined predictors of heat illness among enlistees in a large military population experiencing common physical activity patterns. Methods We estimated the adjusted odds of mild (MHI) and severe (SHI) heat illness associated with demographic, health-related, and geographic factors among active-duty, US Army soldiers enlisting between January 2011 and December 2014 (N = 238,168) using discrete-time multivariable logistic regression analyses. Results We observed 2612 incident cases of MHI and 732 incident c...
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - July 14, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Exercise Reduces Dopamine D1R and Increases D2R in Rats: Implications for Addiction
Conclusions These findings support the hypothesis that aerobic exercise results in changes in the mesolimbic pathway that could mediate exercise-induced attenuation of drug-seeking behavior. (Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise)
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - July 14, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Basic Sciences Source Type: research

Prolonged Effects of Elevated 17β-Estradiol on Physical Activity after Orchidectomy
Conclusions Wheel running behavior was reduced significantly after orchidectomy and remained low after initial treatment with estrogens, but recovered to near control levels after 2 wk of exposure to estrogens. The estrogenic mechanism regulating wheel running behavior in male mice appears to induce an extensive but slow acting biological mechanism. Understanding the biological drive behind this mechanism may aid in developing useful therapeutic strategies to combat health issues related to physical inactivity. (Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise)
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - July 14, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Basic Sciences Source Type: research

Acute Effect of Noradrenergic Modulation on Motor Output Adjustment in Men
Purpose To determine the role of noradrenergic modulation in the control of motor output, we compared the acute effect of reboxetine (REB), a noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor, to a placebo (PLA) on knee extensors motor performance and cortical and spinal excitability. Methods Eleven young men took part in two randomized experiments during which they received either 8 mg of REB or a PLA. The torque produced during a maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) and its variability (i.e., coefficient of variation) during submaximal contractions ranging from 5% to 50% MVC were measured. Paired electrical (PES) and transcranial mag...
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - July 14, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Basic Sciences Source Type: research

Caffeine, CYP1A2 Genotype, and Endurance Performance in Athletes
The objective of this study was to determine whether variation in the CYP1A2 gene, which affects caffeine metabolism, modifies the ergogenic effects of caffeine in a 10-km cycling time trial. Methods Competitive male athletes (n = 101; age = 25 ± 4 yr) completed the time trial under three conditions: 0, 2, or 4 mg of caffeine per kilogram body mass, using a split-plot randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled design. DNA was isolated from saliva and genotyped for the −163A> C polymorphism in the CYP1A2 gene (rs762551). Results Overall, 4 mg·kg−1 caffeine decreased cycling time by 3% ...
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - July 14, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Basic Sciences Source Type: research

Impaired Trunk Flexor Strength, Fatigability, and Steadiness in Postpartum Women
Purpose To determine whether postpartum women (vaginal and cesarean delivery) have deficits in trunk flexor strength, fatigability and steadiness, compared with nulligravid women, up to 26 wk postpartum. We hypothesized that postpartum women would be weaker, more fatigable, and have greater torque fluctuations than controls, with cesarean delivery showing greater deficits than vaginal delivery. Methods Twenty-two control women (nulligravid) and 29 postpartum women (20–40 yr, 19 who delivered via vaginal birth, 13 via Caesarian section) participated. Postpartum women were tested 8 to 10 wk and 24 to 26 wk postpar...
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - July 14, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Clinical Sciences Source Type: research

Functional Anaerobic and Strength Training in Young Adults with Cerebral Palsy
Conclusions Combined functional anaerobic and strength training increased muscle size, strength, and functional capacity in young adults with cerebral palsy. The addition of anaerobic training to progressive resistance training programs assists in the transfer to improved functional capacity. (Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise)
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - July 14, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Clinical Sciences Source Type: research

High-Frequency Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation Increases Anabolic Signaling
Conclusions An acute bout of LF- and HF-NMES upregulated anabolic signaling with HF-NMES producing a greater anabolic response compared with LF-NMES, suggesting that HF stimulation may provide a stronger stimulus for processes that initiate muscle hypertrophy. In addition, the stimulation frequency parameter should be considered by clinicians in the design of optimal NMES treatment protocols. (Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise)
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - July 14, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Clinical Sciences Source Type: research

Neuromuscular Dysfunction and Cortical Impairment in Sleep Apnea Syndrome
Conclusions This study demonstrates that severe OSA patients have cortical impairments which are likely contributing to their reduced knee extensors strength and endurance. Both cortical impairments and neuromuscular function are not improved after 8 wk of CPAP treatment. (Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise)
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - July 14, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Clinical Sciences Source Type: research

The Orthopaedic Manual: From the Office to the OR A Guide for the Advanced Care Practitioner
No abstract available (Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise)
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - June 15, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: SPECIAL COMMUNICATIONS: Book Reviews Source Type: research

Applied Demography and Public Health in the 21st Century
No abstract available (Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise)
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - June 15, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: SPECIAL COMMUNICATIONS: Book Reviews Source Type: research

Response
No abstract available (Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise)
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - June 15, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: SPECIAL COMMUNICATIONS: Letters to the Editor-in-Chief Source Type: research

Yerba Maté and Exercise Performance
No abstract available (Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise)
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - June 15, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: SPECIAL COMMUNICATIONS: Letters to the Editor-in-Chief Source Type: research

Improving Hip-Worn Accelerometer Estimates of Sitting Using Machine Learning Methods
Conclusions This is among the first algorithms for sitting and standing for hip-worn accelerometer data to be trained from entirely free-living activPAL data. The new algorithm detected prolonged sitting, which has been shown to be the most detrimental to health. Further validation and training in larger cohorts is warranted. (Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise)
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - June 15, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: SPECIAL COMMUNICATIONS: Methodological Advances Source Type: research

Compliance of Adolescent Girls to Repeated Deployments of Wrist-Worn Accelerometers
Conclusions Compliance reduced across deployment points, with the reduction increasing as the deployment points got further apart. High prior compliance and high physical activity level were associated with the most additional wear time. (Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise)
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - June 15, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Applied Sciences Source Type: research

Physical Activity Alters Inflammation in Older Adults by Different Intensity Levels
Purpose To examine the influence of reallocating time spent at different objectively measured physical activity (PA) behaviors on markers of systemic inflammation in older women with different levels of metabolic risk. Methods Accelerometer-based monitoring of PA was conducted in a population of community-dwelling older women (n = 111; age, 65–70 yr) for determination of daily sedentary time, time in light PA (LPA) and moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA). Blood samples were collected for the assessment of the systemic inflammatory markers C-reactive protein (CRP), fibrinogen, and adiponectin. Metabolic risk was asses...
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - June 15, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Applied Sciences Source Type: research

Abdominal Muscle Density Is Inversely Related to Adiposity Inflammatory Mediators
Purpose Skeletal muscle is the largest regulator of glucose metabolism, but few population-based studies have examined the associations between muscle and inflammation. We studied the relationships between abdominal muscle area and density with selected adiposity-associated inflammatory mediators. Methods Nearly 2000 subjects underwent computed tomography of the abdomen and had venous fasting blood drawn concomitantly. The computed tomography scans were interrogated for visceral and subcutaneous fat, as well as abdominal lean muscle areas and densities. We then categorized the muscle into locomotion (psoas) and stabil...
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - June 15, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Applied Sciences Source Type: research

Classification of Intensity in Team Sport Activity
This study aimed to assess the efficacy of critical metabolic power derived from variable-speed movement for classifying intensity in team sport activity. Methods Elite male hockey players (n = 12) completed a series of time trials (100 yards, 400 yards, 1500 yards) and a 3-min all-out test to derive both critical speed (CS) and critical power (CP). Heart rate (HR), blood lactate, and rating of perceived exertion were measured during each protocol. Participants (n = 10) then played two competitive hockey matches. Time spent greater than 85% of maximum HR was compared with time spent above CS (from the time trials) and C...
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - June 15, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Applied Sciences Source Type: research

Plasma Metabolite Profiles in Response to Chronic Exercise
Purpose High-throughput profiling of metabolic status (metabolomics) allows for the assessment of small-molecule metabolites that may participate in exercise-induced biochemical pathways and corresponding cardiometabolic risk modification. We sought to describe the changes in a diverse set of plasma metabolite profiles in patients undergoing chronic exercise training and assess the relationship between metabolites and cardiometabolic response to exercise. Methods A secondary analysis was performed in 216 middle-age abdominally obese men and women (mean ± SD, 52.4 ± 8.0 yr) randomized into one of four gro...
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - June 15, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Applied Sciences Source Type: research

Let the Pleasure Guide Your Resistance Training Intensity
Purpose The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility and reliability of the Feeling Scale (FS) to self-regulate resistance training (RT) intensity. Methods Sixteen sedentary men (39.7 ± 7.5 yr) performed 3 familiarization sessions, 2 one-repetition maximum (1RM) testing, and 16 RT sessions (four sessions for each FS descriptor; randomized). The FS descriptors were “very good” (FS + 5), “good” (FS + 3), “fairly good” (FS + 1), and “fairly bad” (FS − 1). Resistance exercises were leg press, chest press, knee extension, and seated biceps curl. Part...
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - June 15, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Applied Sciences Source Type: research

Acute Serum Cartilage Biomarker Response after Walking and Drop Landing
Introduction An in-depth understanding of the healthy cartilage response to activities of daily living is needed to better understand the complex relationship between cartilage health and loading. The purpose was to assess the role of loading on the acute serum cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP) response in recreationally active individuals. Methods Forty individuals without previous lower extremity injury participated in this repeated-measures study in which each participant completed all conditions during independent data collection sessions separated by at least 1 wk. An antecubital blood draw was performed...
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - June 15, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Applied Sciences Source Type: research

Objectively Differentiating Movement Patterns between Elite and Novice Athletes
Conclusions We have provided proof that an objective data-driven method can detect meaningful movement pattern differences during a movement screening battery based on a binary classifier (i.e., skill level in this case). Improving this method can enhance screening, assessment, and rehabilitation in sport, ergonomics, and medicine. (Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise)
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - June 15, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Applied Sciences Source Type: research

The Immediate Effect of Foot Orthoses on Subtalar Joint Mechanics and Energetics
Conclusions The changes in TP muscle activation and STJ energy absorption were primarily attributed to footwear because the addition of foot orthoses provided little additional effect. We speculate that these results are most likely a result of the compliant material properties of footwear. These results suggest that athletic footwear may be sufficient to absorb energy in the frontal plane and potentially reducing any benefit associated with the addition of foot orthoses. (Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise)
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - June 15, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Applied Sciences Source Type: research

Health-related Fitness in Preschool Children with and without Motor Delays
Conclusions Preschool children with DCD have decreased anaerobic and aerobic fitness compared with TD children; however, VPA and body composition seem to be less affected by DCD in the early years. Early motor interventions may be able to improve fitness and reduce the risk of hypoactivity and obesity as children with DCD get older. (Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise)
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - June 15, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Applied Sciences Source Type: research

Predicting Diaphyseal Cortical Bone Status Using Measures of Muscle Force Capacity
Purpose Muscle cross-sectional area (MCSA) is often used as a surrogate for the forces applied to bones during physical activity. Although MCSA is a strong predictor of cortical bone status, its use makes assumptions about the relationship between muscle size and force that are inaccurate. Furthermore, to measure MCSA and other muscle force surrogates typically requires expensive and/or radiative laboratory equipment. Thus, this study aimed to determine whether clinical laboratory– and field-based methodologies for measuring muscular force capacity accounted for similar variance in diaphyseal cortical bone status a...
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - June 15, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Applied Sciences Source Type: research

Power-to-Strength Ratio Influences Performance Enhancement with Contrast Training
Purpose The effectiveness of contrast training (CST) for improving explosive exercise performance is modulated by various individual characteristics; however, further work is required to define these factors. Methods Subelite male Australian Football players (n = 22; age, 19 ± 2 yr; body mass, 80.4 ± 9.4 kg; one-repetition maximum [1-RM] half squat, 172 ± 18 kg; mean ± SD) completed two experimental trials involving two sets of squat jumps (six repetitions at 30% 1-RM) performed either alone (CTL condition) or after half squats (six repetitions at 85% 1-RM; CST condition). Results Squat ...
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - June 15, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Applied Sciences Source Type: research

Changes in Cycling and Incidence of Overweight and Obesity among Danish Men and Women
Conclusions Continued cycling compared with no cycling was associated with lower odds for abdominal and general obesity. Also, late-in-life initiation of cycling was associated with lower odds for abdominal obesity relative to no cycling. (Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise)
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - June 15, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Vascular Nitric Oxide–Superoxide Balance and Thrombus Formation after Acute Exercise
Conclusion An acute bout of strenuous exercise in mice reduced NO and in parallel increased •O2− production in aorta. This response was most pronounced 2 h after exercise. Surprisingly, the reduced NO and increased •O2− production in mice after exercise did not result in increased platelet-dependent thrombogenicity. These results show that transient reduction in NO bioavailability does not modify thromboresistance in healthy mice after exercise. (Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise)
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - June 15, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Basic Sciences Source Type: research

Changes in Motor Coordination Induced by Local Fatigue during a Sprint Cycling Task
Conclusion These results demonstrate that the nervous system readily adapts coordination in response to peripheral fatigue by (i) decreasing the activation of adjacent nonfatigued muscles to maintain an effective pedal force orientation (despite reducing pedal power) and (ii) increasing the neural drive to muscles involved in the flexion phases such that the decrease in total pedal power is limited. (Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise)
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - June 15, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Basic Sciences Source Type: research

Muscle Fiber Hypertrophy and Myonuclei Addition: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis
Conclusions Although a more consistent myonuclei addition occurs when muscle fiber hypertrophy is>22%, our results challenge the concept of a muscle hypertrophy threshold as significant myonuclei addition occurs with lower muscle hypertrophy (i.e., (Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise)
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - June 15, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Basic Sciences Source Type: research

Valid but Invalid: Suboptimal ImPACT Baseline Performance in University Athletes
This study aimed to investigate the frequency of valid yet suboptimal Immediate Postconcussion Assessment and Cognitive Test (ImPACT) performance in university athletes and to explore the benefit of subsequent ImPACT administrations. Methods This descriptive laboratory study involved baseline administration of ImPACT to 769 university athletes per the institution’s concussion management protocol. Testing was proctored in groups of ≤2 participants. Participants who scored below the 16th percentile according to ImPACT normative data were readministered the ImPACT test up to two additional times because these scor...
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - June 15, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Clinical Sciences Source Type: research

Exercise Improves Physical Activity and Comorbidities in Obese Adults with Asthma
This study aimed to assess the effects of exercise on DLPA, asthma symptoms, and psychosocial comorbidities in obese adults with asthma. Methods Fifty-five grade II obese adults with asthma were randomly assigned to either a weight loss program + exercise program (WL + E group, n = 28) or a weight loss program + sham (WL + S group, n = 27). The WL + E group incorporated aerobic and resistance muscle training into the weight loss program (nutrition and psychological therapies), whereas the WL + S group performed breathing and stretching exercises. DLPA, asthma symptoms, sleep quality, and anxiety and depression symptoms ...
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - June 15, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Clinical Sciences Source Type: research

Aerobic Training Improves Quality of Life in Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome
Purpose To investigate the effects of a supervised aerobic exercise training intervention on health-related quality of life (HRQL), cardiorespiratory fitness, cardiometabolic profile, and affective response in overweight/obese women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Methods Twenty-seven overweight/obese inactive women with PCOS (body mass index, ≥ 25 kg·m−2; age 18 to 34 yr) were allocated into an exercise group (n = 14) and a control group (n = 13). Progressive aerobic exercise training was performed three times per week (~150 min·wk−1) over 16 wk. Cardiorespiratory fitness, HRQL, an...
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - June 15, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Clinical Sciences Source Type: research