A Simple Nonexercise Model of Cardiorespiratory Fitness Predicts Long-Term Mortality—Corrigendum
No abstract available (Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise)
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - May 19, 2020 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: SPECIAL COMMUNICATION: Corrigenda Source Type: research

Peak Ventilation Reference Standards from Exercise Testing: From the FRIEND Registry—Corrigendum
No abstract available (Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise)
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - May 19, 2020 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: SPECIAL COMMUNICATION: Corrigenda Source Type: research

Concussion Care Manual, 2nd Edition
No abstract available (Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise)
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - May 19, 2020 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: SPECIAL COMMUNICATION: Book Review Source Type: research

Concussion and Traumatic Encephalopathy: Causes, Diagnosis and Management
No abstract available (Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise)
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - May 19, 2020 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: SPECIAL COMMUNICATION: Book Review Source Type: research

Response
No abstract available (Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise)
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - May 19, 2020 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: SPECIAL COMMUNICATION: Letters to the Editor-in-Chief Source Type: research

Pressure Prescription for Blood Flow Restriction Exercise
No abstract available (Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise)
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - May 19, 2020 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: SPECIAL COMMUNICATION: Letters to the Editor-in-Chief Source Type: research

Factors that Impact Self-reported Wellness Scores in Elite Australian Footballers
Conclusions The isolated impact of the individual variables on wellness was negligible. However, after accounting for the individual athlete variability, the external load variables examined collectively were able to explain wellness to a large extent. These results validate the sensitivity of wellness to monitor individual athletes’ responses to the external loads imposed on them. (Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise)
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - May 19, 2020 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: APPLIED SCIENCES Source Type: research

Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy in Sports Musculoskeletal Injuries
Hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) is a well-established treatment for a variety of conditions. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy is the administration of 100% oxygen breathing in a pressure vessel at higher than atmospheric pressure (1 atmosphere absolute = 101 kPa). Typically, treatment is given daily for between 1 and 2 h at pressures of 2.0 to 2.8 ATA, depending on the indication. Sporting injuries are often treated over 3 to 10 sessions. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy has been documented to be effective and is approved in 14 medical indications by the Undersea and Hyperbaric Medical Society, including, but not limited to, carbon mon...
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - May 19, 2020 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: APPLIED SCIENCES Source Type: research

Impact of Menstrual Blood Loss and Oral Contraceptive Use on Oxygen-carrying Capacity
Purpose The effect of menstrual blood loss on oxygen-carrying capacity remains equivocal. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of menstrual blood loss on hemoglobin mass in young, healthy women. Methods Twenty-one women (age, 23 ± 6 yr; height, 168 ± 7 cm; weight, 66.1 ± 12.6 kg) with regular menstrual cycles, either using (n = 10) or not using oral contraceptives, participated in the study. Hemoglobin mass was assessed using carbon monoxide rebreathing on three separate occasions over the course of one menstrual cycle. Results Visits for women not using oral contraceptives wer...
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - May 19, 2020 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: APPLIED SCIENCES Source Type: research

No Influence of Low-, Medium-, or High-Dose Tyrosine on Exercise in a Warm Environment
Conclusion Exercise performance in a warm environment was not influenced by tyrosine availability in recreationally trained male individuals. The results provide novel data informing future studies, on the tyrosine dose maximizing the circulating ratio of tyrosine/amino acids competing for brain uptake. (Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise)
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - May 19, 2020 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: APPLIED SCIENCES Source Type: research

Lactalbumin, Not Collagen, Augments Muscle Protein Synthesis with Aerobic Exercise
Introduction Protein ingestion and the ensuing hyperaminoacidemia stimulates skeletal muscle protein synthesis in the postexercise period. This response facilitates muscle remodeling, which is important during intensified training. The aim of this study was to determine whether supplementation with α-lactalbumin (LA), with high leucine and tryptophan contents, would improve responses to short periods of intensified aerobic training compared with supplementation with an isonitrogenous quantity of collagen peptides (CP). Methods Endurance-trained participants (5 male, 6 female, 24 ± 4 yr, V˙O2 = 53.2 &plus...
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - May 19, 2020 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: APPLIED SCIENCES Source Type: research

Predictors of the Acute Postprandial Response to Breaking Up Prolonged Sitting
Conclusions Being female, South Asian, or having a higher BMI, all predicted greater reductions in postprandial insulin, whereas being female and having a higher BMI predicted greater reductions in postprandial glucose when sitting was interrupted with light physical activity. These results could help to guide personalized interventions in high-risk participants for whom breaking prolonged sitting time with light activity may yield the greatest therapeutic potential. (Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise)
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - May 19, 2020 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: APPLIED SCIENCES Source Type: research

Pectin-Alginate Does Not Further Enhance Exogenous Carbohydrate Oxidation in Running
Conclusion To maximize exogenous carbohydrate oxidation during moderate-intensity running, athletes may benefit from consuming glucose(polymer)–fructose mixtures over glucose-based carbohydrates alone, but the addition of pectin and sodium alginate offers no further benefit. (Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise)
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - May 19, 2020 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: APPLIED SCIENCES Source Type: research

Difference in Interoception between Long-Distance Runners and Sprinters: An Event-related Potential Study
Conclusion In contrast to our prediction, sprinters exhibited a superior interoceptive ability and a greater activity of the insular cortex relative to long-distance runners. These results suggest that sprinters might be more susceptible to their internal bodily signals compared with long-distance runners, exhibiting greater activation of the anterior insula. (Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise)
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - May 19, 2020 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: APPLIED SCIENCES Source Type: research

Tibial Acceleration during Running Is Higher in Field Testing Than Indoor Testing
Conclusion Tibial impact acceleration magnitude is influenced by testing procedures in runners. These findings support measuring tibial impact acceleration in the field to determine new metrics associated with injury. (Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise)
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - May 19, 2020 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: APPLIED SCIENCES Source Type: research

Footwear and Cadence Affect Gait Variability in Runners with Patellofemoral Pain
Purpose To examine the effects of increased cadence and minimalist footwear on lower-limb variability in runners with patellofemoral pain (PFP). Methods Fifteen (12 female, 3 male) runners with PFP ran on an instrumented treadmill with three-dimensional motion capture in three randomly ordered conditions: (i) standard shoe at preferred cadence, (ii) standard shoe +10% cadence, and (iii) minimalist shoe at preferred cadence. Vector coding was used to calculate coordination variability between strides for select lower-limb joint couplings. Approximate entropy was calculated to assess continuous variability for segment k...
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - May 19, 2020 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: APPLIED SCIENCES Source Type: research

Reducing Core Stability Influences Lower Extremity Biomechanics in Novice Runners
Conclusions An experimentally induced decrement in core stability in novice runners caused an increased peak knee flexion moment during stance, which has previously been associated with increased patellofemoral contact pressure during running. Therefore, these results demonstrate that insufficient core stability in novice runners may be a risk factor for developing patellofemoral pain. Other results did not support a role of core stability in other common overuse running injuries in this population. (Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise)
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - May 19, 2020 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: APPLIED SCIENCES Source Type: research

Relationship of Knee Forces to Subjective Function Pre- and Post-ACL Reconstruction
The objective was to determine if knee joint contact and ligament forces differ between pre– and post–anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstructed states and if these forces relate to their patient’s respective subjective functional ability scores. Methods Twelve patients performed a hopping task before and after reconstruction. Magnetic resonance images and OpenSim were used to develop patient-specific models in static optimization and joint reaction analyses. Questionnaires concerning each patient’s subjective functional ability were also collected and correlated with knee joint contact and l...
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - May 19, 2020 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: APPLIED SCIENCES Source Type: research

Groin Injuries in Soccer: Investigating the Effect of Age on Adductor Muscle Forces
Conclusions The reduced angular velocities of the U15 and the increase in muscle forces between all age groups were attributed to the increasing segment masses and length. This increases the moments of inertia of the leg segments thereby demanding higher forces to accelerate the segments. Most likely, the stress put upon the adductors apophyses increases during adolescence, as tendons are known to adapt slower than muscles, increasing the risk for overuse injuries. Coaches could use lower-limb mass as an indicator for fast increases in the force demand to identify players who would benefit from a reduced training volume....
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - May 19, 2020 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: APPLIED SCIENCES Source Type: research

Effect of High-Intensity Training and Asthma on the V˙O2 Kinetics of Adolescents
Conclusion These findings highlight the potential utility of school-based HIIT as a strategy to enhance the V˙O2 kinetics of youth, regardless of the presence of asthma. (Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise)
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - May 19, 2020 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: APPLIED SCIENCES Source Type: research

Association between Objective Activity Intensity and Heart Rate Variability: Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factor Mediation (CARDIA)
Conclusions Accelerometer-estimated VPA was associated with higher (i.e., improved) HRV. Light-intensity PA also demonstrated a positive association. Mediation analyses suggested these associations may be most attributable to glucose-insulin dynamics. (Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise)
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - May 19, 2020 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: EPIDEMIOLOGY Source Type: research

Longitudinal Changes in Children’s Accelerometer-derived Activity Pattern Metrics
The objective of this study was to quantify age-related changes in accelerometer-derived day-level physical activity and sedentary behavior pattern metrics (i.e., number, length, and temporal dispersion of bouts and breaks) across 3 yr of middle childhood. Differences by child sex and weekend versus weekday were examined. Method Children (N = 169, 54% female, 56% Hispanic; 8–12 yr old at enrollment) participated in a longitudinal study with six assessments across 3 yr. Day-level moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA; i.e., total minutes, number of short ( (Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise)
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - May 19, 2020 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: EPIDEMIOLOGY Source Type: research

Neuromuscular versus Mechanical Stretch-induced Changes in Contralateral versus Ipsilateral Muscle
Conclusions The contralateral central motor drive stretch-induced inhibition seems to account for the force reduction in CM. In SM, both central inhibition and mechanical factors concurred. (Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise)
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - May 19, 2020 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: BASIC SCIENCES Source Type: research

Accumulation of Skeletal Muscle T Cells and the Repeated Bout Effect in Rats
Conclusions The robust T-cell accumulation, particularly the CD4 subset, after contraction-induced damage suggests a role for these cells in muscle repair and adaptation to muscle damaging contractions. Moreover, T cells are unlikely to mediate the protective adaptations of the repeated bout effect in a manner similar to their role in adaptive immunity. (Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise)
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - May 19, 2020 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: BASIC SCIENCES Source Type: research

Effects of Long-Term Exercise on Liver Cyst in Polycystic Liver Disease Model Rats
Conclusions The present results indicated that long-term moderate-intensity exercise ameliorates liver cyst formation and fibrosis with the inhibition of signaling cascades responsible for cellular proliferation and fibrosis in PCK rats. (Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise)
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - May 19, 2020 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: BASIC SCIENCES Source Type: research

Return to Sport Tests’ Prognostic Value for Reinjury Risk after Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction: A Systematic Review
Conclusions Based on level 2 evidence, passing a combination of functional tests with predetermined cutoff points used as RTS criteria is associated with reduced reinjury rates. A combination of isokinetic strength and hop tests is recommended during RTS testing. (Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise)
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - May 19, 2020 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: CLINICAL SCIENCES Source Type: research

No Clinical Predictors of Postconcussion Musculoskeletal Injury in College Athletes
Conclusion The concussion participants were 1.78 times more likely to sustain a subsequent MSK; however, no demographic, injury characteristic, or concussion assessments predicted the MSK. Thus, clinicians are not able to utilize common neurological measures or participant demographics to identify those at risk for subsequent lower extremity MSK. Injury prevention strategies should be considered for collegiate student-athletes upon premature return to participation after a concussion to reduce the subsequent MSK. (Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise)
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - May 19, 2020 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: CLINICAL SCIENCES Source Type: research

An Estimation Model for Cardiorespiratory Fitness in Adults with Rheumatoid Arthritis
Conclusions The new RA equations better predicted CRF in individuals with RA, preventing overestimation in low-fit persons. The new equation should be preferred when estimating CRF in individuals with RA. The alternative equation, without patient global assessment, is useful for individuals with RA in population-based studies. (Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise)
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - May 19, 2020 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: CLINICAL SCIENCES Source Type: research

Heavy Resistance Training in Breast Cancer Patients Undergoing Adjuvant Therapy
Background and Purpose Adjuvant breast cancer therapy may reduce maximal muscle strength, muscle mass, and functional performance. Although maximal strength training (MST) has the potential to counteract this debilitating outcome and is shown to be superior to low- and moderate-intensity strength training, it is unknown if it can elicit effective adaptations in patients suffering treatment-induced adverse side effects. Methods Fifty-five newly diagnosed stage I to III breast cancer patients (49 ± 7 yr) scheduled for adjuvant therapy were randomized to MST or a control group. The MST group performed 4 × 4 ...
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - May 19, 2020 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: CLINICAL SCIENCES Source Type: research

Aerobic Recovery after Radical Prostatectomy: A Case Study—Corrigendum
No abstract available (Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise)
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - April 16, 2020 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Special Communications: Corrigendum Source Type: research

Sports Injuries of the Hand and Wrist
No abstract available (Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise)
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - April 16, 2020 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Special Communications: Book Review Source Type: research

Sports Injuries of the Foot and Ankle: A Focus on Advanced Surgical Techniques
No abstract available (Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise)
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - April 16, 2020 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Special Communications: Book Review Source Type: research

Response
No abstract available (Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise)
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - April 16, 2020 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Special Communications: Letters to the Editor-in-Chief Source Type: research

Toward Personalizing Exercise to Support Circadian Entrainment of Glycemia in Type 2 Diabetes
No abstract available (Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise)
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - April 16, 2020 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Special Communications: Letters to the Editor-in-Chief Source Type: research

Free-living Evaluation of Laboratory-based Activity Classifiers in Preschoolers
Conclusion The accuracy of laboratory-based activity classifiers for preschool-age children was attenuated when tested on new data collected under free-living conditions. Future studies should train and test machine learning activity recognition algorithms using accelerometer data collected under free-living conditions. (Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise)
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - April 16, 2020 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Special Communications: Methodological Advances Source Type: research

Physical Activity, Sedentary Behavior, and White Matter Microstructure in Children with Overweight or Obesity
Conclusions Our results suggest that PA and watching television are related to white matter microstructure in children with overweight or obesity. However, longitudinal large-scale studies are needed to confirm and expand these findings. (Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise)
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - April 16, 2020 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: APPLIED SCIENCES Source Type: research

Exercise Intensity and Recovery on Circulating Brain-derived Neurotrophic Factor
Conclusions Plasma BDNF levels increased in an intensity-dependent manner with SIT eliciting the highest BDNF concentration immediately postexercise. These results identify SIT as a time-efficient exercise modality to promote brain health through BDNF release. (Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise)
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - April 16, 2020 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: APPLIED SCIENCES Source Type: research

Smoking and Biochemical, Performance, and Muscle Adaptation to Military Training
We examined measures of oxidative stress (malondialdehyde [MDA], lipid hydroperoxides), inflammation (C-reactive protein, interleukin-6), antioxidants (vitamins A and E and carotenes) and hormones (cortisol, testosterone, insulin-like growth factor-1) in 65 male British Army Infantry recruits (mean ± SD age, 21 ± 3 yr; mass, 75.5 ± 8.4 kg; height, 1.78 ± 0.07 m) at week 1, week 5, and week 10 of basic training. Physical performance (static lift, grip strength, jump height, 2.4 km run time, and 2-min press up and sit up scores) was examined and lower-leg muscle and adipose cross-sectional area an...
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - April 16, 2020 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: APPLIED SCIENCES Source Type: research

The Acute: Chronic Workload Ratio Is Associated with Injury in Junior Tennis Players
Purpose Session RPE (sRPE) is used to track internal training/competition load in athletes using a metric known as the acute to chronic workload ratio (ACWR). Research that reported on team sports has determined that if the acute load is higher than the chronic load, athletes are likely to sustain injury. No studies, however, have attempted to investigate internal load and injury in a tennis population despite the rigorous training loads. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate if sRPE ACWR is associated with injury in junior tennis players over a 7-month time period. Methods Forty-two junior tennis pl...
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - April 16, 2020 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: APPLIED SCIENCES Source Type: research

Isometric Exercise with Large Muscle Mass Improves Redox Balance and Blood Pressure in Hypertensive Adults
Conclusions The data showed that only 8 min of IES with a large muscle mass elicits an elevated pro-oxidant activity leading to a greater NO− bioavailability, increases antioxidant reaction, and consequently reduces BP in hypertensive patients. (Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise)
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - April 16, 2020 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: APPLIED SCIENCES Source Type: research

Greater Lower Limb Fatigability in People with Prediabetes than Controls
Introduction The study purpose was to compare perceived fatigability and performance fatigability after high-velocity contractions with knee extensor muscles between people with prediabetes, people with type 2 diabetes (T2D), and controls without diabetes matched for age, body mass index, and physical activity. Methods Twenty people with prediabetes (11 men, 9 women: 63.1 ± 6.0 yr, 26.9 ± 4.2 kg·m−2, 8030 ± 3110 steps per day), 39 with T2D (23 men, 16 women: 61.2 ± 8.5 yr, 29.4 ± 6.4 kg·m−2, 8440 ± 4220 steps per day), and 27 controls (13 men, 14 wome...
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - April 16, 2020 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: APPLIED SCIENCES Source Type: research

Tramadol Does Not Improve Performance or Impair Motor Function in Trained Cyclists
Purpose To investigate the hypothesis that a therapeutic oral dose of Tramadol improves cycling time trial performance and compromises motor-cognitive performance in highly trained cyclists. Methods Following two familiarization trials, 16 highly trained cyclists completed a preloaded time trial (1 h at 60% of peak power followed by a 15-km time trial) after ingestion of 100 mg Tramadol or placebo in a double-blind placebo-controlled counterbalanced crossover design separated by at least 4 d washout. Visuomotor tracking and math tasks were completed during the preload (n = 10) to evaluate effects on cognition and fine...
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - April 16, 2020 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: APPLIED SCIENCES Source Type: research

Injured Runners Do Not Replace Lost Running Time with Other Physical Activity
Conclusions Injured runners do not replace lost running time with other forms of MVPA. Running-related injury and running-related pain should not be conflated; although reporting injury is associated with a reduction in physical activity in recreational runners, high pain levels are not. (Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise)
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - April 16, 2020 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: APPLIED SCIENCES Source Type: research

The COSMED K5 in Breath-by-Breath and Mixing Chamber Mode at Low to High Intensities
Conclusion The K5 demonstrated accurate to acceptable reliability in BBB and DMC at all metabolic rates. Validity was accurate at low and moderate metabolic rates. At high metabolic rates, BBB underestimated V˙O2, whereas DMC showed superior validity. To test endurance athletes at high workloads, the DMC mode is recommended. (Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise)
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - April 16, 2020 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: APPLIED SCIENCES Source Type: research

Cardiorespiratory Fitness, Physical Activity, and Insulin Resistance in Children
Conclusions Children with higher BF% together with less MVPA or higher levels of sedentary time had the highest insulin and HOMA-IR. Cardiorespiratory fitness appropriately controlled for body size and composition using LM was not related to insulin resistance among children. (Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise)
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - April 16, 2020 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: APPLIED SCIENCES Source Type: research

Trail Runners Cannot Reach V˙O2max during a Maximal Incremental Downhill Test
Purpose The purpose of this study was twofold: (i) determine if well-trained athletes can achieve similar peak oxygen uptake (V˙O2peak) in downhill running (DR) versus level running (LR) or uphill running (UR) and (ii) investigate if lower limb extensor muscle strength is related to the velocity at V˙O2peak (vV˙O2peak) in DR, LR, and UR. Methods Eight athletes (V˙O2max = 68 ± 2 mL·min−1·kg−1) completed maximal incremental tests in LR, DR (−15% slope), and UR (+15% slope) on a treadmill (+1, +1.5, and +0.5 km·h−1 every 2 min, respectively) while cardiorespiratory ...
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - April 16, 2020 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: APPLIED SCIENCES Source Type: research

Differences in Respiratory Muscle Responses to Hyperpnea or Loaded Breathing in COPD
Introduction We aimed to compare acute mechanical and metabolic responses of the diaphragm and rib cage inspiratory muscles during two different types of respiratory loading in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Methods In 16 patients (age, 65 ± 13 yr; 56% male; forced expiratory volume in the first second, 60 ± 6%pred; maximum inspiratory pressure, 82 ± 5%pred), assessments of respiratory muscle EMG, esophageal pressure (Pes) and gastric pressures, breathing pattern, and noninvasive assessments of systemic (V˙O2, cardiac output, oxygen delivery and extraction) and respiratory m...
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - April 16, 2020 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: APPLIED SCIENCES Source Type: research

Acute Apnea Does Not Improve 3-km Cycling Time Trial Performance
Conclusions These results suggest that potential effects of apnea, that is, speeding of V˙O2 kinetics through a transient increase in [Hb], are overruled by a warming-up protocol. (Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise)
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - April 16, 2020 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: APPLIED SCIENCES Source Type: research

Endurance Athletes Are at Increased Risk for Early Acute Mountain Sickness at 3450 m
Introduction Acute mountain sickness (AMS) may develop in nonacclimatized individuals after exposure to altitudes ≥2500 m. Anecdotal reports suggest that endurance-trained (ET) athletes with a high maximal oxygen uptake (V˙O2max) may be at increased risk for AMS. Possible underlying mechanisms include a training-induced increase in resting parasympathetic activity, higher resting metabolic rate (RMR), and lower hypoxic ventilatory response (HVR). Methods In 38 healthy, nonacclimatized men (19 ET and 19 untrained controls [UT], V˙O2max 66 ± 6 mL·min−1·kg−1 vs 45 ± 7 mL&middo...
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - April 16, 2020 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: APPLIED SCIENCES Source Type: research

Pacing Behavior Development of Youth Short-Track Speed Skaters: A Longitudinal Study
This study aimed to analyze the development of pacing behavior of athletes during adolescence using a longitudinal design. Methods Lap times of male short-track speed skaters (140 skaters, 573 race performances) over two or more 1500-m races during Junior World Championships between 2010 and 2018 were analyzed. Races were divided into four sections (laps 1–3, 4–7, 8–11, and 12–14). Using MLwiN (P (Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise)
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - April 16, 2020 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: APPLIED SCIENCES Source Type: research