Grounded Running Reduces Musculoskeletal Loading—Corrigendum
No abstract available (Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise)
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - July 12, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: SPECIAL COMMUNICATIONS: Corrigenda Source Type: research

Predicting Ground Reaction Force from a Hip-Borne Accelerometer during Load Carriage—Corrigendum
No abstract available (Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise)
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - July 12, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: SPECIAL COMMUNICATIONS: Corrigenda Source Type: research

Clinical Exercise Testing
No abstract available (Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise)
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - July 12, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: SPECIAL COMMUNICATIONS: Book Reviews Source Type: research

Guide to Evidence-Based Physical Therapy Practice, 4th Edition
No abstract available (Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise)
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - July 12, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: SPECIAL COMMUNICATIONS: Book Reviews Source Type: research

Response
No abstract available (Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise)
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - July 12, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: SPECIAL COMMUNICATIONS: Letters to the Editor-in-Chief Source Type: research

No Evidence of Absence of an Energy Availability Threshold for Menstrual Disturbances
No abstract available (Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise)
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - July 12, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: SPECIAL COMMUNICATIONS: Letters to the Editor-in-Chief Source Type: research

Limits to the Evidence that DNA Sequence Differences Contribute to Variability in Fitness and Trainability
No abstract available (Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise)
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - July 12, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: SPECIAL COMMUNICATIONS: Contrasting Perspectives Source Type: research

DNA Sequence Variations Contribute to Variability in Fitness and Trainability
No abstract available (Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise)
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - July 12, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: SPECIAL COMMUNICATIONS: Contrasting Perspectives Source Type: research

Standardizing Analytic Methods and Reporting in Activity Monitor Validation Studies
Conclusions The use of inappropriate analytic methods and incomplete reporting of outcomes is a major limitation for systematically advancing research with both research grade and consumer-grade activity monitors. Guidelines are provided to standardize analytic methods and reporting in these types of studies to enhance the utility of the devices for clinical mHealth applications. (Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise)
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - July 12, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: SPECIAL COMMUNICATIONS: Methodological Advances Source Type: research

Development and Testing of an Integrated Score for Physical Behaviors
Conclusions We developed a novel statistical method generated a composite physical behavior that is predictive of mortality outcomes. Future research is needed to test this approach in an independent sample. (Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise)
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - July 12, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: SPECIAL COMMUNICATIONS: Methodological Advances Source Type: research

Effects of Static Stretching and Foam Rolling on Ankle Dorsiflexion Range of Motion
Static stretching (SS) has been used for inducing acute and long-term increases in range of motion (ROM). Foam rolling (FR) has recently gained popularity for acutely increasing ROM. However, the long-term effects of FR on ROM have not been thoroughly evaluated. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the acute and long-term changes in dorsiflexion ROM as a result of 6 wk of FR, SS, and FR followed by SS (FR + SS). Methods Participants (n = 44) were randomly assigned to FR, SS, and FR + SS groups. The FR group foam rolled the triceps surae. The SS group performed a wall stretch for both legs. The FR + SS...
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - July 12, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: APPLIED SCIENCES Source Type: research

The Reconstitution of W′ Depends on Both Work and Recovery Characteristics
This study aimed to investigate the effects of different work and recovery characteristics on the W′ reconstitution and to test the predictive capabilities of the W′BAL model. Methods Eleven male participants (22 ± 3 yr, 55 ± 4 mL·kg−1⋅min−1) completed three to five constant work rate tests to determine CP and W′. Subsequently, subjects performed 12 experimental trials, each comprising two exhaustive constant work rate bouts (i.e., WB1 and WB2), interspersed by an active recovery interval. In each trial, work bout characteristics (P4 or P8, i.e., the work rate pred...
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - July 12, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: APPLIED SCIENCES Source Type: research

Compositional Influence of Movement Behaviors on Bone Health during Aging
Conclusion Increasing MVPA related to other movement behaviors produces improvements in the rate of bone change in older men, whereas to increase LPA and maintain MVPA would be the best approach to enhance BM in older women. (Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise)
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - July 12, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: APPLIED SCIENCES Source Type: research

The Impact of Cycling Cadence on Respiratory and Hemodynamic Responses to Exercise
Purpose The physiological consequences of freely chosen cadence during cycling remains poorly understood. We sought to determine the effect of cadence on the respiratory and hemodynamic response to cycling exercise. Methods Eleven cyclists (10 males, 1 female; age, 27 ± 6 yr; V˙O2max = 60.8 ± 3.7 mL·kg−1·min−1) completed four, 6-min constant-load cycling trials at 10% below their previously determined gas exchange threshold (i.e., 63% ± 5% peak power) while pedaling at 60, 90, and 120 rpm, and a freely chosen cadence (94.3 ± 6.9 rpm) in randomized order. Standard ...
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - July 12, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: APPLIED SCIENCES Source Type: research

Dynamics of Locomotor Fatigue during Supra-critical Power Exercise
Purpose We aimed to measure 1) the dynamics of locomotor fatigue during constant supra-critical power cycling and 2) the magnitude of any reserve in locomotor power at intolerance to constant and ramp-incremental cycling in recreationally active volunteers. Methods Fifteen participants (7 women and 8 men, 22 ± 3 yr, 3.34 ± 0.67 L·min−1 V˙O2peak) completed ramp-incremental and very-heavy constant power (205 ± 46 W) exercise to the limit of tolerance. Immediately after intolerance, the ergometer was switched into the isokinetic mode, and participants completed a short (~5 s) maximal is...
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - July 12, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: APPLIED SCIENCES Source Type: research

Independent Influence of Spinal Cord Injury Level on Thermoregulation during Exercise
This study aimed to establish the true influence of spinal cord injury (SCI) level on core temperature and sweating during exercise in the heat independently of biophysical factors. Methods A total of 31 trained males (8 with tetraplegia [TP; C5–C8], 7 with high paraplegia [HP; T1–T5], 8 with low paraplegia [LP; T6–L1], and 8 able bodied [AB]) performed 3 × 10 min of arm ergometry with 3-min rest at a metabolic heat production of (a) 4.0 W·kg−1 (AB vs TP) or (b) 6.0 W·kg−1 (AB vs HP vs LP), in 35°C, 50% relative humidity. Esophageal (Tes) and local skin temperatures ...
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - July 12, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: APPLIED SCIENCES Source Type: research

High-Intensity Aerobic Exercise Acutely Increases Brain-derived Neurotrophic Factor
Conclusion HI AEx can elicit acute, transient increases in BDNF and cortisol in young, healthy, and physically active, nondepressed and mild to moderately depressed individuals. This work suggests that AEx has potential to significantly affect the central nervous system function, and the magnitude of such effect may be directly driven by exercise intensity. (Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise)
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - July 12, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: APPLIED SCIENCES Source Type: research

Lower Extremity Stiffness Predicts Ground Reaction Force Loading Rate in Heel Strike Runners
Purpose High vertical ground reaction force (vGRF) loading rates are thought to contribute to lower extremity injuries in runners. Given that elevated lower extremity stiffness has been reported to be associated with increased GRFs, the purpose of the current study was to determine if overall lower extremity stiffness, individual joint angular excursions and/or torsional stiffness are predictive of the average vGRF loading rate during running. Methods Forty heel strike runners (20 men and 20 women) ran overground at a speed of 3.4 m·s−1. Average vGRF loading rate, lower extremity stiffness, and hip, knee,...
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - July 12, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: APPLIED SCIENCES Source Type: research

Physical Activity and Cerebral Small Vein Integrity in Older Adults
Conclusions Increasing PA in late-life may promote cerebral small vein integrity. This should be confirmed in larger studies. (Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise)
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - July 12, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: APPLIED SCIENCES Source Type: research

Fat Oxidation Rates in Professional Soccer Players
Conclusions In general, the shape of the fat oxidation curve does not change within an individual; however, the vertical shift is more susceptible to change, which may be due to training status and body composition. Understanding a player’s metabolism may be of value to practitioners working within sport, with regard to personalizing nutrition strategies. (Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise)
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - July 12, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: APPLIED SCIENCES Source Type: research

Effects of Aerobic Exercise during Pregnancy on 1-Month Infant Neuromotor Skills
Conclusions Exercise during pregnancy can positively influence developing systems allowing for improved neuromotor development, thus leading to infants who are more adept at movement, and presumably more likely to be active. Because physical activity is a modifiable risk factor of childhood obesity, these findings suggest that exercise during pregnancy may potentially reduce childhood risk of obesity. (Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise)
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - July 12, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: APPLIED SCIENCES Source Type: research

Prediction of Planetary Mission Task Performance for Long-Duration Spaceflight
Conclusion In summary, we identified aerobic fitness thresholds below which task performance was impaired for both low- and moderate-intensity mission-critical tasks. In particular, cycling V˙O2peak, VT, and rowing CP could each be used to predict task failure. (Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise)
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - July 12, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: APPLIED SCIENCES Source Type: research

Sports Contribute to Total Moderate to Vigorous Physical Activity in School Children
Conclusion Schoolchildren spent less than one-third of PE and OYS in MVPA. PE and OYS were found to support children and adolescents to engage sufficiently in MVPA as recommended by the World Health Organization. (Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise)
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - July 12, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: EPIDEMIOLOGY Source Type: research

Neuromuscular Fatigue and Metabolism during High-Intensity Intermittent Exercise
Purpose To examine the degree of neuromuscular fatigue development along with changes in muscle metabolism during two work-matched high-intensity intermittent exercise protocols in trained individuals. Methods In a randomized, counter-balanced, crossover design, 11 endurance-trained men performed high-intensity intermittent cycle exercise protocols matched for total work and including either multiple short-duration (18 × 5 s; SS) or long-duration (6 × 20 s; LS) sprints. Neuromuscular fatigue was determined by preexercise to postexercise changes in maximal voluntary contraction force, voluntary activation l...
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - July 12, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: BASIC SCIENCES Source Type: research

Effects of Exercise on Stress-induced Attenuation of Vaccination Responses in Mice
Studies suggest that exercise can improve vaccination responses in humans. Chronic stress can lead to immunosuppression, and there may be a role for exercise in augmenting immune responses. Purpose To investigate the effects of acute eccentric exercise (ECC) and voluntary wheel exercise training (VWR) on antibody and cell-mediated immune responses to vaccination in chronically stressed mice. We hypothesized that both ECC and VWR would attenuate chronic stress-induced reductions in vaccination responses. Methods Mice were randomized into four groups: control (CON), stress (S)-ECC, S-VWR, and S-sedentary (SED). Stresse...
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - July 12, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: BASIC SCIENCES Source Type: research

Loading Behaviors Do Not Match Loading Abilities Postanterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction
Purpose Strategies that underload the surgical limb after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLr) are observed in submaximal tasks. It is not known what underlies these strategies in early rehabilitation. The purpose of this study was to determine if underloading can be attributed to the inability to meet task demands with and without attention to limb loading or learned behavior. Methods Twenty individuals (110.6 [18.1] days) post-ACLr and 20 healthy individuals (CTRL) participated in this study. Participants performed standing, sit-to-stand, and squat tasks under natural, instructed, and feedback conditions...
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - July 12, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: CLINICAL SCIENCES Source Type: research

Shared Neuromuscular Performance Traits in Military Personnel with Prior Concussion
Conclusion The findings supported the hypothesis that CONCUSSED military personnel would demonstrate altered neuromuscular control in landing strategies and muscular activation. Future research should assess prospectively neuromuscular changes after a concussion and determine if these changes increase risk of subsequent musculoskeletal injuries. (Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise)
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - July 12, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: CLINICAL SCIENCES Source Type: research

Sedentary Time and White Matter Hyperintensity Volume in Older Adults
Conclusions Findings suggest that sedentary time is associated with WMH in persons with an eGFR ≤96 mL·min−1 per 1.73 m2 and that this association is stronger with lower levels of kidney function. (Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise)
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - July 12, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: CLINICAL SCIENCES Source Type: research

Objectively Measured Physical Activity Is Associated with Vertebral Size in Midlife
Conclusions Physical activity of at least moderate intensity is positively associated with vertebral size and may thus prevent future vertebral fractures. (Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise)
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - July 12, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: CLINICAL SCIENCES Source Type: research

Bone Biomarker Response to Walking under Different Thermal Conditions in Older Adults
Conclusion The increases in PTH and CTX, despite the low sweat volume, suggest that dermal Ca loss is not a major factor in the decrease in iCa and increases in PTH and CTX observed during exercise in older adults. (Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise)
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - July 12, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: CLINICAL SCIENCES Source Type: research

Testosterone and Resistance Training Improve Muscle Quality in Spinal Cord Injury
Purpose Spinal cord injury (SCI) negatively impacts muscle quality and testosterone levels. Resistance training (RT) has been shown to increase muscle cross-sectional area (CSA) after SCI, whereas testosterone replacement therapy (TRT) has been shown to improve muscle quality in other populations. The purpose of this pilot study was to examine if the combined effects of these interventions, TRT + RT, may maximize the beneficial effects on muscle quality after SCI. Methods Twenty-two SCI subjects randomized into either a TRT + RT (n = 11) or TRT (n = 11) intervention for 16 wk. Muscle quality measured by peak torque (P...
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - July 12, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: CLINICAL SCIENCES Source Type: research

Effect of Creatine Supplementation on the Airways of Youth Elite Soccer Players
Conclusion On the basis of the observed trends and medium to large effect sizes, we cannot exclude that creatine supplementation has an adverse effect on the airways of elite athletes, particularly in those with allergic sensitization. Further safety profiling of the ergogenic food supplement is warranted. (Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise)
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - July 12, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: CLINICAL SCIENCES Source Type: research

Persistent Impairment in Cardiopulmonary Fitness after Breast Cancer Chemotherapy
Purpose Anthracycline chemotherapy (AC) is associated with acute reductions in cardiopulmonary fitness (V˙O2peak). We sought to determine whether changes in V˙O2peak and cardiac function persisted at 12 months post-AC completion, and whether changes in cardiac function explain the heightened long-term heart failure risk. Methods Women with breast cancer scheduled for AC (n = 28) who participated in a nonrandomized trial of exercise training (ET; n = 14) or usual care (UC; n = 14) during AC completed a follow-up evaluation 12 months post-AC completion (16 months from baseline). At baseline, 4 months, and 16 months, p...
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - July 12, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: CLINICAL SCIENCES Source Type: research

Observational Gait Analysis: A Visual Guide
No abstract available (Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise)
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - June 15, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: SPECIAL COMMUNICATIONS: Book Reviews Source Type: research

New Reference Values for Cardiopulmonary Exercise Testing in Children—Corrigendum
No abstract available (Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise)
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - June 15, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: SPECIAL COMMUNICATIONS: Corrigendum Source Type: research

Sport Nutrition, 3rd Edition
No abstract available (Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise)
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - June 15, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: SPECIAL COMMUNICATIONS: Book Reviews Source Type: research

Response
No abstract available (Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise)
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - June 15, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: SPECIAL COMMUNICATIONS: Letters to the Editor-in-Chief Source Type: research

Inappropriate Study Design Produces Spurious Effects of Autologous Blood Transfusion
No abstract available (Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise)
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - June 15, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: SPECIAL COMMUNICATIONS: Letters to the Editor-in-Chief Source Type: research

Response
No abstract available (Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise)
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - June 15, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: SPECIAL COMMUNICATIONS: Letters to the Editor-in-Chief Source Type: research

Estimating Outdoor Walking Energy Expenditure in Non–Steady-State Conditions
No abstract available (Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise)
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - June 15, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: SPECIAL COMMUNICATIONS: Letters to the Editor-in-Chief Source Type: research

Novel Noninvasive Assessment of Microvascular Structure and Function in Humans
In this study, we hypothesized that OCT-based microvascular assessments would possess comparable levels of reliability when compared with those derived using conventional laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF). Methods Speckle decorrelation images (OCT) and red blood cell flux (LDF) measures were collected from adjacent forearm skin locations on 2 d (48 h apart), at baseline, and after a 30-min rapid local heating protocol (30°C–44°C) in eight healthy young individuals. OCT postprocessing quantified cutaneous microvascular diameter, speed, flow rate, and density (vessel recruitment) within a region of interest, and...
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - June 15, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: SPECIAL COMMUNICATIONS: Methodological Advances Source Type: research

Wearable Sleep Technology in Clinical and Research Settings
The accurate assessment of sleep is critical to better understand and evaluate its role in health and disease. The boom in wearable technology is part of the digital health revolution and is producing many novel, highly sophisticated and relatively inexpensive consumer devices collecting data from multiple sensors and claiming to extract information about users’ behaviors, including sleep. These devices are now able to capture different biosignals for determining, for example, HR and its variability, skin conductance, and temperature, in addition to activity. They perform 24/7, generating overwhelmingly large data se...
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - June 15, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: APPLIED SCIENCES Source Type: research

Predicting Energy Expenditure of an Acute Resistance Exercise Bout in Men and Women
Conclusions Net energy expenditure for a total RE bout and for individual RE can be reasonably estimated in adult men and women using commonly measured demographic and RE variables. (Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise)
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - June 15, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: APPLIED SCIENCES Source Type: research

Cerebral Blood Flow during Interval and Continuous Exercise in Young and Old Men
Purpose Aging is associated with impaired cerebral blood flow (CBF) and increased risk of cerebrovascular disease. Acute increases in CBF during exercise may initiate improvements in cerebrovascular health, but the CBF response is diminished during continuous exercise in older adults. The effect of interval exercise for promoting increases in CBF in young and old adults is unknown. Methods We compared middle cerebral artery blood velocity (MCAv), end-tidal CO2 (PETCO2) and blood pressure (mean arterial pressure [MAP]) during intensity- and work-matched bouts of continuous (10-min 60%Wmax, followed by 10-min rest) and ...
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - June 15, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: APPLIED SCIENCES Source Type: research

Dynamic Changes of Cardiac Repolarization Instability during Exercise Testing
Introduction Physical exercise triggers efferent cardiac sympathetic activation. Here, we tracked the spatiotemporal properties of cardiac repolarization on a beat-to-beat basis throughout a standardized exercise test and hypothesized a detectable change at the point of the anaerobic threshold (AT). Methods The study included 20 healthy adults (age 35.3 ± 6.7 yr) undergoing a standardized incremental exercise test on a cycle ergometer. During exercise testing, high-resolution (2000 Hz) ECG monitoring in Frank lead configuration was performed. Three-dimensional beat-to-beat repolarization instability (dT°) w...
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - June 15, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: APPLIED SCIENCES Source Type: research

Novel Approach to Characterize Heterogeneity in an Aerobic Exercise Intervention
This study aimed to characterize heterogeneity in these components in a cohort of healthy middle-age and older adults who participated in a prescribed 6-month supervised aerobic exercise intervention as part of the Brain in Motion study. Methods and Results Group-based multitrajectory analysis (GBMTA) was used to characterize variation in the trajectory of exercise intensity and duration for male and female participants in the first 3 months of the exercise program. The GBMTA for males and females revealed two distinct trajectory subgroups, namely, “high-increasing” (HI) and “low-increasing” (LI)...
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - June 15, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: APPLIED SCIENCES Source Type: research

Monitoring Muscle Fatigue Progression during Dynamic Exercise
Purpose To develop and validate a novel model for assessment of peripheral fatigue progression during dynamic exercise. Methods Seven males and four females (24 ± 3 yr) completed one-legged knee-extensor exercise at 40% of peak power output (PPO) for 12 min (40% PPO). Additionally, an exhaustive bout lasting approximately 6 min (84% ± 2% PPO; 59 ± 10 W) was contrasted to two bouts completed at ±5% of the target workload. Trials were completed in randomized order. Percutaneous electrical stimulation of m. vastus lateralis during the passive knee-flexion phase allowed quantification of maxima...
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - June 15, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: APPLIED SCIENCES Source Type: research

Histamine-Receptor Antagonists Slow 10-km Cycling Performance in Competitive Cyclists
Histamine is released within skeletal muscle during exercise. In humans, antihistamines have no effect on speed, power output, or time-to-completion of short-duration high-intensity exercise. In mice, blocking histamine’s actions decreases speed and duration of endurance tasks. It is unknown if these opposing outcomes are the result of differences in histamine’s actions between species or are related to duration and/or intensity of exercise, as blocking histamine during endurance exercise has not been examined in humans. Purpose Determine the effects of histamine-receptor antagonism on cycling time trial per...
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - June 15, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: APPLIED SCIENCES Source Type: research

Effects of Respiratory Muscle Endurance Training in Hypoxia on Running Performance
Conclusion These results suggest that the improvement of respiratory muscle endurance and blunted respiratory muscle metaboreflex could, in part, contribute to improved endurance performance in endurance-trained athletes. However, it is also suggested that there are no additional effects when the RMET is performed in hypoxia. (Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise)
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - June 15, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: APPLIED SCIENCES Source Type: research

The Mechanics of Breathing during Swimming
This study aimed to compare Wb during freestyle swimming relative to cycling and to characterize the differences in the cardiorespiratory responses to swimming relative to cycling in the same individuals. Methods Eight collegiate swimmers (four men and four women, age = 22 ± 2 yr) performed an incremental swim test while tethered to a resistance apparatus. On a separate day, subjects performed an incremental cycle test. During swimming and cycling, metabolic and ventilatory parameters were measured using a customized metabolic cart, and inspired Wb was quantified using an esophageal balloon catheter. Results S...
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - June 15, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: APPLIED SCIENCES Source Type: research