Antigen-specific immunoadsorption of MuSK autoantibodies as a treatment of MuSK-induced experimental autoimmune myasthenia gravis
Myasthenia gravis (MG) is an autoimmune disease affecting the neuromuscular junction. Approximately 9% of MG patients have autoantibodies targeting the muscle specific kinase (MuSK), and are challenging therapeutically, since they often present with more severe symptoms. A useful therapy is plasmapheresis, but it is highly non-specific. Antigen-specific immunoadsorption would only remove the pathogenic autoantibodies, minimizing the possible side effects and maximizing the benefit. We used rats with human MuSK-induced experimental autoimmune MG to perform antigen-specific immunoadsorptions, and found it very effective, res...
Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology - December 11, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Konstantinos Lazaridis, Vasiliki Baltatzidou, Nikolaos Tektonidis, Socrates J. Tzartos Source Type: research

Dysbiosis of gut microbiota in patients with neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders: A cross sectional study
Accumulating evidence points to an association of alternations in the gut microbiota with health and disease, including the development of neurological diseases. However, there are relatively scarce studies of the role of the gut microbiota in neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMOSD). Therefore, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the differences in the intestinal microbiota composition between patients with NMOSD and healthy control subjects. (Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology)
Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology - December 9, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Ziyan Shi, Yuhan Qiu, Jiancheng Wang, Yihuan Fang, Ying Zhang, Hongxi Chen, Qin Du, Zhengyang Zhao, Chao Yan, Mu Yang, Hongyu Zhou Source Type: research

Macelignan inhibits the inflammatory response of microglia and regulates neuronal survival
In this study, we investigated the effects of the nutmeg plant seed extract, macelignan, on the inflammatory response of microglia and neuronal cell survival. We detected NO and iNOS using the Griess test and Western blotting. (Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology)
Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology - December 9, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Kankan Zong, Xin Liu, Zhou Sun, Lihua Piao, Yanhua Xuan, Yu Jin, Chun-ai Cui Source Type: research

Association of variability in antibody binding affinity with a clinical course of anti-MAG neuropathy
Anti-myelin-associated glycoprotein (MAG) neuropathy is mediated by the binding of IgM M-proteins to the human natural killer-1 epitope of several glycoconjugates, including MAG and phosphacan. We recently reported that IgM M-proteins with a higher ratio of anti-phosphacan titer to anti-MAG titer (P/M ratio) were associated with a progressive clinical course. Herein, we investigated the temporal variability of the P/M ratio. The results showed that P/M ratios in worsened cases were significantly increased relative to stable or improved cases. (Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology)
Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology - December 9, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Taro Matsui, Yukihiro Hamada, Motoi Kuwahara, Jyoji Morise, Shogo Oka, Kenichi Kaida, Susumu Kusunoki Source Type: research

Increased serum acetylcholine receptor α1 subunit protein in anti-acetylcholine receptor antibody-positive myasthenia gravis
Complement-dependent disruption of motor endplate is detected in anti-acetylcholine receptor (AChR) antibody-positive myasthenia gravis (MG). We measured serum AChR α1 subunit protein levels, which may be associated with neuromuscular damage, in 55 patients with MG (47 were seropositive and 8 were negative) and in 20 controls. Serum AChR α1 subunit protein concentrations were higher in patients with anti-AChR antibody-positive MG than those in controls (P =  .04), were negatively correlated with MG activities of daily living score (P = .01), and tended to be higher in ocular MG than in generalized MG. (...
Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology - December 9, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Akiyuki Uzawa, Yukiko Ozawa, Manato Yasuda, Fumiko Oda, Yuta Kojima, Naoki Kawaguchi, Tetsuya Kanai, Keiichi Himuro, Satoshi Kuwabara Tags: Short Communication Source Type: research

Overlapping autoimmune syndrome: A case of concomitant anti-NMDAR encephalitis and myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) antibody disease
We describe the case of a 29-year-old male with NMDAR encephalitis and overlapping MOG antibody disease. (Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology)
Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology - December 6, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Carlos A. P érez, Paunel Agyei, Bhanu Gogia, Rebecca Harrison, Rohini Samudralwar Tags: Short Communication Source Type: research

Kappa free light chains index in the differential diagnosis of multiple sclerosis from Neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders and other immune-mediated central nervous system disorders
The K free light chains index (K-FLC index) has been proposed as an alternative test for intrathecal immunoglobulin synthesis in MS diagnosis. Aim of the study was to assess the accuracy of the K-FLC index in differentiating MS from other immune-mediated CNS disorders and NMOSD.Data were available from a cohort of 371 patients. K-FLC index was significantly higher in MS: MS mean K-FLC index 90.897  ± 134.198; NMOSD 17.992 ± 15.103; other immune-mediated CNS disorders 12.568 ± 24.440. The overall diagnostic accuracy of the K-FLC index was similar to intrathecal oligoclonal bands detection. (...
Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology - December 3, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: P. Cavalla, P. Caropreso, S. Limoncelli, C. Bosa, B. Pasanisi, V. Schillaci, A. Alteno, G. Costantini, M.T. Giordana, G. Mengozzi, M. Vercellino Source Type: research

Increased inflammasome activity in markedly ill psychiatric patients: An explorative study
The aim of this study was to investigate inflammatory perturbations in 40 patients with severe and complex psychiatric disorders by studying the activity of the NLRP3 inflammasome, with a trans-diagnostic approach. Gene expression of CASP1, NLRP3, PYCARD, IL1B, IL1RN, TNF showed a significant increase in the patient group compared to a matched control group. Plasma levels of IL1Ra, IL-18, TNF, IL-6 and CRP were increased in the patient group. Within the patient group, increased gene expression of inflammatory markers correlated with increased disease severity. (Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology)
Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology - November 25, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Ulrika Hyl én, Daniel Eklund, Mats Humble, Jakub Bartoszek, Eva Särndahl, Susanne Bejerot Source Type: research

Reduced sarcolemmal aquaporin 4 expression can support the differential diagnosis of neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders
This study aimed to investigate the underlying pathological muscle damage in neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD) patients without muscular symptoms. We prospectively enrolled 15 patients with aquaporin 4 (AQP4) antibody seropositive NMOSD and 16 patients with non-NMOSD diseases as a control group. Biceps biopsy samples from 18 patients were examined. Six NMOSD patients exhibited inflammatory lesions/edema in lower muscles on muscle MRI. On histopathological examination, NMOSD samples showed significantly decreased IgG-targeting AQP4 expression on sarcolemma compared with non-NMOSD samples in terms of the area of...
Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology - November 25, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Weihe Zhang, Mingrui Dong, Hongrui Dong, Wei Wang, Weiliang Sun, Ying Hao, Yujuan Jiao, Lei Cui, Jinsong Jiao Source Type: research

MIF -173G/C polymorphism is associated with NMO disease severity
Our knowledge about genetic factors that drive the worsening of neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is limited. Herein, we analyzed the macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) −173G/C functional polymorphism in NMO patients and controls. Our data reveal that the frequency of the high-expression MIF genotypes (CC/GC) did not differ between the two groups. However, frequency of this genotypes was elevated in patients diagnosed with both optic neuritis and myelitis compare d with patients that were diagnosed with only one symptom. (Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology)
Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology - November 25, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Livnat Brill, Adi Vaknin-Dembinsky, Omri Zveik, Nitsan Haham, Keren Miller, Gil Benedek Source Type: research

The contribution of cyclophilin A to immune-mediated central nervous system inflammation
Cyclophilin A has multiple known functions in inflammation. Intracellular cyclophilin A modulates T helper 2 response (Th2) and extracellular cyclophilin A functions as a leukocyte chemotactic factor. The contribution of cyclophilin A to central nervous system (CNS) inflammation has not been reported. To test the hypothesis that inhibition of cyclophilin A would ameliorate immune-mediated CNS inflammation, we compared the course and neuroimmunology of experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE) in cyclophilin A knockout mice and wild type littermates. (Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology)
Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology - November 21, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Vahnee Garimella, Julie Secor McVoy, Unsong Oh Source Type: research

MYMD-1, a novel alkaloid compound, ameliorates the course of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune disease that remains in need of effective therapies. Plant-derived medicines have appealing properties for the treatment of autoimmune diseases. MYMD-1 is a synthetic plant alkaloid that has been shown to ameliorate the course of autoimmune thyroiditis. The goal of the present study was to determine whether MYMD-1 would produce similar beneficial effects in a mouse model of MS, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) induced by immunization with myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein. (Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology)
Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology - November 20, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Justin D. Glenn, Itzy Morales Pantoja, Patrizio Caturegli, Katharine A. Whartenby Tags: Short communication Source Type: research

Alterations in circulating T cell functional subpopulations in interferon-beta treated multiple sclerosis patients: A pilot study
Our work consists of a pilot study to characterize circulating Th/c1, Th/c2, Th/c17, Treg and Tfh-like populations and IL-17 serum levels of relapsing-remitting (RR) MS patients treated with IFN- β, compared with healthy controls.In remission RRMS patients, we observe increased Th/c17 cells frequency committed to a Th1 profile and increased soluble IL-17 levels. Moreover, a shift toward Th/c2 with reduction of Tc1 cells and decrease in effector/terminal differentiated compartment of Th1 cel ls were also observed. (Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology)
Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology - November 20, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Andreia Monteiro, Pedro Rosado, Luiza Rosado, Ana Mafalda Fonseca, Artur Paiva Source Type: research

MAIT cell subtypes in multiple sclerosis
In patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) and healthy controls (HC) we studied circulating MAIT cells and MAIT cell subtypes expressing CXCR3 and CCR6 by flow cytometry. Absolute numbers of MAIT cells and specifically Tc17-like MAIT cells were lower in patients with primary progressive MS (PPMS) than in controls. Low numbers of Tc17-like MAIT cells were associated with smoking and high concentrations of myelin basic protein in the cerebrospinal fluid. Treatment with alemtuzumab and dimethyl fumarate decreased MAIT cell frequencies. (Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology)
Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology - November 20, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Cecilie Ammitzb øll, Marina R. von Essen, Helene Højsgaard Chow, Oskar McWilliam, Rikke Holm Hansen, Finn Sellebjerg Source Type: research

EBNA1, EBNA2, and EBNA3 link Epstein-Barr virus and hypovitaminosis D in multiple sclerosis pathogenesis
A strong north-to-south gradient is observed in the distribution of multiple sclerosis (MS), hinting toward an environmental etiology. Vitamin D has been associated with a decreased incidence of MS and may explain, in part, the lower prevalence in tropical climates. However, the existence of MS epidemics implies the possibility of an infectious etiology. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection precedes MS presentation in nearly all affected individuals. While the individual contribution of EBV, vitamin D deficiency, and specific risk genes to MS etiology is possible, their potential interaction is of great interest and may have...
Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology - November 20, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Samuel B. Marcucci, Ahmed Z. Obeidat Tags: Review article Source Type: research

Anti-dipeptidyl-peptidase-like protein 6 encephalitis, a rare cause of reversible rapid progressive dementia and insomnia
We present a case of a 72-year-old male with anti-DPPX encephalitis who developed rapidly progressive cognitive decline, psychiatric and sleep problems, severe abdominal pain and diarrhea. Antibodies against DPPX were positive both in serum and cerebrospinal fluid. 18F-FDG PET-MR imaging indicated hypometabolism in the bilateral temporal lobes and thalamus. No related tumors were found, and the patient responded to immunotherapy without relapse at the 3-year follow-up. (Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology)
Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology - November 18, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Qinming Zhou, Xiaodong Zhu, Huanyu Meng, Min Zhang, Sheng Chen Tags: Short Communication Source Type: research

HLA-G Ins/Del polymorphism and +3142C/G SNP are not related to neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD) development, disability status or anti-aquaporin 4 presence in Brazilian patients
In conclusion, the 3′ untranslated region 14 bp Ins/Del and +3142C/G polymorphisms seem not to be associated with NMOSD susceptibility, autoantibody production, nor a neurological deficit in patients. (Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology)
Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology - November 14, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Nath ália Augusta Gomes, Pollyanna Silva, Ygor Teixeira, Patrícia Eufrazio, Alessandra Souza, Hugo Rojas, Renata Brant, Antônio Gomes Neto, Paulo Pereira Christo, Renata Toscano Simões, Karla Silva Fernandes Tags: Short Communication Source Type: research

Positive oligoclonal bands and CSF pleocytosis in narcolepsy type 1: A case report supporting the immune-mediated hypothesis
We report the case of a 16  year-old girl with excessive daytime sleepiness, hypnagogic/hypnopompic hallucinations and cataplexy, fulfilling narcolepsy-type 1 diagnostic criteria. She was HLA-DQB1*06:02/DQA1*01:02 positive. CSF analysis demonstrated positive IgG oligoclonal bands, pleocytosis and hypocretin-1 below detectio n limit. (Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology)
Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology - November 13, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Ana Moreno-Est ébanez, Iker Bilbao Villabeitia, Teresa Echeverria Guibert, Mar Mendibe Bilbao, Sabas Boyero Durán, Laura Cabral Martínez, Tirso González-Pinto, Garazi Agirre Beitia, Amaia González Eizaguirre, Alfredo Rodríguez-Antigüedad Tags: Short Communication Source Type: research

Vitamin D3-mediated resistance to a multiple sclerosis model disease depends on myeloid cell 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 synthesis and correlates with increased CD4+ T cell CTLA-4 expression
Microglial cell activation is the earliest biomarker of the inflammatory processes that cause central nervous system (CNS) lesions in multiple sclerosis. We hypothesized that 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25-(OH)2D3) production by activated microglia and macrophages in the CNS inhibits these inflammatory processes. To test this hypothesis, we targeted the Cyp27b1 gene specifically in myeloid cells, then analyzed the influence of disrupted myeloid cell 1,25-(OH)2D3 synthesis on vitamin D3-mediated resistance to experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). (Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology)
Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology - November 7, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Justin A. Spanier, Faye E. Nashold, Corwin D. Nelson, Corinne E. Praska, Colleen E. Hayes Source Type: research

Cerebrospinal fluid free light chains compared to oligoclonal bands as biomarkers in multiple sclerosis
Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) free light chains (FLC) may be an alternative biomarker to oligoclonal bands (OCB) in multiple sclerosis (MS). Herein, we compared the diagnostic accuracy of CSF OCB and FLC and we tested the prognostic value of FLC in a cohort of 64 MS patients and 106 controls. A κ-index>7.83 was more sensitive but less specific than OCB in discriminating MS patients from controls. Additionally, a κ-index>10.61 performed better than OCB in the discrimination between MS and controls with inflammatory neurological diseases (p   (Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology)
Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology - November 7, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Lorenzo Gaetani, Marinella Di Carlo, Brachelente Giovanni, Federico Valletta, Paolo Eusebi, Andrea Mancini, Lucia Gentili, Angela Borrelli, Paolo Calabresi, Paola Sarchielli, Carla Ferri, Alfredo Villa, Massimiliano Di Filippo Source Type: research

Increased plasma levels of mitochondrial DNA and pro-inflammatory cytokines in patients with progressive multiple sclerosis
The role of damage-associated molecular patterns in multiple sclerosis (MS) is under investigation. Here, we studied the contribution of circulating high mobility group box protein 1 (HMGB1) and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) to neuroinflammation in progressive MS. We measured plasmatic mtDNA, HMGB1 and pro-inflammatory cytokines in 38 secondary progressive (SP) patients, 35 primary progressive (PP) patients and 42 controls. Free mtDNA was higher in SP than PP. Pro-inflammatory cytokines were increased in progressive patients. (Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology)
Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology - November 7, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Milena Nasi, Elena Bianchini, Sara De Biasi, Lara Gibellini, Anita Neroni, Marco Mattioli, Marcello Pinti, Anna Iannone, Anna Vittoria Mattioli, Anna Maria Simone, Diana Ferraro, Francesca Vitetta, Patrizia Sola, Andrea Cossarizza Source Type: research

B cell function impacts the efficacy of IFN- β therapy in EAE
Recent studies identified that interferon beta (IFN- β) treatment skews B-cells towards a regulatory phenotype in multiple sclerosis. To assess B cell involvement during IFN-β therapy, we compared IFN-β treatment in a B cell-independent model and a B cell-dependent model of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). We show that in B cell-ind ependent EAE, IFN-β ameliorates neuroinflammation. Conversely, in B cell-dependent EAE IFN-β has no effect on disease. Effective IFN-β therapy in B cell-independent EAE was associated with reduced inflammatory T cells in the CNS and skewed splenic B...
Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology - November 6, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Agnieshka M. Agasing, Saurabh Gawde, Gaurav Kumar, Emma Turner, Robert C. Axtell Source Type: research

A challenging diagnosis of reversible “vascular” dementia: Cerebral amyloid angiopathy-related inflammation
We describe the clinical course, radiological features and therapeutic approach of two patients with probable CAA-ri with the aim of emphasizing the importance of an early diagnosis of this potentially reversible disease in different neurological settings, such as memory clinics and stroke units. (Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology)
Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology - November 6, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: L. Poli, V. De Giuli, F. Piazza, I. Volonghi, G. Bigliardi, S. Vallone, P.F. Nichelli, R. Gasparotti, A. Zini, A. Padovani, A. Pezzini Tags: Short Communication Source Type: research

Editorial Board
(Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology)
Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology - November 6, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Antibody response against HERV-W in patients with MOG-IgG associated disorders, multiple sclerosis and NMOSD
Increased expression of the retroviruses of HERV-W family has been linked to multiple sclerosis (MS) pathophysiology; nothing is known at the moment about MOG-IgG associated disorders. We compared antibody response against HERV-W peptides among patients with MOG-IgG associated disorders, multiple sclerosis (MS) and aquaporin-4 (AQP4)-IgG positive neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD). A total of 102 serum samples were retrospectively analyzed.Antibody reactivity against HERV-W env peptides was similar in MOG-IgG associated disorders and MS, but different from AQP4-IgG positive NMOSD. (Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology)
Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology - November 6, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Giannina Arru, Elia Sechi, Sara Mariotto, Ignazio R. Zarbo, Sergio Ferrari, Alberto Gajofatto, Salvatore Monaco, Giovanni A. Deiana, Marco Bo, Leonardo A. Sechi, Gian Pietro Sechi Tags: Short communication Source Type: research

Native versus deglycosylated IgM in anti-MAG neuropathy: Correlation with clinical status study of 10 cases
In this study we assessed the relationships between MAG and glycosylated moieties located on Fc fragment of IgM anti-MAG. (Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology)
Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology - November 5, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: J. Neil, V. Choumet, K. Beadon, E. Delmont, P. Ghillani, J. Boucraut, L. Musset, J.M. L éger Source Type: research

Beyond LNB: Real life data on occurrence and extent of CSF CXCL13 in neuroinflammatory diseases
To evaluate occurrence and extent of CSF CXCL13 elevations beyond Lyme neuroborreliosis, we investigated CXCL13 in an unselected patient cohort with neuroinflammatory disease. From March 2016 to March 2017, 180 in-patients with CSF pleocytosis were categorized into following groups: pyogenic CNS infections, aseptic meningoencephalitis, neuroimmunological diseases, and reactive pleocytosis. We provide evidence that CXCL13 elevation occurs at variable extent in the majority of neuroinflammatory diseases. (Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology)
Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology - November 2, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Georg Pilz, Regina Steger, Peter Wipfler, Ferdinand Otto, Shahrzad Afazel, Elisabeth Haschke-Becher, Eugen Trinka, Andrea Harrer Source Type: research

Dexamethasone attenuates inflammatory-mediated suppression of β2-adrenoceptor expression in rat primary mixed glia
β2-adrenoceptors are G-protein coupled receptors expressed on both astrocytes and microglia that play a key role in mediating the anti-inflammatory actions of noradrenaline in the CNS. Here the effect of an inflammatory stimulus (LPS + IFN-γ) was examined on glial β2-adrenoceptor expression a nd function. Exposure of glia to LPS + IFN-γ decreased β2-adrenoceptor mRNA and agonist-stimulated production of the intracellular second messenger cAMP. Pre-treatment with the synthetic glucocorticoid and potent anti-inflammatory agent dexamethasone prevented the LPS + IFN-γ-induced supp r...
Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology - November 2, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Karen M. Ryan, Noreen T. Boyle, Andrew Harkin, Thomas J. Connor Source Type: research

Fingolimod downregulates brain sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor 1 levels but does not promote remyelination or neuroprotection in the cuprizone model
Fingolimod is used to treat patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis; it crosses the blood-brain barrier and modulates sphingosine-1-phosphate receptors (S1PRs). Oligodendrocytes, astrocytes, microglia, and neuronal cells express S1PRs, and fingolimod could potentially improve remyelination and be neuroprotective. We used the cuprizone animal model to study the effect of fingolimod on remyelination and axonal damage. Assessed by quantitative proteomics, there was a downregulation of brain S1PR1 levels at all time points. (Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology)
Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology - October 31, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Agnes E. Nystad, Ragnhild Reehorst Lereim, Stig Wergeland, Eystein Oveland, Kjell-Morten Myhr, Lars B ø, Øivind Torkildsen Source Type: research

The change of PD1, PDL1 in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis treated by 1,25(OH)2D3
In this study, we employed 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3) to induce tolerogenic dendritic cells (VD3-DCs) revealing their therapeutic effect through an increase in the development of the negative regulatory signaling pathway programmed death 1 (PD1)/programmed death ligand 1 (PDL1). (Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology)
Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology - October 31, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Qingqing Cao, Chao Zheng, Zhongxiang Xie, Lingling Liu, Jie Zhu, Tao Jin Tags: Short communication Source Type: research

Sexual dysfunction in patients with neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder
Sexual dysfunction (SD) is a common but poorly understood symptom in patients with neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD). The study was designed to compare SD between NMOSD patients and healthy controls (HCs), and to investigate factors that influenced SD in NMOSD patients. (Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology)
Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology - October 31, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Ying Zhang, Qin Zhang, Ziyan Shi, Hongxi Chen, Jiancheng Wang, Chao Yan, Qin Du, Yuhan Qiu, Zhengyang Zhao, Hongyu Zhou Source Type: research

Two cases of aquaporin-4 positive neuromyelitis optica associated with T-cell lymphoma
Neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD) is an inflammatory condition associated with antibodies against aquaporin-4 (AQP4). To date, 4 cases of B-cell lymphomas have been reported in patients with NMOSD. Here we describe two individuals with AQP4+ NMOSD and T-cell lymphomas (TCL). (Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology)
Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology - October 29, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Kyle Blackburn, Cynthia Wang, Benjamin Greenberg Tags: Short communication Source Type: research

Expression of LEP, LEPR and PGC1A genes is altered in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis
Leptin (LEP) may contribute to the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis (MS) by its immunomodulatory, proinflammatory and prooxidant effects. Therefore, plasma LEP levels and mRNA expression of five genes related to the LEP signaling pathway (LEP, LEP receptor (LEPR), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator 1-alpha (PGC1A), superoxide dismutase 2, tumor necrosis factor-alpha) were investigated in relapsing-remitting MS. In patients (N  = 64), compared to healthy subjects (N = 62), relative LEP mRNA levels were significantly increased (p = 0,01), while LEPR and PGC1A mRNA levels were decreased...
Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology - October 26, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Ivana Koli ć, Ljiljana Stojković, Evica Dinčić, Ivan Jovanović, Aleksandra Stanković, Maja Živković Source Type: research

Inflammasome and α-synuclein in Parkinson's disease: A cross-sectional study
Alpha-synuclein and inflammatory pathology are evident in Parkinson's disease (PD) but, their link to disease pathogenesis needs further elucidation. (Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology)
Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology - October 25, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Koustav Chatterjee, Akash Roy, Rebecca Banerjee, Supriyo Choudhury, Banashree Mondal, Saptak Halder, Purba Basu, Shantanu Shubham, Sanjit Dey, Hrishikesh Kumar Tags: Short Communication Source Type: research

Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy with anti-NF155 IgG4 in China
Patients with chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) seropositive for autoantibodies against nodal and paranodal proteins display distinct clinical presentations. We herein tested for autoantibodies against neurofascin (NF) 155, NF186, contactin-associated protein 1 and contactin-1 and investigated the autoantibody-related clinical features in 29 patients with CIDP from China. Six patients with anti-NF155 IgG4 antibodies displayed younger age of onset and poor response to intravenous immunoglobulin than seronegative patients. (Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology)
Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology - October 25, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Xuli Zhang, Peibing Zheng, J érôme J. Devaux, Yan Wang, Chen Liu, Jing Li, Shougang Guo, Yan Song, Qian Wang, Xungang Feng, Yuzhong Wang Tags: Short Communication Source Type: research

Tuftsin-phosphorylcholine attenuate experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic autoimmune disease of the central nervous system (CNS) which carries a significant burden of morbidity and mortality. Herein we examine the effects of acute treatment with tuftsin-phosphorylcholine (TPC), a novel immune-modulating helminth derived compound, on a murine model of MS. Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) mice received acute treatment with TPC showed an improved clinical score and significantly less signs of inflammation and demyelination in CNS tissue compared with vehicle treated EAE mice. (Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology)
Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology - October 24, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Nataliia Sergeevna Novikova, Anastasiia Sergeevna Diatlova, Kristina Zurabovna Derevtsova, Elena Andreevna Korneva, Fedotkina Tamara Viktorovna, Yuri Ostrinki, Lital Abraham, Shir Quinn, Yahel Segal, Leonid Churilov, Miri Blank, Yehuda Shoenfeld, Rina Aha Source Type: research

Th17/Treg cells imbalance and their related cytokines (IL-17, IL-10 and TGF- β) in children with autism spectrum disorder
We aimed in this study to investigate a possible involvement of Th17/Treg cells imbalance in autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Using flowcytometry to determine circulating Th17 and Treg cells percentages, RT- PCR and ELISA for cytokine expression, we demonstrated that Th17/Treg balance in ASD children was significantly skewed toward a Th17 response compared to their control. Th17 cells and the ratio of Th17/Treg cells had a significantly positive correlation with disease severity whereas Treg cells had a negative correlation. (Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology)
Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology - October 23, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Mai Moaaz, Sara Youssry, Amr Elfatatry, Mohammed Abd El Rahman Source Type: research

A novel MuSK cell-based myasthenia gravis diagnostic assay
To improve the clinical diagnosis of neural autoimmune diseases, we developed an in-house muscle-specific kinase (MuSK) antibody cell-based assay (CBA) and compared its performance with RIA, ELISA, and other CBAs. Sera from patients with myasthenia gravis (MG) and other autoimmune diseases were analyzed. We found 46 (18.3%) MuSK-CBA Ab positive cases among 251 AChR-Ab negative cases [patients] and 4 (0.6%) MuSK-CBA Ab positive cases [among] the 624 AChR-Ab positive samples. Comparing these with available clinic assays, our highly specific CBA method is more sensitive than commercial ELISA and IFA(indirect immunofluorescenc...
Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology - October 19, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Jiaojiao Han, Jing Zhang, Mingqiang Li, Yingna Zhang, Jie Lv, Xue Zhao, Shumin Wang, Lulu Wang, Haonan Yang, Sensen Han, Hua Fang, Feng Gao Source Type: research

Lymphocytic ganglionitis leading to megacolon in lymphocyte-rich glioblastoma
T-cell immune attack of cancer cells underlies the efficacy of immune checkpoint inhibitors in many cancer subtypes, but is not yet well established in the primary brain cancer glioblastoma. Immune checkpoint inhibitor treatments that disinhibit the immune system to enhance immune clearance of cancer have in rare cases resulted in T-cell attack of peripheral ganglia causing lymphocytic ganglionitis. In glioblastoma, lymphocytic ganglionitis has not been reported and checkpoint inhibitors are not routinely used. (Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology)
Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology - October 19, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Jared T. Ahrendsen, Kevin R. Anderson, Matthew P. Anderson Tags: Short Communication Source Type: research

Elevated quinolinic acid levels in cerebrospinal fluid in subacute sclerosing panencephalitis
Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) is a rare neurodegenerative disorder caused by a persistent infection with aberrant measles virus. Indoleamine-2, 3-dioxygenase (IDO) initiates the increased production of kynurenine pathway (KP) metabolites quinolinic acid (QUIN), which has an excitotoxic effect for neurons. We measured serum IDO activity and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) levels of QUIN. The CSF QUIN levels were significantly higher in SSPE patients than in controls, and increased according as neurological disability in a patient studied. (Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology)
Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology - October 18, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Hirofumi Inoue, Takeshi Matsushige, Takashi Ichiyama, Alato Okuno, Osamu Takikawa, Shozo Tomonaga, Banu Anlar, Deniz Y üksel, Yasushi Otsuka, Fumitaka Kouno, Madoka Hoshide, Shouichi Ohga, Shunji Hasegawa Source Type: research

Anterior subdiaphragmatic vagotomy decreases the IgA antibody response in the small intestines of BALB/c mice
To assess the impact of vagotomy on the IgA-response, male BALB/c mice underwent anterior vagotomy or a sham procedure were sacrificed on day 14 post-operation and the proximal and distal small-gut segments were dissected. In intestinal lavages IgA/IgM antibodies were analysed by ELISA; in Peyer's-patches and lamina-propria cell suspensions the intracellular IgA-associated interleukins (ILs) and pro-inflammatory cytokines in CD4+ T cells were analysed by cytofluorometry. Vagotomy reduced the IgA or increased the IgM antibody concentration in both segments and reduced or increased the lamina- propria CD4+ T cell pro-inflamm...
Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology - October 17, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Ivonne Maciel Arciniega-Martinez, Maria Elisa Drago-Serrano, Marisol Salas-Pimentel, Javier Ventura-Ju árez, Aldo Arturo Resendiz-Albor, Rafael Campos-Rodriguez Source Type: research

Aquatic exercise and Far Infrared (FIR) modulates pain and blood cytokines in fibromyalgia patients: A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled pilot study
Fibromyalgia (FM) has an inflammatory component, as elevated serum levels of inflammatory biomarkers are associated with its diagnosis. Treatments decreased pain, body temperature, improved quality of life and reduced serum levels of IL-6 in both groups; however, these beneficial effects were more pronounced in aquatic exercise (AE)  + Far-Infrared (FIR) group. The findings of the present study suggest that the association of AE to FIR increases the benefits of aquatic exercise in patients with FM. (Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology)
Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology - October 16, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Daiana Cristina Salm, Luiz Augusto Oliveira Belmonte, Aline Armiliato Emer, Larissa Leonel, R ômulo Nolasco de Brito, Cinthia Calheiros da Rocha, Thiago César Martins, Diogo Cunha dos Reis, Antônio Renato Pereira Moro, Leidiane Mazzardo-Martins, Maicon Source Type: research

Innate immune suppression after traumatic brain injury and hemorrhage in a juvenile rat model of polytrauma
Traumatic injury in children is known to cause immune suppression. Polytrauma involving a traumatic brain injury (TBI) may increase this degree of immune suppression, which increases the risk of developing nosocomial infections, potentially causing secondary brain injury and worsening patient outcomes. Despite the high prevalence of polytrauma with TBI in children, mechanisms of immune suppression following such injuries remain poorly understood. Here, we used a combined animal injury model of TBI and hemorrhage to assess immune function after polytrauma. (Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology)
Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology - October 15, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Eric A. Sribnick, Michael D. Weber, Mark W. Hall Source Type: research

Outcomes after single-cycle rituximab monotherapy in patients with anti-MAG polyneuropathy: A bi-center experience with an average follow-up of 11  years
Rituximab is efficacious in myelin-associated glycoprotein (MAG) polyneuropathy, but the question on timing of retreatments is open. We studied 21 anti-MAG polyneuropathy patients who responded to a first cycle of rituximab, were followed-up for an average of 11.2  years, and were retreated only when relapsing. Baseline serum B-cell-activating factor (BAFF) levels were measured.Clinical improvements lasted on average 6 years, and as many as 71% of the patients resulted long-lasting responders. Severity of disease and high serum BAFF levels (cut-off ≥860  pg/mL for relapse risk) at onset seemed to predict worse pro...
Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology - October 15, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: L. Benedetti, M. Garnero, C. Demichelis, M. Grandis, C. Briani, S. Beltramini, M. Bellucci, V. Prada, F. Massa, M. Gastaldi, A. Schenone, D. Franciotta Tags: Short communication Source Type: research

Multiple co-existing antibodies in autoimmune encephalitis: A case and review of the literature
A 66-year-old man with a history of chronic tobacco use presented with two months of progressive memory deficits, ataxia, diplopia, and opsoclonus. His brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed limbic and brainstem encephalitis, and antibody testing was positive for anti-Ma1/Ma2, anti-N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (anti-NMDA-R) and anti-glutamic acid decarboxylase 65 (anti-GAD65) antibodies. His encephalitis improved with intravenous steroids, plasmapheresis, and rituximab initiation. His PET/CT was suspicious for lung malignancy, but a progressive deterioration of his respiratory status prevented full investigation. (...
Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology - October 15, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Ryan Kammeyer, Amanda L. Piquet Tags: Short communication Source Type: research

Rapid alterations in neuroimmune gene expression after acute ethanol: Timecourse, sex differences and sensitivity to cranial surgery
Prior work has established that that an acute ethanol challenge that mimics high intensity alcohol consumption increased IL-6 and suppressed of IL-1 β and TNFα mRNA in intoxication, with the opposite pattern seen in withdrawal. These experiments Sprague-Dawley rats to further extend these results across time course (from 45 min to 6 h after ethanol), sex, and central versus peripheral expression. Furthermore, these data show that cannulati on surgery may selectively modify the central neuroimmune response to ethanol. (Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology)
Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology - October 15, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Anny Gano, Jamie E. Mondello, Tamara L. Doremus-Fitzwater, Terrence Deak Source Type: research

The clinical presentation and treatment of MOG antibody disease at a single academic center: A case series
To describe the clinical presentation of MOG antibody disease (MOG-AD) in a series of patients at a single academic center. (Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology)
Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology - October 15, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Petra Brayo, F. Lee Hartsell, Mark Skeen, Christopher Eckstein, Joel Morgenlander, Suma Shah Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

Myasthenia gravis: State of the art and new therapeutic strategies
Myasthenia Gravis (MG) – an autoimmune neuromuscular disease – is known by the production of autoantibodies against components of the neuromuscular junction mainly to the acetylcholine receptor, which cause the destruction and compromises the synaptic transmission. This disease is characterized by fluctuating and fati gable muscle weakness, becoming more intensive with activity, but with an improvement under resting. There are many therapeutic strategies used to alleviate MG symptoms, either by improving the transmission of the nerve impulse or by ameliorating autoimmune reactions with e.g. (Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology)
Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology - October 15, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Eliana B. Souto, Bernado Lima, Joana R. Campos, Carlos Martins-Gomes, Selma B. Souto, Am élia M. Silva Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

Expression of melanoma cell adhesion molecule-1 (MCAM-1) in natalizumab-treated multiple sclerosis
The objectives were to study the expression of very late antigen (VLA)-4, melanoma cell adhesion molecule-1 (MCAM-1) and activated leukocyte cell adhesion molecule (ALCAM) on CD4+ T cells during natalizumab treatment and to investigate the association with disease activity.We find that subgroups of autoreactive T cells are retained in peripheral blood, in particular MOG-reactive CD4+ T cells expressing MCAM-1. The expression of MCAM-1 or ALCAM on CD4+ T cells was, however, not clearly associated with disease activity (clinical or MRI) during natalizumab treatment. (Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology)
Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology - October 13, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: E.R. Petersen, C. Ammitzb øll, H.B. Søndergaard, A.B. Oturai, P.S. Sørensen, A.C. Nilsson, L. Börnsen, M. von Essen, F. Sellebjerg Source Type: research

Chemical sympathectomy attenuates lipopolysaccharide-induced increase of plasma cytokine levels in rats pretreated by ACTH
The sympathetic nervous system participates significantly in the regulation of immune functions. In support of this, data indicate that besides vagal afferent and efferent pathway, sympathetic nerves represent crucial component of inflammatory reflex. In addition, it was shown that efferent arm of this reflex might be activated by ACTH. Therefore, we investigated the effect of chemical sympathectomy on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced increases in plasma IL-1 β, IL-6, and TNF-α levels in rats. Plasma IL-10 and corticosterone levels were also evaluated. (Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology)
Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology - October 13, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Boris Mravec Source Type: research