The Future of Orthopaedic Sports Medicine: What Should We Be Worried About?
No abstract available (Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise)
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - September 15, 2020 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: SPECIAL COMMUNICATIONS: Book Reviews Source Type: research

Exercise and Sporting Activity during Pregnancy: Evidence-Based Guidelines
No abstract available (Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise)
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - September 15, 2020 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: SPECIAL COMMUNICATIONS: Book Reviews Source Type: research

Adaptive Control of Dynamic Balance across the Adult Lifespan
Conclusions Aging affects the adaptive control of dynamic balance during perturbed but not unperturbed treadmill walking with controlled walking speed. The ML MoS increased across the lifespan, whereas bilateral single support times decreased. The lack of aging effects on unperturbed walking suggests that participants’ balance should be challenged to assess aging effects during gait. The decrease in double support time and increase in cadence suggests that older adults use the increased cadence as a balance control strategy during challenging locomotor tasks. (Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise)
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - September 15, 2020 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: APPLIED SCIENCES Source Type: research

Hourly 4-s Sprints Prevent Impairment of Postprandial Fat Metabolism from Inactivity
Conclusions These data indicate that hourly very short bouts (4 s) of maximal intensity cycle sprints interrupting prolonged sitting can significantly lower the next day’s postprandial plasma triglyceride response and increase fat oxidation after a high-fat meal in healthy young adults. Given that these improvements were elicited from only 160 s of nonfatiguing exercise per day, it raises the question as to what is the least amount of exercise that can acutely improve fat metabolism and other aspects of health. High postprandial plasma lipids (PPL; i.e., triglycerides) are a risk factor for cardiovascular disease....
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - September 15, 2020 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: APPLIED SCIENCES Source Type: research

Ergogenic Effect of Nitrate Supplementation: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis
Although over 100 studies and reviews have examined the ergogenic effects of dietary nitrate (NO3−) supplementation in young, healthy men and women, it is unclear if participant and environmental factors modulate the well-described ergogenic effects—particularly relevant factors include biological sex, aerobic fitness, and fraction of inspired oxygen (FiO2) during exercise. To address this limitation, the literature was systematically reviewed for randomized, crossover, placebo-controlled studies reporting exercise performance outcome metrics with NO3− supplementation in young, healthy adults. Of the 2033...
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - September 15, 2020 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: APPLIED SCIENCES Source Type: research

The Relation between Age and Sex on Whole-Body Heat Loss during Exercise-Heat Stress
Introduction Increasing age is associated with decrements in sweat rate that compromise whole-body total heat loss (evaporative + dry heat exchange) in both men and women during moderate-to-vigorous exercise in dry heat. Similarly, young women also display reductions in sweating (that lower evaporative heat loss) relative to young men in such conditions. Nevertheless, it remained unclear whether these effects act synergistically to exacerbate the age-related decline in whole-body total heat loss in women relative to men. We therefore assessed the interrelation between age and sex on whole-body total heat loss during ligh...
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - September 15, 2020 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: APPLIED SCIENCES Source Type: research

Burn Injury Does Not Exacerbate Heat Strain during Exercise while Wearing Body Armor
Conclusions A 20% total body surface area simulated torso burn injury does not further exacerbate heat strain when wearing a combat uniform. These findings suggest that the physiological strain associated with torso burn injuries is not different from noninjured individuals when wearing protective clothing during an acute exercise-heat stress. (Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise)
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - September 15, 2020 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: APPLIED SCIENCES Source Type: research

Review of High-Intensity Interval Training for Cognitive and Mental Health in Youth
Purpose High-intensity interval training (HIIT) has emerged as a time-efficient strategy to improve children’s and adolescents’ health-related fitness in comparison to traditional training methods. However, little is known regarding the effects on cognitive function and mental health. Therefore, the aim of this systematic review was to evaluate the effect of HIIT on cognitive function (basic information processing, executive function) and mental health (well-being, ill-being) outcomes for children and adolescents. Methods A systematic search was conducted, and studies were eligible if they 1) included a HI...
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - September 15, 2020 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: APPLIED SCIENCES Source Type: research

Not Just for Joints: The Associations of Moderate-to-Vigorous Physical Activity and Sedentary Behavior with Brain Cortical Thickness
Introduction Cortical thinning is associated with aging; however, lifestyle factors can moderate this relationship. Two distinct lifestyle behaviors associated with brain health are regular moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and limited sedentary behavior (SB). However, it is unclear whether MVPA and SB levels contribute to cortical thickness independent of each other. We therefore investigated the independent relationships of MVPA and SB with cortical thickness using baseline data from a randomized controlled trial. Methods At baseline, we measured MVPA and SB for 7 d using the SenseWear Mini. A subset of ...
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - September 15, 2020 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: APPLIED SCIENCES Source Type: research

No Sex Difference in Mental Fatigue Effect on High-Level Runners’ Aerobic Performance
Conclusions The prolonged cognitive task provoked mental fatigue, anticipated attainment of maximal perceived effort, and worsened aerobic performance in professional runners with no sex differences. Although we did not contrasted athletes with nonathletes, our results suggest that being an athlete may somehow prevent women from developing greater mental fatigue and suffering more from its underlying effects compared with men. (Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise)
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - September 15, 2020 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: APPLIED SCIENCES Source Type: research

Head Impact Telemetry System’s Video-based Impact Detection and Location Accuracy
Conclusion This work provides data on the HIT System’s impact detection and location accuracy during high school football special teams plays using game video analysis that has not been previously published. Based on our data, we believe that the HIT System is useful for estimating population-based impact location distributions for special teams plays. (Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise)
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - September 15, 2020 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: APPLIED SCIENCES Source Type: research

Plantar Flexor Function in Adults with and without Prader–Willi Syndrome
Purpose Prader–Willi Syndrome (PWS) is a form of congenital obesity characterized by excessive body fat, hypotonia, muscle weakness, and physical/cognitive disability. However, the sources of muscle dysfunction and their contribution to mobility are unclear. The purposes of this study were to 1) compare plantar flexor function between adults with and without PWS; and 2) to examine the relationship between plantar flexor function and gait speed in adults with PWS. Methods Participants included 10 adults with PWS, 10 adults without PWS and with obesity, and 10 adults without PWS and without obesity (matched on age...
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - September 15, 2020 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: APPLIED SCIENCES Source Type: research

Associations between Range of Motion and Tissue Stiffness in Young and Older People
Conclusion These results suggest that the tissues limiting passive ankle dorsiflexion ROM are muscle and nerve for young and older people, respectively, whereas stretch tolerance influences passive ROM for both groups. This implies that the relative contribution of nonmuscular tissues to joint flexibility become stronger than that of muscles with age. (Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise)
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - September 15, 2020 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: APPLIED SCIENCES Source Type: research

Effect of Strength Training on Glycemic Control and Adiponectin in Diabetic Children
This study aimed to examine the effect of isolated supervised progressive resistance training with duration of more than 32 wk on muscle strength, metabolic control and adiponectin. Method Twenty-one children with type 1 diabetes mellitus were separated into an intervention group (IG) (n = 11 age 11.0 ± 0.8) and a control group (CG) (n = 10 age 11.30 ± 0.7) without training to control for the effect of progressive resistance training on muscle strength, hemoglobin (HbA)1C and adiponectin. All parameters were assessed before and after a period of 32 wk. No attempt was made to change diet and the daily behav...
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - September 15, 2020 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: APPLIED SCIENCES Source Type: research

Muscle Metabolism and Fatigue during Simulated Ice Hockey Match-Play in Elite Players
Conclusions Our findings demonstrate that a simulated ice hockey match-play scenario encompasses a high on-ice heart rate response and glycolytic loading resulting in a marked degradation of muscle glycogen, particularly in specific sub-groups of fibers. This may be of importance both for fatigue in the final stages of a game and for subsequent recovery. (Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise)
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - September 15, 2020 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: APPLIED SCIENCES Source Type: research

Physical Inactivity among Ghanaians in Ghana and Ghanaian Migrants in Europe
Conclusions Findings indicate high prevalence of physical inactivity among Ghanaians in all sites, particularly among Ghanaians in Europe. Hence, there is the need to take local context into account to improve PA. (Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise)
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - September 15, 2020 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: EPIDEMIOLOGY Source Type: research

Domain-Specific Physical Activity, Pain Interference, and Muscle Pain after Activity
Conclusions Associations between domain-specific physical activity and pain outcomes were not uniform. Within the transport and leisure domains, physical activity was inversely associated with pain-related outcomes, whereas household physical activity was positively associated with pain scores within the working sample. (Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise)
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - September 15, 2020 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: EPIDEMIOLOGY Source Type: research

Fatigue-related Feedback from Calf Muscles Impairs Knee Extensor Voluntary Activation
Conclusions Maintained group III/IV afferent feedback from the fatigued plantarflexor muscles reduced maximal force and voluntary activation of the unfatigued knee extensors, suggesting that afferents from the calf act centrally to inhibit the ability to drive the motoneurones of the knee extensors. (Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise)
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - September 15, 2020 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: BASIC SCIENCES Source Type: research

Prevention of Decompression Sickness by Novel Artificial Oxygen Carriers
Conclusion Intravenous application of A-AOC was well tolerated and effective in reducing the occurrence of DCS, and animals showed significantly higher survival rates and less symptoms compared with the albumin group (A-0-0). Analysis of histological results and fast reacting plasma parameters confirmed the preventive properties of A-AOC. For three decades, studies have demonstrated the therapeutic efficacy of perfluorocarbon (PFC) in reducing the onset of decompression trauma. However, none of these emulsion-based preparations are accepted for therapeutic use in the western world, mainly because of severe side effects ...
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - September 15, 2020 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: BASIC SCIENCES Source Type: research

Molecular Pathways Involved in Aerobic Exercise Training Enhance Vascular Relaxation
Conclusions The results of the present study provide a molecular basis for exercise-induced NO bioavailability in healthy femoral arteries. Increased caveolae domain and eNOS expression/activity in Tr arteries are associated with downregulation of miRNA-124a and -155, as well as are involved with higher antioxidant defense, subsequently inducing a favorable endothelium-dependent milieu in Tr arteries. (Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise)
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - September 15, 2020 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: BASIC SCIENCES Source Type: research

Microvascular Function Is Impaired after Short-Term Immobilization in Healthy Men
We examined whether 2 wk of one-leg immobilization would impair leg microvascular function and to what extent a subsequent period of intense aerobic cycle training could restore function. Methods Study participants were healthy young men (n = 12; 20–24 yr of age). Leg microvascular function was determined before the intervention, after the immobilization period, and after a 4-wk exercise training period. Microvascular function was assessed as the vasodilator response to intra-arterial infusion of acetylcholine and sodium nitroprusside and as the vasoconstrictor response to endogenous noradrenaline release induced ...
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - September 15, 2020 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: BASIC SCIENCES Source Type: research

The Menopause Alters Aerobic Adaptations to High-Intensity Interval Training
Introduction Postmenopausal women have lower resting cardiac function than premenopausal women, but whether the menopause influences maximal cardiac output and hence exercise capacity is unclear. It is possible that premenopausal and postmenopausal women achieve similar improvements in maximal aerobic capacity (V˙O2max) and cardiac output with exercise training via different regional left ventricular muscle function (“LV mechanics”), as suggested by in vitro and animal studies. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of the menopause on LV mechanics and adaptations to exercise training. Methods...
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - September 15, 2020 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: BASIC SCIENCES Source Type: research

Using TENS to Enhance Therapeutic Exercise in Individuals with Knee Osteoarthritis
This study aimed to determine the effect of TENS + TE on patient-reported function, quadriceps strength, and voluntary activation, as well as physical performance compared with sham TENS + TE (Sham) and TE alone in individuals with symptomatic KOA and QVAF. Methods Ninety individuals participated in a double-blinded randomized controlled trial. Everyone received 10 standardized TE sessions of physical therapy. TENS + TE and Sham groups applied the respective devices during all TE sessions and throughout activities of daily living over 4 wk. The Western Ontario and McMaster University Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC), quadri...
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - September 15, 2020 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: CLINICAL SCIENCES Source Type: research

Exercise Training Impacts Skeletal Muscle Clock Machinery in Prediabetes
Purpose Disruption of the skeletal muscle molecular clock leads to metabolic disease, whereas exercise may be restorative, leading to improvements in metabolic health. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of a 12-wk exercise intervention on skeletal muscle molecular clock machinery in adults with obesity and prediabetes, and determine whether these changes were related to exercise-induced improvements in metabolic health. Methods Twenty-six adults (age, 66 ± 4.5 yr; body mass index (BMI), 34 ± 3.4 kg·m−2; fasting plasma glucose, 105 ± 15 mg·dL−1) particip...
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - September 15, 2020 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: CLINICAL SCIENCES Source Type: research

Protein Supplementation and Resistance Training in Childhood Cancer Survivors
Purpose Muscle weakness, low lean body mass, and poor physical performance are prevalent among adult survivors of childhood cancer (survivors). We evaluated the feasibility and effects of resistance training with and without protein supplementation on lean body mass and muscle strength among survivors. Methods This double-blind placebo-controlled trial enrolled survivors ≥18 to (Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise)
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - September 15, 2020 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: CLINICAL SCIENCES Source Type: research

Muscle Oxidative Capacity Is Reduced in Both Upper and Lower Limbs in COPD
Conclusions Compared with CON, muscle oxidative capacity was lower in COPD in both upper (−20%) and lower (−30%) limbs. These data suggest that mitochondrial loss in COPD is not isolated to locomotor muscles. (Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise)
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - September 15, 2020 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: CLINICAL SCIENCES Source Type: research

Association between Objective Activity Intensity and Heart Rate Variability: Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factor Mediation (CARDIA)—Erratum
No abstract available (Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise)
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - August 14, 2020 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: SPECIAL COMMUNICATIONS: Erratum Source Type: research

Alternating Bouts of Sitting and Standing Attenuate Postprandial Glucose Responses—Corrigendum
No abstract available (Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise)
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - August 14, 2020 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: SPECIAL COMMUNICATIONS: Corrigendum Source Type: research

Williams’ Nutrition for Health, Fitness, and Sport, 12th Edition
No abstract available (Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise)
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - August 14, 2020 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: SPECIAL COMMUNICATIONS: Book Reviews Source Type: research

Mechanics, Pathomechanics, and Injury in the Overhead Athlete: A Case-Based Approach to Evaluation, Diagnosis and Management
No abstract available (Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise)
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - August 14, 2020 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: SPECIAL COMMUNICATIONS: Book Reviews Source Type: research

Response
No abstract available (Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise)
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - August 14, 2020 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: SPECIAL COMMUNICATIONS: Letters to the Editor-in-Chief Source Type: research

Acute High-Intensity Interval Exercise in Multiple Sclerosis with Mobility Disability
No abstract available (Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise)
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - August 14, 2020 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: SPECIAL COMMUNICATIONS: Letters to the Editor-in-Chief Source Type: research

Response
No abstract available (Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise)
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - August 14, 2020 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: SPECIAL COMMUNICATIONS: Letters to the Editor-in-Chief Source Type: research

Methodological Issues Related to Exercise Interventions during Fasted or Fed State
No abstract available (Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise)
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - August 14, 2020 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: SPECIAL COMMUNICATIONS: Letters to the Editor-in-Chief Source Type: research

Response
No abstract available (Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise)
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - August 14, 2020 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: SPECIAL COMMUNICATIONS: Letters to the Editor-in-Chief Source Type: research

On “The Basics of Training for Muscle Size and Strength”
No abstract available (Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise)
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - August 14, 2020 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: SPECIAL COMMUNICATIONS: Letters to the Editor-in-Chief Source Type: research

Select Issues in Pain Management for the Youth and Adolescent Athlete
No abstract available (Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise)
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - August 14, 2020 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: SPECIAL COMMUNICATIONS: Team Physician and Consensus Statement Source Type: research

Automated High-Frequency Observations of Physical Activity Using Computer Vision
Conclusions Computer vision algorithms are promising for automated assessment of setting-based physical activity. Such tools would require less manpower than human observation, produce more and potentially more accurate data, and allow for ongoing monitoring and feedback to inform interventions. (Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise)
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - August 14, 2020 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: SPECIAL COMMUNICATIONS: Methodological Advances Source Type: research

Translating Ramp V˙O2 into Constant Power Output: A Novel Strategy that Minds the Gap
This study aimed to model the dissociation in the V˙O2/power output (PO) relationship between ramp incremental (RI) and constant work rate (CWR) exercise and to develop a novel strategy that resolves this gap and enables an accurate translation of the RI V˙O2 response into a constant PO. Methods Nine young men completed two RI tests (30 and 15 W·min−1) and CWR tests at seven intensities across exercise intensity domains. The V˙O2/PO relationship for RI and CWR exercise was modeled, and the dissociation was compared in terms of PO. The accuracy of three translation strategies was tested in the moderate-in...
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - August 14, 2020 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: SPECIAL COMMUNICATIONS: Methodological Advances Source Type: research

A “Step–Ramp–Step” Protocol to Identify the Maximal Metabolic Steady State
Conclusions In healthy individuals cycling at their preferred cadence, the SRS protocol and the RCP are capable of accurately predicting the PO associated with maximal metabolic steady state. The oxygen uptake (V̇O2) at the respiratory compensation point (RCP) closely identifies with the maximal metabolic steady state. However, the power output (PO) at RCP cannot be determined from contemporary ramp-incremental exercise protocols. (Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise)
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - August 14, 2020 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: SPECIAL COMMUNICATIONS: Methodological Advances Source Type: research

Does Mental Fatigue Negatively Affect Outcomes of Functional Performance Tests?
Purpose Mental fatigue impairs psychomotor skill performance by affecting visuomotor reaction time, accuracy, and decision-making. Recently, neurocognitive functional performance tests (FPT) that integrate these outcomes have been developed. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of mental fatigue on traditional and neurocognitive FPT in healthy adults. Methods Fourteen volunteers (four women; mean ± SD age, 22 ± 1 yr; height, 176.9 ± 8.4 cm; weight, 69.7 ± 10.4 kg) participated in a randomized counterbalanced crossover design. A 100% incongruent Stroop color word test of 90 min was...
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - August 14, 2020 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: APPLIED SCIENCES Source Type: research

The Sexes Do Not Differ for Neural Responses to Submaximal Elbow Extensor Fatigue
Conclusions Results support the scant published data on the elbow extensors and indicate no sex-related differences for isometric fatigue of this muscle group. The motoneuronal and VA data suggest that metabolite buildup and group III/IV muscle afferent activity were similar for females and males. (Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise)
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - August 14, 2020 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: APPLIED SCIENCES Source Type: research

Casein Ingestion Does Not Increase Muscle Connective Tissue Protein Synthesis Rates
This study aimed to assess the effect of dietary protein ingestion on intramuscular connective tissue protein synthesis rates during overnight recovery from a single bout of resistance exercise. Methods Thirty-six healthy, young males were randomly assigned to one of three treatments. One group ingested 30 g intrinsically L-[1-13C]-phenylalanine-labeled casein protein before sleep (PRO, n = 12). The other two groups performed a bout of resistance exercise in the evening and ingested either placebo (EX, n = 12) or 30 g intrinsically L-[1-13C]-phenylalanine-labeled casein protein before sleep (EX + PRO, n = 12). Continuou...
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - August 14, 2020 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: APPLIED SCIENCES Source Type: research

Sports Drink Intake Pattern Affects Exogenous Carbohydrate Oxidation during Running
Conclusion Ingestion of a larger volume of carbohydrate solution at less frequent intervals during prolonged submaximal running increased exogenous carbohydrate oxidation rates. Neither drinking pattern resulted in increased markers of GI discomfort to a severe level. (Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise)
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - August 14, 2020 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: APPLIED SCIENCES Source Type: research

Glycogen Utilization during Running: Intensity, Sex, and Muscle-Specific Responses
This study aimed to quantify net glycogen utilization in the vastus lateralis (VL) and gastrocnemius (G) of male (n = 11) and female (n = 10) recreationally active runners during three outdoor training sessions. Methods After 2-d standardization of carbohydrate intakes (6 g·kg−1 body mass per day), glycogen was assessed before and after 1) a 10-mile road run (10-mile) at lactate threshold, 2) 8 × 800-m track intervals (8 × 800 m) at velocity at V˙O2max, and 3) 3 × 10-min track intervals (3 × 10 min) at lactate turnpoint. Results Resting glycogen concentration was lower in the G o...
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - August 14, 2020 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: APPLIED SCIENCES Source Type: research

Significant Dose–Response between Exercise Adherence and Hemoglobin A1c Change
Conclusions There was a dose–response relationship between adherence to prescribed exercise and HbA1c reduction suggesting that glycemic control is improved more in individuals with type 2 diabetes with a higher training volume. Dose–response relationships existed for aerobic and combined training but not resistance training. These findings support aerobic and combined exercise prescriptions outlined in clinical practice guidelines. (Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise)
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - August 14, 2020 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: APPLIED SCIENCES Source Type: research

Sprint and Strength Training Modulates Autophagy and Proteostasis in Aging Sprinters
Conclusions These findings suggest that a new intensive training stimulus that combines strength training with sprint training may increase muscle autophagosome content in a basal state without any evidence of impaired autophagosome clearance in masters sprinters. Simultaneously, the combined training may have a selective effect on the content of UPR signaling components. (Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise)
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - August 14, 2020 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: APPLIED SCIENCES Source Type: research

Longitudinal Training-related Hematological Changes in Boys and Girls from Ages 12 to 15 yr
Purpose Natural growth and maturation cause hemoglobin mass (Hbmass) and blood volume (BV) to increase during childhood and adolescence. Whether endurance training during the same period can cause further increases in these variables is not clear. Also, body composition develops differently in girls and boys during puberty, and the effect of these differences on hematological variables has not been previously studied. Methods Forty-two endurance athletes (End group; 24 boys) and 34 athletes from other sports (non-End group; 23 boys) were tested at ages 12, 13, and 15 yr for Hbmass, BV, plasma volume (PV), red cell vol...
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - August 14, 2020 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: APPLIED SCIENCES Source Type: research

The Prevalence of Expiratory Flow Limitation in Youth Elite Male Cyclists
METHODS Twelve ET youth male cyclists (16.3 ± 1.0 yr (13–18 yr), 176.5 ± 6.2 cm, 64.2 ± 5.9 kg) and 12 CON subjects (17.6 ± 2.2 yr (13–18 yr), 177.9 ± 7.1 cm, 74.8 ± 11.2 kg) completed an incremental exercise test to determine peak oxygen consumption (V˙O2peak) on a cycle ergometer. Maximal flow volume loops (MFVL), forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1), FEV1/FVC, forced expiratory flow between 25% and 75% of FVC, and peak expiratory flow were assessed before and after exercise, with inspiratory capacity maneuvers and dyspnea ratings mea...
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - August 14, 2020 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: APPLIED SCIENCES Source Type: research

Cardiovascular Drift and Maximal Oxygen Uptake during Running and Cycling in the Heat
Conclusions CV strain (indexed as CV drift) during prolonged exercise in the heat corresponds to reduced V˙O2max, irrespective of exercise mode or the thermal gradient. As such, the upward drift in heart rate associated with CV drift reflects increased relative metabolic intensity (%V˙O2max) during prolonged cycling or running in the heat. (Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise)
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - August 14, 2020 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: APPLIED SCIENCES Source Type: research