Sports Medicine in the Pediatric Office: A Multimedia Case-Based Text with Video, 2nd Edition
No abstract available (Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise)
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - January 16, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: SPECIAL COMMUNICATIONS: Book Reviews Source Type: research

Assessment in Applied Sport Psychology
No abstract available (Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise)
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - January 16, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: SPECIAL COMMUNICATIONS: Book Reviews Source Type: research

Response
No abstract available (Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise)
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - January 16, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: SPECIAL COMMUNICATIONS: Letters to the Editor-in-Chief Source Type: research

Comments on “HIIT in the Real World”
No abstract available (Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise)
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - January 16, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: SPECIAL COMMUNICATIONS: Letters to the Editor-in-Chief Source Type: research

Exercise Increases Mucosal-associated Invariant T Cell Cytokine Expression but Not Activation or Homing Markers
Conclusions The MAIT cell numbers undergo a partial biphasic response after submaximal exercise and appear to be preferentially mobilized within T cells; however, the magnitude of the submaximal response was attenuated relative to maximal exercise. Stimulated MAIT cells increase TNFα expression, indicating greater responsiveness to pathogens after acute exercise. (Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise)
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - January 16, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: APPLIED SCIENCES Source Type: research

Dynamic Cerebral Autoregulation Is Maintained during High-Intensity Interval Exercise
This study assessed the effect of HIIE on dynamic CA. Methods Nine healthy men (age, 24 ± 3 yr; mean ± SD) warmed up at 50%–60% maximal workload (Wmax) for 5 min before HIIE including four 4-min bouts of exercise at 80%–90% Wmax interspaced by four 3-min bouts at 50% to 60% Wmax. Transcranial Doppler determined middle cerebral artery mean blood velocity (MCA Vmean), and brachial artery catheterization determined mean arterial pressure (MAP). Dynamic CA was evaluated by transfer function analysis of changes in MAP and MCA Vmean. Results The HIIE increased MAP (from 92 ± 9 to 104 &plusm...
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - January 16, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: APPLIED SCIENCES Source Type: research

Effects of Sprint-Interval and Endurance Respiratory Muscle Training Regimens
Conclusion One month of RMSIT and RMET shows similar improvements in respiratory muscle performance despite different duration of training sessions. Also, muscular adaptations might differ. (Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise)
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - January 16, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: APPLIED SCIENCES Source Type: research

The Effect of Dietary Protein on Protein Metabolism and Performance in Endurance-trained Males
This study aimed to determine how varying protein intakes, including a new tracer-derived safe intake, alter whole body protein metabolism and exercise performance during training. Methods Using a double-blind randomized crossover design, 10 male endurance-trained runners (age, 32 ± 8 yr; V˙O2peak, 65.9 ± 7.9 mL O2·kg−1·min−1) performed three trials consisting of 4 d of controlled training (20, 5, 10, and 20 km·d−1, respectively) while consuming diets providing 0.94 (LOW), 1.20 (MOD), and 1.83 (HIGH) g protein·kg−1·d−1. Whole body protein sy...
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - January 16, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: APPLIED SCIENCES Source Type: research

Metabolic Costs of Standing and Walking in Healthy Military-Age Adults: A Meta-regression
Conclusion Practitioners can use the new LCDA walking equation to calculate energy expenditure during standing and walking at speeds (Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise)
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - January 16, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: APPLIED SCIENCES Source Type: research

Effects of Napping on Alertness, Cognitive, and Physical Outcomes of Karate Athletes
Conclusions A 30-min nap enhances cognitive outcomes. It is also an effective strategy to overcome the cognitive and physical deteriorations in performances caused either by sleep loss or by fatigue induced by exhaustive trainings in the afternoon. (Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise)
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - January 16, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: APPLIED SCIENCES Source Type: research

Survival of the Fastest: The Multivariate Optimization of Performance Phenotypes
Conclusions These performance trade-offs among the disciplines preclude the realization of a generalist athlete except in the most elite triathletes, a result similar to the “big houses, big cars” phenomenon in life history evolution. This distinction between trait combinations that are favored for optimal performance versus constrained by trade-offs was only apparent when accounting for individual level variation in athletic performance. Our results provide further evidence that meaningful trade-offs may be missed if individual variation in quality is disregarded. (Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise)
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - January 16, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: APPLIED SCIENCES Source Type: research

Fitness Mediates Activity and Sedentary Patterns Associations with Adiposity in Youth
Conclusions Time in MVPA and accumulating ST in shorter sedentary bouts is inversely related to adiposity. However, these associations may be mediated by CRF. Emphasis should be given to programs that target increases in MVPA, which may influence CRF while reducing sedentary recreational behaviors. (Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise)
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - January 16, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: APPLIED SCIENCES Source Type: research

Individual Variability in Waist Circumference and Body Weight in Response to Exercise
Conclusions Substantial variability in response to standardized exercise was observed for change in both WC and body weight after accounting for the variability not attributed to exercise. Potential determinants of the interindividual variability in response to exercise remain unclear. (Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise)
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - January 16, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: APPLIED SCIENCES Source Type: research

Critical Velocity during Intermittent Running with Changes of Direction
Conclusions The CVST provides a reliable and accurate determination of CV and can be used by coaches, athletes, and trainers to better understand the physiological impact specific to practice or competitions involving intermittent change of direction running. (Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise)
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - January 16, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: APPLIED SCIENCES Source Type: research

Effects of EPO on Blood Parameters and Running Performance in Kenyan Athletes
Conclusions Four weeks of rHuEpo increased the HGB and HCT of Kenyan endurance runners to a lesser extent than in SCO (~17% vs ~10%, respectively) and these alterations were associated with similar improvements in running performance immediately after the rHuEpo administration (~5%) and 4 wk after rHuEpo (~3%). (Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise)
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - January 16, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: APPLIED SCIENCES Source Type: research

Type 1 Muscle Fiber Hypertrophy after Blood Flow–restricted Training in Powerlifters
Purpose To investigate the effects of blood flow–restricted resistance exercise (BFRRE) on myofiber areas (MFA), number of myonuclei and satellite cells (SC), muscle size and strength in powerlifters. Methods Seventeen national level powerlifters (25 ± 6 yr [mean ± SD], 15 men) were randomly assigned to either a BFRRE group (n = 9) performing two blocks (weeks 1 and 3) of five BFRRE front squat sessions within a 6.5-wk training period, or a conventional training group (Con; n = 8) performing front squats at 60%–85% of one-repetition maximum (1RM). The BFRRE consisted of four sets (first and l...
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - January 16, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: APPLIED SCIENCES Source Type: research

Physical Activity Associates with Muscle Insulin Sensitivity Postbariatric Surgery
Purpose Bariatric surgery is considered as an effective therapeutic strategy for weight loss in severe obesity. Remission of type 2 diabetes is often achieved after the surgery. We investigated whether increase in self-reported habitual physical activity associates with improved skeletal muscle insulin sensitivity and reduction of fat depots after bariatric surgery. Methods We assessed self-reported habitual physical activity using Baecke questionnaire in 18 diabetic and 28 nondiabetic patients with morbid obesity (median age, 46 yr; body mass index, 42.0 kg·m−2) before and 6 months after bariatric surger...
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - January 16, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: CLINICAL SCIENCES Source Type: research

Validation of the 6-min Walk Test for Predicting Peak V˙O2 in Cancer Survivors
Purpose To assess the quality of the relationship between V˙O2peak estimated from patient outcomes on the 6-min walk test (6MWT) and the V˙O2peak calculated from patient outcomes on the University of Northern Colorado Cancer Rehabilitation Institute (UNCCRI) treadmill protocol. Methods Cancer survivors (N = 187) completed the UNCCRI treadmill protocol and a 6MWT 1 wk apart in randomized order to obtain V˙O2peak. Values from the UNCCRI treadmill protocol were compared against four common 6MWT V˙O2peak prediction equations. Results All four 6MWT prediction equations significantly (P (Source: Medicine and Science ...
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - January 16, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: CLINICAL SCIENCES Source Type: research

Baseline Concussion Clinical Measures Are Related to Sensory Organization and Balance
This study aimed to examine relationships among baseline demographics, symptom severity, computerized neurocognitive outcomes, and balance performance in collegiate athletes. Methods Collegiate varsity athletes (N = 207, age = 19.3 ± 1.0 yr) participating in an ongoing clinical research program who completed concussion baseline assessments including a demographic questionnaire, a graded symptom checklist, a neurocognitive assessment, and the Sensory Organization Test (SOT) were included in this study. The SOT composite equilibrium score (COMP) and three sensory ratio scores—vestibular (VEST), visual (VIS), ...
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - January 16, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: CLINICAL SCIENCES Source Type: research

Health-related Outcomes after a Youth Sport–related Knee Injury
Conclusion Youth that suffer a sport-related knee injury demonstrate on average more negative health-related outcomes consistent with future osteoarthritis compared with uninjured matched controls 3–10 yr after injury. These negative outcomes differ by sex and time since injury. (Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise)
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - January 16, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: CLINICAL SCIENCES Source Type: research

Walking Ground Reaction Force Post-ACL Reconstruction: Analysis of Time and Symptoms
Conclusion Relative to asymptomatic individuals, symptomatic individuals are more likely to underload the ACLR limb early after ACLR (i.e., 24 months). We propose these differences in lower-extremity loading during walking might have implications for long-term knee health, and should be considered when designing therapeutic interventions for individuals with an ACLR. (Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise)
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - January 16, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: CLINICAL SCIENCES Source Type: research

Two-Year Agility Maintenance Training Slows the Progression of Parkinsonian Symptoms
Introduction Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative condition and it is unclear if long-term nonpharmaceutical interventions can slow the progression of motor and nonmotor symptoms and lower drug dose. Methods In a randomized trial, after an initial 3-wk-long, 15-session supervised high-intensity sensorimotor agility exercise (E) program designed to improve postural instability, the exercise+maintenance (E + M, n = 19) group continued to exercise three times per week for 2 yr, whereas E (n = 16), and the no exercise and no maintenance control (C, n = 20) continued habitual living. Eight outc...
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - January 16, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: CLINICAL SCIENCES Source Type: research

Role of Relative Malnutrition in Exercise Hypogonadal Male Condition
Conclusion Significant reversible hypogonadism can develop after intensive and prolonged exercise. One of the mechanisms of hypogonadism in endurance athletes performing intensive exercise could be relative malnutrition. Further studies to evaluate the role of nutrition and body mass index in male endurance athletes presenting with hypogonadism are needed to identify the underlying mechanism of this condition. (Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise)
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - January 16, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: CLINICAL SCIENCES Source Type: research

Sodium Hyaluronate and Platelet-Rich Plasma for Partial-Thickness Rotator Cuff Tears
Conclusion Our study provided evidence of the efficacy of PRP injection in the healing of small to medium PTRCT. Moreover, the combined injection of SH and PRP yielded a better clinical outcome than SH or PRP alone. (Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise)
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - January 16, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: CLINICAL SCIENCES Source Type: research

Motor Control and Learning: A Behavioral Emphasis, 6th Edition
No abstract available (Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise)
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - December 15, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: SPECIAL COMMUNICATIONS: Book Reviews Source Type: research

Essentials of Biostatistics in Public Health, 3rd Edition
No abstract available (Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise)
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - December 15, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: SPECIAL COMMUNICATIONS: Book Reviews Source Type: research

The Health Risks of Obesity Have Not Been Exaggerated
No abstract available (Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise)
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - December 15, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: SPECIAL COMMUNICATIONS: Contrasting Perspectives Source Type: research

The Health Risks of Obesity Have Been Exaggerated
No abstract available (Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise)
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - December 15, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: SPECIAL COMMUNICATIONS: Contrasting Perspectives Source Type: research

Beneficial Intervertebral Disc and Muscle Adaptations in High-Volume Road Cyclists
Conclusion Despite previous studies reporting higher than average prevalence of back pain in cyclists, the high-volume road cyclists in our cohort showed no anatomical or functional deficiency in spinal structures. By contrast, we found evidence for beneficial adaptations to the IVD and psoas muscles in high-volume cyclists compared with referents. These data support the notion that cycling is not detrimental to the spine, rather, by contrast, may be associated with beneficial changes at the spine. (Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise)
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - December 15, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: APPLIED SCIENCES Source Type: research

Mediating Effect of Muscle on the Relationship of Physical Activity and Bone
Conclusions Using robust mediation analysis, this is the first study addressing the indirect effect (through muscle) of PA across childhood and adolescence on proximal femur bone parameters. To improve bone health at the proximal femur, the results suggest PA interventions during growth that increase muscle mass, particularly in females. (Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise)
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - December 15, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: APPLIED SCIENCES Source Type: research

Fat-free Mass Characteristics of Muscular Physique Athletes
Purpose Simple body composition models, such as two-compartment models, use assumptions which may be violated in specific athletic populations (e.g., the constancy of fat-free mass density [DFFM] and hydration [TBW:FFM]). The present analysis examined FFM characteristics of muscular physique athletes. Methods Twenty-six athletes (16 males: 94.5 ± 9.9 kg, 12.2% ± 4.2% fat; 10 females: 63.8 ± 5.7 kg, 19.7% ± 4.9% fat) completed duplicate assessments of dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA), bioimpedance spectroscopy (BIS), and single-frequency and multifrequency bioelectrical impedance analy...
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - December 15, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: APPLIED SCIENCES Source Type: research

Supraspinal Fatigue and Neural-evoked Responses in Lowlanders and Sherpa at 5050 m
Conclusions Although neither MVC torque loss nor development of supraspinal fatigue was different between groups, neural-evoked responses and cerebral oxygenation indices were less perturbed in Sherpa. This represents an advantage for maintenance of homeostasis, presumably due to bequeathed genotype and long-term altitude adaptations. (Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise)
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - December 15, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: APPLIED SCIENCES Source Type: research

Normobaric Hypoxia Reduces V˙O2 at Different Intensities in Highly Trained Runners
Introduction We sought to determine the effect of low and moderate normobaric hypoxia on oxygen consumption and anaerobic contribution during interval running at different exercise intensities. Methods Eight runners (age, 25 ± 7 yr, V˙O2max: 72.1 ± 5.6 mL·kg−1·min−1) completed three separate interval sessions at threshold (4 × 5 min, 2-min recovery), V˙O2max (8 × 90 s, 90-s recovery), and race pace (10 × 45 s, 1 min 45 s recovery) in each of; normoxia (elevation: 580 m, FiO2: 0.21), low (1400 m, 0.195) or moderate (2100 m, 0.18) normobaric hypoxia. The absolu...
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - December 15, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: APPLIED SCIENCES Source Type: research

Preexercise Carbohydrate Ingestion and Transient Hypoglycemia: Fasting versus Feeding
Conclusions These results suggest that transient hypoglycemia after preexercise CHO ingestion occurs in some, but not all, subjects, under both conditions. Furthermore, subjects with enhanced insulin responses seem to be more prone to transient hypoglycemia in the fasted condition. (Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise)
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - December 15, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: APPLIED SCIENCES Source Type: research

Does Exercise Alter Gut Microbial Composition? A Systematic Review
Conclusions Exercise was associated with changes in gut microbial composition, an increase in butyrate producing bacteria and an increase in fecal butyrate concentrations independent of diet in rodents and humans. The overall quality of evidence in the studies in humans was low and the risk of bias was unclear. Future studies with standardized reporting and rigorous dietary control in larger samples are needed to further determine the influence of exercise on gut microbial composition. (Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise)
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - December 15, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: APPLIED SCIENCES Source Type: research

Aftereffects of Cognitively Demanding Acute Aerobic Exercise on Working Memory
Conclusions Cognitive fatigue caused by additional cognitive demands during aerobic exercise may cancel beneficial postexercise effects on working memory. Cognitively demanding acute aerobic exercise appears to be less effective than simple aerobic exercise in improving executive function. (Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise)
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - December 15, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: APPLIED SCIENCES Source Type: research

Thermal Behavior Differs between Males and Females during Exercise and Recovery
This study tested the hypothesis that females rely on thermal behavior to a greater extent during and after exercise, relative to males. Methods In a 24°C ± 1°C; (45% ± 10% RH) environment, 10 males (M) and 10 females (F) (22 ± 2 yr) cycled for 60 min (metabolic heat production: M, 117 ± 18 W·m−2; F, 129 ± 21 W·m−2), followed by 60-min recovery. Mean skin and core temperatures, skin blood flow and local sweat rates were measured continually. Subjects controlled the temperature of their dorsal neck to perceived thermal comfort using a custom-made device...
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - December 15, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: APPLIED SCIENCES Source Type: research

Repetitive Head Impacts in Football Do Not Impair Dynamic Postural Control
Conclusions A single competitive football season did not adversely affect dynamic postural control when comparing football players to cheerleaders who do not experience repetitive head impacts. Furthermore, there were limited relationships with head impact kinematics suggesting that a single season of football does not adversely affect most outcome measures of instrumented dynamic postural control. These findings are consistent with most studies which fail to identify clinical differences related to repetitive head impacts. (Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise)
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - December 15, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: APPLIED SCIENCES Source Type: research

Differences in Hip and Knee Landing Moments across Female Pubertal Development
Purpose The higher prevalence of knee injuries among adolescent females may be related to female pubertal development. The aim of this study was to determine whether girls exhibit higher triplanar knee and hip moments with more advanced pubertal development during a single-limb landing. Methods Lower-limb biomechanics of 93 females grouped according to prepubertal (n = 31), early/midpubertal (n = 31) and late/postpubertal (n = 31) development performed a single-limb drop lateral jump. Peak triplanar knee moments and hip moments at the time of peak knee moments were derived from a Vicon motion analysis system and conce...
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - December 15, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: APPLIED SCIENCES Source Type: research

The Role of the Midfoot in Drop Landings
Purpose The midfoot is instrumental to foot function; however, quantifying its roles in human movement has been difficult. A forceful dynamic activity like landing may help elucidate the midfoot’s contribution to foot energetics and function. The main purpose of this study was to measure midtarsal joint kinematics and kinetics during a barefoot single-leg landing task. A secondary aim of this study was to explore the relationship between static foot posture and dynamic midfoot function. Methods In a cross-sectional study design, 48 females (age = 20.4 ± 1.8 yr, body mass index = 21.6 ± 1.7 kg&middo...
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - December 15, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: APPLIED SCIENCES Source Type: research

Walking in Minimalist Shoes Is Effective for Strengthening Foot Muscles
Conclusions Minimalist shoe walking is as effective as foot strengthening exercises in increasing foot muscle size and strength. The convenience of changing footwear rather than performing specific exercises may result in greater compliance. (Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise)
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - December 15, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: APPLIED SCIENCES Source Type: research

Resistance Training Volume Enhances Muscle Hypertrophy but Not Strength in Trained Men
Conclusions Marked increases in strength and endurance can be attained by resistance-trained individuals with just three 13-min weekly sessions over an 8-wk period, and these gains are similar to that achieved with a substantially greater time commitment. Alternatively, muscle hypertrophy follows a dose–response relationship, with increasingly greater gains achieved with higher training volumes. (Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise)
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - December 15, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: APPLIED SCIENCES Source Type: research

Augmented Anabolic Responses after 8-wk Cycling with Blood Flow Restriction
Conclusions Eight weeks of ET-BFR can increase muscle strength and induce similar muscle hypertrophy responses to RT while V˙O2max responses also increased postintervention even with a significantly lower work load compared with ET. Our findings provide new insight to some of the molecular mechanisms mediating adaptation responses with ET-BFR and the potential for this training protocol to improve muscle and cardiorespiratory capacity. (Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise)
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - December 15, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: APPLIED SCIENCES Source Type: research

No Difference between Spray Dried Milk and Native Whey Supplementation with Strength Training
Conclusion Supplementation with milk or native whey during a 12-wk strength training period did not differentially affect muscle mass and strength in young untrained individuals. (Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise)
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - December 15, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: APPLIED SCIENCES Source Type: research

Equivalent Hypertrophy and Strength Gains in β-Hydroxy-β-Methylbutyrate- or Leucine-supplemented Men
Conclusions β-Hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate added to whey did not result in greater increases in any measure of muscle mass, strength, or hormonal concentration compared to leucine added to whey. Our results show that HMB is no more effective in stimulating RT-induced hypertrophy and strength gains than leucine. (Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise)
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - December 15, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: APPLIED SCIENCES Source Type: research

Leucine Metabolites Do Not Enhance Training-induced Performance or Muscle Thickness
Leucine metabolites, α-hydroxyisocaproic acid (α-HICA) and β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate (calcium, HMB-Ca and free acid, HMB-FA), have been proposed to augment resistance training-induced changes in body composition and performance. Purpose We aimed to conduct a double-blind randomized controlled pragmatic trial to evaluate the effects of off-the-shelf leucine metabolite supplements of α-HICA, HMB-FA, and HMB-Ca on resistance training-induced changes in muscle thickness and performance. Methods Forty men were randomly assigned to receive α-HICA (n = 10, fat-free mass [FFM] = 62.0 &plusm...
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - December 15, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: APPLIED SCIENCES Source Type: research

Predictors of Dropout in Exercise Trials in Older Adults: The Generation 100 Study
Conclusion This is the largest study to identify dropout predictors in a long-term exercise program in older adults. Our findings provide new and important knowledge about potential risk factors of dropout in long-term exercise programs in older adults. (Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise)
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - December 15, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: EPIDEMIOLOGY Source Type: research

Demographic-specific Validity of the Cancer Prevention Study-3 Sedentary Time Survey
This study examined the 1-yr test–retest reliability and criterion validity of sedentary time survey items in a subset of participants from a large, nationwide prospective cohort. Methods Participants included 423 women and 290 men age 31 to 72 yr in the Cancer Prevention Study-3. Reliability was assessed by computing Spearman correlation coefficients between responses from prestudy and poststudy surveys. Validity was assessed by comparing survey-estimated sedentary time with a latent variable representing true sedentary time estimated from the 7-d diaries, accelerometry, and surveys through the method of triads. ...
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - December 15, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: EPIDEMIOLOGY Source Type: research

Physical Activity Patterns and Mortality: The Weekend Warrior and Activity Bouts
This study aimed to examine how accelerometer-assessed physical activity accumulation patterns (e.g., is activity performed daily or only 1 or 2 d·wk−1 or is activity accrued in bouts) may affect the association with mortality. Methods Adults (N = 3438), age 40 yr and older, who wore an accelerometer (ActiGraph 7164), were drawn from the longitudinal follow-up of the National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey (2003–2006), a population-based survey of the United States. Accelerometer-assessed moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) was described by activity patterns. Participants engaging...
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - December 15, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: EPIDEMIOLOGY Source Type: research

Brain-derived Neurotrophic Factor Pathway after Downhill and Uphill Training in Rats
Conclusion The cerebral response of the BDNF pathway to a treadmill activity is dependent on exercise intensity, but not on the type of contraction (eccentric vs concentric). (Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise)
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - December 15, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: BASIC SCIENCES Source Type: research