Intrathecal rituximab in immunoglobulin G4-hypertrophic pachymeningitis
We describe the case of a 69-year-old man who presented with symptoms of headache and severe vision loss due to G4 immunoglobulin (IgG4) hypertrophic pachymeningitis (HP). The patient was initially responsive to corticotherapy, but vision loss progressed when steroid therapy was first tapered. No improvement was noticed with intravenous rituximab. The patient showed clinical and radiological improvement after intrathecal rituximab, which can be an efficacious alternative treatment option. (Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology)
Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology - June 18, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Carolina Soares, Diana F. Martins, Roberto Pestana-Silva, Mrinalini Honavar, Olinda Faria, Pedro Abreu, Andreia Costa Tags: Short Communication Source Type: research

Exosomes from adipose-derived stem cells alleviate neural injury caused by microglia activation via suppressing NF-kB and MAPK pathway
Activation of microglia cells play critical role in neuroinflammation after brain injury. Exosomes from adipose-derived stem cells (ADSC) possess immunoregulation effect similar with ADSC. We hypothesized that ADSC derived exosomes (ADSC-exosomes) could inhibit the activation of microglia cells and prevent neuroinflammation. We found that ADSC-exosomes could inhibit the activation of microglia cells by suppressing NF-kB and MAPK pathway. Production of inflammatory factors in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated microglia cells decreased significantly when pretreated with ADSC-exosomes. (Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology)
Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology - June 17, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Nianhua Feng, Yanjun Jia, Xiaoxi Huang Source Type: research

Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis accelerates remyelination after lysophosphatidylcholine-induced demyelination in the corpus callosum
Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) and lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC)-induced demyelination were combined to study remyelination in a pro-inflammatory context. Two groups of female C57BL/6 mice were subjected either to EAE or injected with just complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) and pertussis toxin (PTX) followed by bilateral LPC and phosphate buffered saline injections in the corpus callosum on day 7. Relative to CFA/PTX controls, EAE accelerated remyelination and increased innate immune cell activation, lymphocyte infiltration and cytokine gene expression in the LPC lesions. (Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology)
Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology - June 14, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Anna-Claire Lamport, Matthew Chedrawe, Matthew Nichols, George S. Robertson Tags: Short Communication Source Type: research

Editorial Board
(Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology)
Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology - June 13, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Intracerebroventricular administration of lupus serum induces microglia activation and leukocyte adhesion in the cerebromicrovasculature of mice
Central nervous system (CNS) involvement is commonly seen in the patients with system lupus erythematosus (SLE). Mechanisms underlying CNS damage in SLE remain largely unknown. Accumulating evidence suggest that activation of microglia in CNS plays an important role in the inflammatory responses in neurological diseases. The aim of this study is to examine the involvement of microglia in the CNS inflammatory responses induced by circulating serum of SLE patients. (Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology)
Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology - June 10, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Xuejiao Wang, Yingzhuo Li, Yuchen Wang, Qianhui Feng, Pingting Yang, Ling Qin Source Type: research

Increased plasma levels of high mobility group box 1 protein in patients with bipolar disorder: A pilot study
High mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) is a pro-inflammatory cytokine that emerges as a promising peripheral marker of inflammation. HMGB1 and C-reactive protein levels were assessed in plasma of control subjects and remitted patients with bipolar disorder (BD). HMGB1 levels were significantly higher in patients with BD as compared to control subjects whereas C-reactive protein levels did not differ between the two groups. No significant effect of potential covariates was identified. The results of this pilot study suggest that HMGB1 might be a specific peripheral marker of inflammation in BD. (Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology)
Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology - June 6, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Cynthia Marie-Claire, Cindie Courtin, Emmanuel Curis, Elodie Bouaziz-Amar, Jean-Louis Laplanche, Aude Jacob, Bruno Etain, Anne Blanchard, Frank Bellivier Tags: Short Communication Source Type: research

Evaluation of variation in genes of the arylhydrocarbon receptor pathway for an association with multiple sclerosis
The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) contributes to immune regulation in autoimmune diseases such as multiple sclerosis (MS). Analysis of selected polymorphisms in AhR pathway genes in 805 MS patients and 1023 controls revealed a modest association of a CYP1B1 polymorphism with secondary progressive MS that became more pronounced in combination with other SNPs in the pathway, suggesting interactive effects. Additionally, first evidence for an interaction with smoking was found, but due to small sample sizes statistical significance was only nominal. (Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology)
Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology - June 4, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Narin Zorlu, Sabine Hoffjan, Aiden Haghikia, Igor V. Deyneko, J örg T. Epplen Source Type: research

A case series of PD-1 inhibitor-associated paraneoplastic neurologic syndromes
We present three cases: i) a woman with anti-Ri brainstem encephalitis; ii) a man with anti-Hu sensory neuronopathy; and iii) a woman with suspected combined anti-Hu and anti-NMDA paraneoplastic syndromes associated with the initiation of the ICIs pembrolizumab and nivolumab. These cases suggest that ICIs can induce both humoral and cell-mediated paraneoplastic neurologic syndromes. (Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology)
Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology - June 4, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: AlexanderJ. Gill, Michael A. Perez, Christopher M. Perrone, Charles J. Bae, Amy A. Pruitt, Eric Lancaster Tags: Short Communication Source Type: research

Effects of the CRMP2 activator lanthionine ketimine ethyl ester on oligodendrocyte progenitor cells
We previously showed LKE (lanthionine ketimine ester) reduces disease in the EAE model of multiple sclerosis, however whether LKE affects oligodendrocytes (OLGs) was not tested. In OLG progenitor cells (OPCs), LKE increased process number and area, but not PDGF-receptor-alpha expressing cells. In contrast, PDGF increased OPC numbers, but reduced process number and area. LKE increased collapsin response mediator protein-2 (CRMP2) expression, an LKE target, and CRMP2-expressing OLGs expressed myelin basic protein. (Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology)
Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology - June 3, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Valentyna Savchenko, Sergey Kalinin, Anne I. Boullerne, Kathy Kowal, Shao Xia Lin, Douglas L. Feinstein Source Type: research

Publisher ’s Note
(Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology)
Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology - June 3, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Oxymatrine can attenuate pathological deficits of Alzheimer's disease mice through regulation of neuroinflammation
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a common neurodegenerative disorder characterized by progressive learning and cognitive damage. Several hypotheses such as amyloid cascade hypothesis, hyper-phosphorylated τ hypothesis, and energy metabolism hypothesis have been proposed to elucidate the disease. However, the exact mechanism of AD remains unclear and current therapeutic strategies are miserable. Cumulative evidence showed that neuroinflammation plays a significant role in the pathogenesis of the AD. Oxymatrine (OMT), a plant-derived bioactive compound, has anti-viral, anti-fibrosis, and anti-tumor effects through the involve...
Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology - May 31, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Yun Chen, Ziyou Qi, Baojun Qiao, Zhanyun Lv, Tinglei Hao, Hongfang Li Source Type: research

Domperidone-induced elevation of serum prolactin levels and immune response in multiple sclerosis
Increasing systemic prolactin levels improves remyelination and neuronal survival in animal models of Multiple Sclerosis (MS), but it has been suggested that this therapeutic strategy may also increase inflammatory responses, and potentially harm patients. We analyzed serum prolactin and cytokine, chemokine and growth factor levels in sera from MS patients enrolled in two clinical trials who were treated with domperidone, a generic drug that increases systemic prolactin levels. In patients treated with domperidone, molecule levels changed little during follow up, while prolactin levels increased several-fold. (Source: Jour...
Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology - May 29, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Marcus W. Koch, Wei-Qiao Liu, Carlos Camara-Lemarroy, Yunyan Zhang, G. Bruce Pike, Luanne Metz, V. Wee Yong Source Type: research

Identification of adenylate kinase 5 antibodies during routine diagnostics in a tissue-based assay: Three new cases and a review of the literature
Antibodies against adenylate kinase 5 (AK5) have been described in patients with non-paraneoplastic limbic encephalitis, mainly in men around 70  years of age. Routine testing with specific cell-based assays is not yet available. Three patients with episodic anterograde memory problems and depression had extensive limbic lesions and developed severe atrophy, mainly of the medial temporal lobes. The antibodies were identified in serum and C SF based on the typical staining pattern of AK5 antibodies on a tissue-based assay (here, unfixed mouse brain). (Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology)
Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology - May 29, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Corinna I. Bien, Ferdinand Nehls, Rainer Kollmar, Maria Weis, Wolfgang Steinke, Friedrich Woermann, Josep Dalmau, Christian G. Bien Source Type: research

Activation of microglia and macrophages in the circumventricular organs of the mouse brain during TLR2-induced fever and sickness responses
Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) recognizes cell wall components from Gram-positive bacteria. Until now, however, little has been known about the significance of brain TLR2 in controlling inflammation and thermoregulatory responses during systemic Gram-positive bacterial infection. In the present study, the TLR2 immunoreactivity was seen to be prominent in the microglia/macrophages of the circumventricular organs (CVOs) of the mouse brain. The intraperitoneal injection of Pam3CSK4, a TLR2 agonist, induced nuclear factor- κ B activation in the microglia/macrophages of the CVOs. (Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology)
Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology - May 28, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Saki Murayama, Erkin Kurganov, Seiji Miyata Source Type: research

The role of Interleukin-33 in the modulation of splenic T-cell immune responses after experimental ischemic stroke
The splenic T-cell immune response to stroke has been identified as an important role in the progression of brain injury following ischemic stroke. Interleukin (IL)-33 as a novel cytokine of IL-1 family has been found to be protective for ischemic brain injury. Here, we determined the contribution of IL-33 to the T-cell immune responses in the spleen after experimental ischemic stroke. Mice were subjected to 30  min of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) for ischemic stroke induction. Recombinant mouse IL-33 (100 μg/kg) was pre-treated intraperitoneally at 30 min prior to MCAO, then the percentages of T cell s...
Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology - May 27, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Wei Xiao, Shuang Guo, Lin Chen, Yi Luo Source Type: research

Effects of lipoic acid on primary murine microglial cells
The objective is to understand how LA affects microglial cells. We cultured primary microglial cells from C57BL/6 adult mice brains and stimulated the cells with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and interferon gamma (IFN- γ) in the presence or absence of LA. (Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology)
Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology - May 27, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Priya Chaudhary, Gail Marracci, Edvinas Pocius, Danielle Galipeau, Brooke Morris, Dennis Bourdette Source Type: research

Circular RNAs as a novel layer of regulatory mechanism in multiple sclerosis
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is believed to be an autoimmune disease of the central nervous system (CNS) in which autoreactive immune cells recognizing myelin antigens lead to demyelination and axonal injury. Mechanisms inducing and controlling the pathogenesis of MS have not been fully elucidated. Recent studies suggest an important role of epigenetic processes during the development of MS. One of the most significant discoveries in the field of epigenetic contribution to immune response has been the recognition of a group of microRNAs (miRNAs). (Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology)
Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology - May 24, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Anna Zurawska, Marcin P. Mycko, Krzysztof W. Selmaj Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

Editorial Board
(Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology)
Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology - May 22, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Imiquimod and interferon-alpha augment monocyte-mediated astrocyte secretion of MCP-1, IL-6 and IP-10 in a human co-culture system
The objective here was to determine whether the TLR7 agonist, imiquimod, and interferon-alpha (IFN- α), promote monocyte-mediated astrocyte secretion of pro-inflammatory factors. Using a human primary co-culture system, we demonstrate that monocytes, together with imiquimod and IFN-α, promote astrocyte secretion of MCP-1, IL-6 and IP-10. (Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology)
Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology - May 20, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Michael D. Rizzo, Robert B. Crawford, Anthony Bach, Sera Sermet, Andrea Amalfitano, Norbert E. Kaminski Source Type: research

Plasma levels of CTRP-3, CTRP-9 and apelin in women with multiple sclerosis
Recently, adipocytokines have been shown to play a pivotal role in autoimmune and inflammatory-related disease. The purpose of this study was to compare the levels of CTRP3, CTRP9, adiponectin and apelin, in Multiple Sclerosis (MS) patients with healthy subjects and their relationship with clinical parameters and the levels of pro-inflammatory mediators. (Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology)
Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology - May 16, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Amir Rasooli Tehrani, Sakineh Gholipour, Roya Sharifi, Samira Yadegari, Mohammad Abbasi-kolli, Nahid Masoudian Source Type: research

CCL26 and CCR3 are associated with the acute inflammatory response in the CNS in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis
Chemokine ligand 26 (CCL26) is a member of the eotaxin family. It works by interacting exclusively with chemokine receptor 3 (CCR3) and acts as an eosinophil-selective chemoattractant. There is an emerging role for eotaxins in autoimmune diseases. Studies have reported that chemokine ligand 11 (CCL11) and CCL26 are upregulated in patients with neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD) during remission, CCL26 levels appear to be decreased in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS), whereas CCL26 levels are significantly increased in secondary progressive multiple sclerosis (SPMS), indicating that CCL26 participat...
Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology - May 16, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Jifei Shou, Jing Peng, Zhikang Zhao, Xiaoxi Huang, Hui Li, Liheng Li, Xinxin Gao, Yanmeng Xing, Hongbo Liu Source Type: research

Persistence of intrathecal oligoclonal B cells and IgG in multiple sclerosis
In multiple sclerosis (MS), B cells are trafficking across the blood-brain barrier, but it is not known how this relates to the synthesis of oligoclonal IgG. We used quantitative mass spectrometry of oligoclonal bands and high-throughput sequencing of immunoglobulin heavy-chain variable transcripts to study the longitudinal B cell response in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and blood of two MS patients. Twenty of 22 (91%) and 25 of 28 (89%) of oligoclonal band peptides persisted in samples collected 18  months apart, in spite of a dynamic exchange across the blood-CSF barrier of B lineage cells connecting to oligoclonal Ig...
Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology - May 15, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Alina Tomescu-Baciu, Jorunn N. Johansen, Trygve Holm øy, Victor Greiff, Maria Stensland, Gustavo Antonio de Souza, Frode Vartdal, Andreas Lossius Source Type: research

Effect of low-dose rituximab treatment on T- and B-cell lymphocyte imbalance in refractory myasthenia gravis
We aimed to explore the effects of low-dose rituximab (RTX) on circulating T- and B-cell lymphocytes and the improvement of clinical symptoms in refractory myasthenia gravis (MG) patients. Fifteen patients with refractory MG were treated with a low dose of 600  mg RTX and were evaluated by serial-clinical scales, flow cytometry of peripheral blood T and B cells, and antibody titer before and after six months of RTX treatment. The quantitative MG score (QMGS), manual muscle testing (MMT), MG-related activities of daily living (MG-ADL) and MG-specific qua lity-of-life (QOL) were significantly improved and the average stero...
Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology - May 8, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Sisi Jing, Jun Lu, Jie Song, Sushan Luo, Lei Zhou, Chao Quan, Jianying Xi, Chongbo Zhao Source Type: research

Modulation of MS-like disease by a multi epitope protein is mediated by induction of CD11c+CD11b+Gr1+ myeloid-derived dendritic cells
Specific neutralization of the pathogenic autoimmune cells is the ultimate goal in therapy of MS. However, the pathogenic autoimmunity in MS, can be directed against several major target antigens, and therefore targeting pathogenic T-cells directed against a single target antigen is unlikely to be effective. To overcome this multiplicity and the potential complexity of pathogenic autoreactivities in MS, we have put forward the concept of concomitant multi-antigen/multi-epitope targeting as, a conceivably more effective approach to immunotherapy of MS. (Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology)
Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology - May 8, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: N. Kaushansky, A. Kaminitz, H. Arnon, A. Ben-Nun Source Type: research

Prevention of clinical and histological signs of MOG-induced experimental allergic encephalomyelitis by prolonged treatment with recombinant human EGF
Epidermal growth factor (EGF) represents the prototype of the group I EGF family. The pleiotropic effects of the EGF have attracted attention on the possibility that it could be implicated in autoimmune diseases, such as Multiple Sclerosis (MS). We show here that treatment with EGF, as a late prophylactic regime, improved the clinical and histological features of EAE, a preclinical model of MS. In silico analysis further corroborated these findings by demonstrating that EGF receptors are less expressed in CNS from patients with MS as compared to controls. (Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology)
Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology - May 8, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Ferdinando Nicoletti, Emanuela Mazzon, Paolo Fagone, Katia Mangano, Santa Mammana, Eugenio Cavalli, Maria Sofia Basile, Placido Bramanti, Giuseppe Scalabrino, Alois Lange, Francois Curtin Source Type: research

Anterior chamber associated immune deviation to cytosolic neural antigens avoids self-reactivity after optic nerve injury and polarizes the retinal environment to an anti-inflammatory profile
It has been hypothesized that anterior chamber-associated immune deviation (ACAID) to neural antigens induced prior to central nervous system injury can inhibit self-reactivity and lessen secondary degeneration. This work evaluated the effect of ACAID induced to three neural tissue-derived extracts (whole extract, cytosolic extract, CE; or organelle-membrane extract) prior to optic nerve injury on retinal ganglion cell (RGC) survival. The results show that only ACAID to the CE increased RGC survival at 7 and14 days post-injury (dpi). (Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology)
Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology - May 7, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: L. Mart ínez-Alcantar, D.K. Talavera-Carrillo, J.U. Pineda-Salazar, M. Ávalos-Viveros, G. Gutiérrez-Ospina, B.V. Phillips-Farfán, A.L. Fuentes-Farías, E. Meléndez-Herrera Source Type: research

Propofol reduces microglia activation and neurotoxicity through inhibition of extracellular vesicle release
Propofol is an established anesthetic widely used for induction and maintenance of anesthesia. We investigated propofol for its anti-inflammatory effects on microglia and found that propofol treatment is associated with substantial lower levels of extracellular vesicles (EVs) in immune activated microglia. Importantly, EVs collected from immune activated microglia reversed propofol-mediated anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects, suggesting that propofol reduces proinflammatory microglia activation and microglia-mediated neurotoxicity through inhibition of EV release. (Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology)
Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology - May 4, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Jianhui Liu, Yuju Li, Xiaohuan Xia, Xiaoyu Yang, Runze Zhao, Justin Peer, Hongyun Wang, Zenghan Tong, Fengtong Gao, Hai Lin, Beiqing Wu, Yunlong Huang, Jialin Zheng Source Type: research

Long-term actions of interleukin-1 β on K+, Na+ and Ca2+ channel currents in small, IB4-positive dorsal root ganglion neurons; possible relevance to the etiology of neuropathic pain
Excitation of dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons by interleukin 1 β (IL-1β) is implicated in the onset of neuropathic pain. To understand its mechanism of action, isolectin B4 positive (IB4+) DRG neurons were exposed to 100pM IL-1β for 5-6d. A reversible increase in action potential (AP) amplitude reflected increased TTX-sensitive sodium current (TTX-S INa). An irreversible increase in AP duration reflected decreased Ca2+- sensitive K+ conductance (BK(Ca) channels). Different processes thus underlie regulation of the two channel types. (Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology)
Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology - May 3, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Myung-chul Noh, Patrick L. Stemkowski, Peter A. Smith Source Type: research

B cell depletion with ublituximab reshapes the T cell profile in multiple sclerosis patients
This study was designed to determine how B cell depletion changes lymphocyte profiles. During a phase IIa clinical trial with ublituximab, a novel CD20 antibody, blood was collected from 48 MS patients at 11 time points over 24  weeks and the lymphocyte profiles were analyzed by flow cytometry. (Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology)
Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology - May 3, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Amy E. Lovett-Racke, Matthew Gormley, Yue Liu, Yuhong Yang, Calsey Graham, Sibyl Wray, Michael K. Racke, Richard Shubin, Cary Twyman, Enrique Alvarez, Ann Bass, James L. Eubanks, Edward Fox Source Type: research

MOG antibody seropositive aseptic meningitis: A new clinical phenotype
The spectrum of myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein antibody (MOG-Ab) associated demyelination is evolving. Our case report describes a unique clinical presentation of aseptic meningitis with demyelinating lesions of the brain resembling acute disseminated encephalomyelitis and MOG-Ab seropositivity. A 22-year-old lady presented with history of fever of one week duration followed by headache, vomiting and neck stiffness. She had bilateral papilledema and signs of meningeal irritation. Neuroimaging revealed T2 and FLAIR hyperintense lesions in the right caudate, temporal lobe and left insula with enhancement on gadolinium c...
Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology - May 2, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Divya Nagabushana, Rutul Shah, Hima Pendharkar, Aakash Agrawal, Girish B. Kulkarni, Srijithesh Rajendran, Suvarna Alladi, Anita Mahadevan Tags: Short Communication Source Type: research

The therapeutic effect of platelet-rich plasma on the experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis mice
The use of growth factors is considered to be one of the promising therapeutic strategies for multiple sclerosis (MS). Various studies have shown that platelet-rich plasma (PRP), a bioproduct of concentrated platelets, contains a variety of growth factors such as insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), epithelial growth factor (EGF), and transforming growth factor β (TGF-β). The therapeutic roles of PRP, with regard to a wide range of growth factors, on the nervous system have been shown in a limited number of studies. (Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology)
Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology - May 2, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Maryam Borhani-Haghighi, Yousef Mohamadi Source Type: research

Response to “H1N1 hemagglutinin-specific HLA-DQ6-restricted CD4+ T cells can be readily detected in narcolepsy type 1 patients and healthy controls”
We read with great interest the publication by Schinkelshoek et al. (Schinkelshoek et al., 2019) reporting on T cell reactivity to Hemagglutinin pHA275 –287 and Hypocretin/orexin HCRT56–68 and HCRT87–99 peptides. The authors failed to discuss a publication by Luo et al. published a day after submission of their own publication (Luo et al., 2018a). This same work had been published in BioRxiv (Luo et al., 2018b) together with an informative Ge nome Wide Association (GWAS) paper in 5500 narcolepsy subjects (Ollila et al., 2018), and discussed in Liblau et al. (Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology)
Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology - May 1, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Emmanuel Mignot, Aditya Ambati, Guo Luo Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

VEGF- and PDGF-dependent proliferation of oligodendrocyte progenitor cells in the medulla oblongata after LPC-induced focal demyelination
The myelin sheath is critical in maintaining normal functions of the adult central nervous system (CNS) and the loss of the myelin sheath results in various neurological diseases. Although remyelination is the intrinsic repair system against demyelination that new myelin sheath is formed around axons in the adult CNS, little has been reported on remyelination system in the medulla oblongata. In the present study, we showed that the proliferation of oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) was increased in the medulla oblongata by lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC)-induced focal demyelination, but that of NSCs was not changed. (S...
Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology - April 30, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Daishi Hiratsuka, Erkin Kuruganov, Eriko Furube, Mitsuhiro Morita, Seiji Miyata Source Type: research

Natalizumab induced cutaneous sarcoidosis-like reaction
We present a case of a drug-induced sarcoidosis -like reaction (DISR) occurring following initiation of Natalizumab for multiple sclerosis. The reaction was purely cutaneous, and disappeared following drug withdrawal. We highlight this case to the practicing neurologists, with warning to be wary of a new rash on immunomodulatory therapies. (Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology)
Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology - April 30, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: R. Durcan, C. Heffron, B. Sweeney Tags: Short Communication Source Type: research

Mass cytometry reveals an impairment of B cell homeostasis in anti-synthetase syndrome
Recent data suggest the implication of T, B and NK cells in the anti-synthetase syndrome (ASyS); nevertheless their role and activation states are poorly described.We performed deep immune-profiling using 37 markers on peripheral blood cells from 10 ASyS patients versus 17 healthy donors (HD) and 26 myositis control patients.We show decreased percentages of memory B cells in ASyS patients (mean  ± SEM: ASyS = 13 ± 3%, HD = 37 ± 4% and ‘myositis controls’ = 32 ± 3), counterbalanced by increased percentages of naïve B cells. (Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology)
Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology - April 29, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Ga ëlle Dzangué-Tchoupou, Yves Allenbach, Corinna Preuße, Werner Stenzel, Olivier Benveniste Tags: Short Communication Source Type: research

Effect of donepezil on the expression and responsiveness to LPS of CHRNA7 and CHRFAM7A in macrophages: A possible link to the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway
The α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (CHRNA7) modulates the inflammatory response by activating the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway. CHRFAM7A, the human-restricted duplicated form of CHRNA7, has a negative effect on the functioning of α7 receptors, suggesting that CHRFAM7A expression regulati on may be a key step in the modulation of inflammation in the human setting. The analysis of the CHRFAM7A gene's regulatory region reveals some of the mechanisms driving its expression and responsiveness to LPS in human immune cell models. (Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology)
Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology - April 24, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Annalisa Maroli, Simona Di Lascio, Lorenzo Drufuca, Silvia Cardani, Elisa Setten, Massimo Locati, Diego Fornasari, Roberta Benfante Source Type: research

IL-17A is associated with the breakdown of the blood-brain barrier in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis
IL-17 has been implicated in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis (MS). Here, we show that blockade of IL-17A, but not IL-17F, attenuated experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). We further show that IL-17A levels were elevated in the CSF of relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS) patients and that they correlated with the CSF/serum albumin quotient (Qalb), a measure of blood-brain barrier (BBB) dysfunction. We then demonstrated that the combination of IL-17A and IL-6 reduced the expression of tight junction (TJ)-associated genes and disrupted monolayer integrity in the BBB cell line hCMEC/D3. (Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology)
Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology - April 21, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: A. Francesca Setiadi, Alexander R. Abbas, Surinder Jeet, Kit Wong, Antje Bischof, Ivan Peng, James Lee, Meire Bremer, Erica L. Eggers, Jason DeVoss, Tracy Staton, Ann Herman, H. -Christian von B üdingen, Michael J. Townsend Source Type: research

Anti-glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) positive cerebellar Ataxia with transitioning to progressive encephalomyelitis with rigidity and myoclonus (PERM), responsive to immunotherapy: A case report and review of literature
We present a case of a 65-year-old African American male, immunosuppressed on Tacrolimus, who initially presented with cerebellar ataxia and rapidly developed Progressive Encephalomyelitis with Rigidity and Myoclonus (PERM) with positive anti-glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD65) antibodies, no underlying malignancy, and normal neuroimaging. PERM is a rare spectrum of Stiff Person Syndrome (SPS), which is strongly associated with anti-GAD antibodies and characterized by flare-ups and remissions of encephalopathy, myelopathy and rigidity with myoclonus. (Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology)
Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology - April 20, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Noushin Jazebi, Shashika Rodrigo, Bhanu Gogia, Ahmad Shawagfeh Tags: Short Communication Source Type: research

The role of microglia and P2X7 receptors in gliomas
Gliomas are the most prevalent tumours of the central nervous system and present with high morbidity and mortality. The most common and most aggressive form of glioma is glioblastoma multiforme, of which patients have a median survival time of only 12 to 15  months. Current treatment options are limited and have a small impact on clinical outcome and prognosis. There is accumulating evidence that microglia, the immunocompetent cells of the central nervous system, and the purinergic P2X7 receptor (P2X7R) may contribute to tumour progression and pathol ogy. (Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology)
Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology - April 20, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Liyen Katrina Kan, David Williams, Kate Drummond, Terence O'Brien, Mastura Monif Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

H1N1 hemagglutinin-specific HLA-DQ6-restricted CD4+ T cells can be readily detected in narcolepsy type 1 patients and healthy controls
Following the 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic, an increased risk of narcolepsy type 1 was observed. Homology between an H1N1 hemagglutinin and two hypocretin sequences has been reported.T cell reactivity to these peptides was assessed in 81 narcolepsy type 1 patients and 19 HLA-DQ6-matched healthy controls.HLA-DQ6-restricted H1N1 hemagglutinin-specific T cell responses were detected in 28.4% of patients and 15.8% of controls. Despite structural homology between HLA-DQ6-hypocretin and -H1N1 peptide complexes, T cell cross-reactivity was not detected. (Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology)
Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology - April 17, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: M.S. Schinkelshoek, R. Fronczek, E.M.C. Kooy-Winkelaar, J. Petersen, H.H. Reid, A. van der Heide, J.W. Drijfhout, J. Rossjohn, G.J. Lammers, F. Koning Source Type: research

Regenerative neuroimmunology: The impact of immune and neural stem cell interactions for translation in neurodegeneration and repair
Stem cells are essential for organismal development as well as for regeneration in various adult tissues. In the brain, neural stem cells (NSCs) are being investigated, due to their potential for clinical translation in neurodegenerative and neuroimmunological disorders especially multiple sclerosis (MS). Furthermore, there is an increased recognition that the immune system regulates neural development by modulating neurogenesis, oligodendrogenesis, and synaptic formation (Cunningham et al., 2013). (Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology)
Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology - April 17, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Jaime Imitola Tags: Editorial Source Type: research

Efficacy and tolerability of mitoxantrone for neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder: A systematic review
The review assessed the efficacy and tolerability of mitoxantrone in patients with neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD). Eight articles were reviewed with a total of 117 patients. Annualized relapse rate and progression of disability dramatically decreased post-treatment in most studies. Mitoxantrone was generally tolerated. Only one patient developed acute myeloid leukemia, which lead to septicemia and death. No serious cardiotoxicity was reported.Mitoxantrone may be effective in reducing the frequency of relapse and slowing down the progression of disability in patients with NMOSD. (Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology)
Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology - April 15, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Clare Angeli G. Enriquez, Adrian I. Espiritu, Paul Matthew D. Pasco Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

The immunological response to traumatic brain injury
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is the leading cause of death and disability in young adults in the developed world. The accuracy of early outcome-prediction remains poor even when all known prognostic factors are considered, suggesting important currently unidentified variables. In addition, whilst survival and neurological outcomes have improved markedly with the utilisation of therapies that optimise physiology, no treatments specifically modulate the underlying pathophysiology. The immunological response to TBI represents both a potential contributor to outcome heterogeneity and a therapeutically tractable component of th...
Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology - April 11, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: E.J. Needham, A. Helmy, E.R. Zanier, J.L. Jones, A.J. Coles, D.K. Menon Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

Interaction of neurotransmitters and neurochemicals with lymphocytes
Neurotransmitters and neurochemicals can act on lymphocytes by binding to receptors expressed by lymphocytes. This review describes lymphocyte expression of receptors for a selection of neurotransmitters and neurochemicals, the anatomical locations where lymphocytes can interact with neurotransmitters, and the effects of the neurotransmitters on lymphocyte function. Implications for health and disease are also discussed. (Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology)
Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology - April 11, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Daniel Kerage, Erica K. Sloan, Stephen R. Mattarollo, Pamela A. McCombe Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

Clinical characteristics of autoimmune GFAP astrocytopathy
We describe here the clinical features of 14 patients with GFAP astrocytopathy confirmed by detection of GFAP-IgG in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). The novel findings of this study are as follows. First, over half of the patients presented with movement disorders (tremor, myoclonus, and ataxia), autonomic dysfunction (mainly urinary dysfunction), and hyponatremia. Second, most patients showed transient elevation of adenosine deaminase activity levels in CSF. (Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology)
Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology - April 9, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Akio Kimura, Akira Takekoshi, Nobuaki Yoshikura, Yuichi Hayashi, Takayoshi Shimohata Source Type: research

An investigation into the immune response of cultured neural rat cells following Zika virus infection
The most notable effect of prenatal Zika virus (ZIKV) infection is severe microcephaly. ZIKV has a selective tropism for neural progenitor cells; however, it is not clear what role the immune cells of the brain, microglia, may have in mitigating or exacerbating neuronal cell death following ZIKV infection. We cultured hippocampal and cortical neural cells from neonatal rat pups and infected them with ZIKV at various multiplicities of infection (MOI). We found that the neuroimmune response to ZIKV infection is composed of both pro-inflammatory and type I interferon responses and is largely dependent upon the viral dose. (So...
Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology - April 3, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Jennifer H. Lawrence, Morgan L. Sherer, Phaedra Tavlarides-Hontz, Mark S. Parcells, Jaclyn M. Schwarz Tags: Short Communication Source Type: research

False-positive acetylcholine receptor antibody results in patients without myasthenia gravis
Acetylcholine receptor antibodies are very specific for myasthenia. During a large prospective cohort study of myasthenia, we encountered five patients, positive for acetylcholine receptor (AChR) antibodies by radioimmunoprecipitation assay (RIA), whose clinical course revealed diagnoses other than myasthenia. Two patients had transiently raised AChR antibodies associated with Guillain-Barr é syndrome. Antibodies to clustered AChRs, in a live cell-based assay, were negative in all five patients, suggesting that results from the RIAs were false-positives. (Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology)
Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology - April 2, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Paul Maddison, Girija Sadalage, Philip Alexander Ambrose, Saiju Jacob, Angela Vincent Source Type: research

The PD-1/PD-Ls pathway is up-regulated during the suppression of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis treated by Astragalus polysaccharides
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory demyelinating disease of CNS. Astragalus polysaccharides (APS), the main active extract from astragalus membranaceus which is a kind of traditional Chinese medicinal herb, is associated with a variety of immunomodulatory activities. We have evaluated the therapeutic effects of APS in the animal model of MS, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). It was found that APS could effectively alleviate EAE through inhibiting MOG35 –55-specific T cell proliferation and reducing the expression of proinflammatory cytokines, which is mediated by up-regulating the expression of...
Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology - April 1, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Yu Sun, Yuanya Jing, Mengwen Huang, Jinyun Ma, Xiaoyan Peng, Jinying Wang, Guoling Li, Xiaodong Cheng Source Type: research

Editorial Board
(Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology)
Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology - March 29, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Corrigendum to: “low and high doses of ursolic acid ameliorate experimental autoimmune myasthenia gravis through different pathways” [Journal of Neuroimmunology 281 (2015) 61–67]
The authors would like to apologize for the two mistakes in this paper. In the paper, the image of control in figure.2.B was inadvertently replaced with the image of 20mg/kg. The published version of control in figure.2.B is incorrect. The corrected version of the figure is shown below, the only change is in the panel of control in Fig.2.B, and the rest of the figure is identical to the published version. The other mistake is the title of X-axis of the Fig.5.B which was labeled as “CD4” inadvertently instead of “CD25”, the corrected version of the figure is also shown below, the only change is the t...
Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology - March 29, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Hua Xu, Min Zhang, Xiao-Li Li, Heng Li, Long-Tao Yue, Xin-Xin Zhang, Cong-Cong Wang, Shan Wang, Rui-Sheng Duan Tags: Corrigendum Source Type: research