Serum ROCK2, miR-300 and miR-450b-5p levels in two different clinical phenotypes of multiple sclerosis: Relation to patient disability and disease progression
Relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) is the most prevalent MS subtype. Years after disease onset, most of RRMS patients show transition into secondary progressive form (SPMS). Currently, no biomarkers are available for tracking disease progression. Here, we observed marked elevation of Rho-associated protein kinase 2 (ROCK2) along with significant downregulation of miRNAs 300 and 450b-5p expressions in the serum of 39 RRMS and 35 SPMS Egyptian patients compared to healthy controls. More pronounced alterations were found in SPMS versus RRMS patients. (Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology)
Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology - August 4, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Samar H. Ibrahim, Karim M. El-Mehdawy, Mae Seleem, Maha M. El-Sawalhi, Amira A. Shaheen Source Type: research

Prognostic value of kappa free light chains determination in first-ever multiple sclerosis relapse
Given its highly variable clinical course, an unmet need for objective prognostic assessment in Multiple Sclerosis (MS) persists. In this work, we suggest that CSF kappa free light chains (KFLC) determination at first relapse may provide insight into future disease activity and disability worsening. We quantified KFLC by nephelometry in paired CSF/serum samples of 28 patients, collected within one month of first-ever MS relapse, and explored correlations with clinical data on disease activity, retrospectively registered across a median follow-up time of 79  months. (Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology)
Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology - August 4, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Manuel Salavisa, Pedro Paix ão, Ana Filipa Ladeira, Alexandra Mendes, Ana Sofia Correia, João Faro Viana, Miguel Viana-Baptista Source Type: research

Nivolumab-induced seronegative encephalitis
Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) have emerged as a new therapeutic tool for numerous types of cancer. Neurological complications have been reported in 1% of patients who have undergone checkpoint inhibition therapy. ICIs-induced encephalitides occur in 0.1 –0.2% of patients within weeks after ICIs initiation; are usually seronegative and have nonspecific changes on imaging, CSF and electroencephalogram (EEG) studies. Early recognition and prompt treatment are important to prevent significant morbidity and mortality. (Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology)
Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology - August 3, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Gon çalo Cabral, Filipa Ladeira, Nuno Gil Tags: Short Communication Source Type: research

Seasonal variation in relapse of neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders: A retrospective study in China
Neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMOSD) are debilitating and life-threatening autoimmune diseases of the central nervous system. Patients usually suffer weakness and blindness (Wingerchuk et al., 2007). NMOSD involve majorly chronic relapsing course result in visual and motor disability. (Wingerchuk et al., 1999). Despite significant advances in our understanding of the clinical and pathological features of NMOSD, what triggers relapse or exacerbation is not fully understood (Mandler, 2006). (Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology)
Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology - August 3, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Yuhan Qiu, Qiao Zhou, Qin Du, Hongxi Chen, Ziyan Shi, Ying Zhang, Jiancheng Wang, Chao Yan, Zhengyang Zhao, Mu Yang, Hongyu Zhou Source Type: research

Attenuation of inflammatory response in the EAE model by PEGlated nanoliposome of pistachio oils
This study showed that the administration of pistachio oil and PEGNLPUOs at a concentration of 10%v/v decreased the number and percentage of Th1(CD4+) and increased Th2(CD8+) cells. (Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology)
Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology - July 29, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Ali Jebali, Mojgan Noroozi Karimabad, Zahra Ahmadi, Hossein Khorramdel, Ayat Kaeidi, Mohammadreza Mirzaei, Mohammad Zare-Bidaki, Hassan Ahmadinia, Alireza Vakilian, Ali Darekordi, Gholamhossein Hassanshahi Source Type: research

De novo nose-pinching stereotypy with somnolence: Clues to autoimmune encephalitis
Autoimmune encephalitis (AE) is being increasingly recognized as a cause of new-onset movement disorders. Movement disorders in AE are diverse and range from hyperkinetic conditions such as oromandibular dyskinesias, tremors and chorea to hypokinetic ones such as bradykinesia and parkinsonism. Stereotypies have been described in association with anti-NMDAR encephalitis. Similarly, sleep dysfunction is an underrecognized feature in many AE subtypes, prominently anti-IgLON5 although the correlation of phenotype of sleep dysfunction with a particular antibody subtype in AE is unclear. (Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology)
Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology - July 29, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Divyani Garg, Ayush Agarwal, Ram Bhagyawant, Trimaan Singh Sikand, Ajai Kumar Singh Tags: Short Communication Source Type: research

An immunological and transcriptomics approach on differential modulation of NK cells in multiple sclerosis patients under interferon- β1 and fingolimod therapy
This study aims to compare NK cells obtained from multiple sclerosis (MS) patients receiving interferon- β1 and fingolimod therapies. Fingolimod reduced the CD56bright NK cell subset. The remaining CD56dim NK cells displayed NKG2D, NKp46, CD107a, and IFN-γ levels similar to those from the patients under interferon-β1 therapy. Alternatively, comparative transcriptomics and pathway analyses revealed s ignificant distinctions between two therapy modalities. Molecular signature of the CD56dim NK cells from fingolimod-treated MS patients was closely associated to those from healthy subjects. (Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology)
Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology - July 29, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Nazire Pinar Acar, Asli Tuncer, Didem Ozkazanc, Feyza Gul Ozbay, Beren Karaosmanoglu, Sibel Goksen, Guliz Sayat, Ekim Z. Taskiran, Gunes Esendagli, Rana Karabudak Source Type: research

Inter-individual differences in immune profiles of outbred rats screened for an emotional reactivity phenotype
Inter-individual differences in emotional reactivity predict susceptibility versus resilience to mood pathology. Using experimentally-na ïve outbred rats that vary in locomotor reactivity to the mild stress of an inescapable novel environment [i.e., top and bottom 1/3rd of the population identified as high responders (HR) and low responders (LR) respectively], we determined baseline variations in immune functions. Innate and adaptiv e immune responses vary basally in LRHR rats, namely a shift towards TH1 in LRs and TH2 in HRs was observed. (Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology)
Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology - July 29, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Ceylan Isgor, Cigdem Aydin, Ozge Oztan, Stephania Libreros, Vijaya Iragavarapu-Charyulu Source Type: research

The emerging role of lncRNAs in multiple sclerosis
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is the most common inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS) with various clinical manifestations. The characteristic of MS is that myelin is attacked by the body's immune system and increases the electrical capacity of axons, and is the primary pathophysiological mechanism of the transmission block. Studies have shown that epigenetic factors participate in the development of MS. LncRNAs are highly abundant and heterogeneous linear RNA transcripts with lengths exceeding 200 nucleotides and no protein-coding potential. (Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology)
Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology - July 28, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Samin Ghaderian, Navid Shomali, Soheil Behravesh, Gholamreza Rezaei Danbaran, Maryam Hemmatzadeh, Saeed Aslani, Farhad Jadidi-Niaragh, Ramin Hosseinzadeh, Shahram Torkamandi, Hamed Mohammadi Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

Anti- RI antibody associated progressive supranuclear palsy like presentation in a patient with breast carcinoma
We describe a patient with rapidly progressive parkinsonism. (Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology)
Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology - July 25, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Aastha Takkar, Sahil Mehta, Nalini Gupta, Saurabh Bansal, Vivek Lal Tags: Short Communication Source Type: research

The association of genetic variants IL2RA rs2104286, IFI30 rs11554159 and IKZF3 rs12946510 with multiple sclerosis onset and severity in patients from Serbia
An algorithm Probabilistic Identification of Causal SNPs, identified 434 causal variants for multiple sclerosis (MS) including IL2RA rs2104286, IFI30 rs11554159 and IKZF3 rs12946510. Analysis of individual and combined effects of these variants in the Serbian population identified that Il2RA rs2104286 G allele carriers had a lower risk for developing MS (gender adjusted OR  = 0.63, p = .003). With regard to the IFI30 rs11554159 recessive genetic model, among HLA-DRB1*15:01 positive patients, the AA homozygote had a significantly higher MSSS compared to the G allele carriers (p = .003). (Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology)
Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology - July 25, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Milan Stefanovi ć, Ivan Životić, Ljiljana Stojković, Evica Dinčić, Aleksandra Stanković, Maja Živković Source Type: research

Peripheral blood expression levels of inflammasome complex components in two different focal epilepsy syndromes
Although the role of inflammation in epilepsy pathogenesis has been extensively investigated, the inflammasome complex, a key component of neuroinflammation, has been understudied in epilepsy patients. (Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology)
Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology - July 22, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Canan Ulusoy, Ebru Nur Vanl ı-Yavuz, Elif Şanlı, Özlem Timirci-Kahraman, Vuslat Yılmaz, Nerses Bebek, Cem İsmail Küçükali, Betül Baykan, Erdem Tüzün Source Type: research

The association between serum levels of TNF- α and IL-6 in schizophrenic patients and their metabolic status – A case control study
According to immunological theory of schizophrenia, dysfunctions of the immune system are linked with the pathology of schizophrenia. Among cytokines, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF- α) and interleukin 6 (IL-6) seem to be correlated with psychopathology of schizophrenia. Both IL-6 and TNF-α are produced in the fat tissue by adipocytes. Thus, cytokine levels in obese patients are increased compared with healthy subjects. These metabolic underlying mechanisms may be an important confounding factor in the studies on cytokines levels in schizophrenia. (Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology)
Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology - July 21, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Ja śmina Arabska, Dominik Strzelecki, Elżbieta Kozłowska, Ewa Brzezińska-Błaszczyk, Adam Wysokiński Source Type: research

Bilateral thalamic changes in anti-NMDAR encephalitis presenting with hemichorea and dystonia and acute transient psychotic disorder
Anti-N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (anti-NMDAR) encephalitis is one of the most common causes of autoimmune encephalitis. Both movement disorders and neuropsychiatric manifestations are considered core features of anti-NMDAR encephalitis. Strong clinical suspicion, along with NMDAR antibody positivity in paired sample of serum and cerebrospinal fluid, with supportive MRI changes clinch diagnosis in majority. We herein report a case of a middle-aged woman with subacute behavioral abnormalities, which were so severe that forced her to attempt suicide. (Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology)
Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology - July 21, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Souvik Dubey, Ritwik Ghosh, Mahua Jana Dubey, Samya Sengupta, Juli án Benito-León, Biman Kanti Ray Tags: Short Communication Source Type: research

Novel immune biomarkers in complex regional pain syndrome
We investigated serum levels of 29 cytokines and immune-activated kynurenine and tetrahydrobiopterin pathway metabolites in 15 complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) subjects and 14 healthy controls. Significant reductions in interleukin-37 and tryptophan were found in CRPS subjects, along with positive correlations between kynurenine/tryptophan ratio and TNF- α levels with kinesiophobia, tetrahydrobiopterin levels with McGill pain score, sRAGE, and xanthurenic acid and neopterin levels with depression, anxiety and stress scores. (Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology)
Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology - July 21, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Marc Russo, Peter Georgius, Ananda Staats Pires, Benjamin Heng, Michael Allwright, Boris Guennewig, Danielle Santarelli, Dominic Bailey, Nathan T. Fiore, Vanessa Xiuwen Tan, Alexandra Latini, Gilles J. Guillemin, Paul J. Austin Source Type: research

Editorial Board
(Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology)
Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology - July 18, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Immunomodulatory effect and clinical outcome in Parkinson's disease patients on levodopa-pramipexole combo therapy: A two-year prospective study
Parkinson's disease (PD), the second most frequent neurodegenerative disease, has been linked to increased central and peripheral inflammation. Although the response of the immune system to dopaminergic treatment remains to be fully understood, dopaminergic agonists are known to exhibit immunoregulatory properties which may, at least in part, explain their therapeutic effect in PD. This highlights the need of analyzing immune parameters in longitudinal studies on PD patients receiving specific therapeutic regimes. (Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology)
Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology - July 18, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Raquel Espinosa-C árdenas, Asiel Arce-Sillas, Diana Álvarez-Luquin, Jaquelin Leyva-Hernández, Esteban Montes-Moratilla, Israel González-Saavedra, Marie Catherine Boll, Elizabeth Garcia-Garcia, Sandra Ángeles-Perea, Gladis Fragoso, Edda Sciutto, Laura Source Type: research

Paraclinical serum markers as aids in the diagnosis of autoimmune encephalitis
This study investigates the sensitivity of these serum markers in a cohort of 26 patients with AE. TPO-Ab, TG-Ab and ANA (titer ≥1:320) were present in 45%, 35% and 32% of patients tested, respectively. The prevalence of TPO-Ab (11.3%), TG-Ab (10.4%) and ANA ≥1:320 (3.3%) has been previously reported in disease-free populations. Although these antibodies represent non-specific markers of autoimmunity, this study demonstr ated that TPO-Ab, TG-Ab and ANA were significantly elevated in AE compared to disease-free populations (p  (Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology)
Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology - July 16, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: George Culler, Elizabeth Bachman, Stephen VanHaerents Source Type: research

The peripheral blood immune cell profile in a teriflunomide-treated multiple sclerosis patient with COVID-19 pneumonia
A teriflunomide-treated multiple sclerosis patient with COVID-19 pneumonia was hospitalized and recovered in 15  days. The immunophenotyping analysis of peripheral blood cells was performed in two time points: the first was 1 month before (pre-infection) while the second was during COVID-19 pneumonia (infection). At the infection time point, no differences in the percentages of immune activation and immunes enescence of CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells were observed compared to the pre-infection time point. Our evaluation seems to confirm that teriflunomide control T-cells immune activation and immunosenescence suggesting that teri...
Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology - July 13, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Maria Rosa Ciardi, Maria Antonella Zingaropoli, Patrizia Pasculli, Valentina Perri, Matteo Tartaglia, Serena Valeri, Gianluca Russo, Antonella Conte, Claudio Maria Mastroianni Tags: Short Communication Source Type: research

Paroxysmal dysarthria-ataxia syndrome: Literature review on MRI findings and report of a peculiar case with clinically isolated syndrome coexisting with anti-N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor antibodies
We present an illustrative case of 32-year-old female who developed clinically isolated syndrome manifested paroxysmal dysarthria, ataxia, ptosis and diplopia, coexisting with anti-N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor antibodies. We review the literature and identify 23 other cases with brain MRI examinations to summarize the lesion locations and clinical characteristics of PDA syndrome, and ultimately provide a new framework for understanding this rare condition. (Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology)
Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology - July 13, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Qingkui Zhang, Yang Li, Ruozhuo Liu, Dehui Huang, Lei Wu, Shengyuan Yu Tags: Short Communication Source Type: research

Recombinant antibodies derived from laser captured single plasma cells of multiple sclerosis brain identified phage peptides which may be used as tools for characterizing intrathecal IgG response
Oligoclonal bands and increased IgG antibody levels can be detected in the cerebrospinal fluid in vast majority of patients with Multiple Sclerosis (MS). However, the antigenic specificity of oligoclonal IgG has yet to be determined. Using laser capture microdissection, we isolated single CD38+ plasma cells from lesion areas in two autopsy MS brains, and generated three recombinant antibodies (rAbs) from clonally expanded plasma cells. Panning phage-displayed random peptide libraries was carried out to determine peptide antigen specificities of these MS brain rAbs. (Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology)
Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology - July 13, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Peter G.E. Kennedy, Michael W. Graner, Deandra Walker, Tiffany Pointon, Anthony Fringuello, Xiaoli Yu Source Type: research

Immunoglobulin G4-related hypertrophic pachymeningitis with spinal cord compression: A case report
IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD) is a recently recognized inflammatory condition that can be found in many organs. However, spinal involvement is rare and has been described only in case reports and series. Here, we report a rare case of spinal IgG4-RD that resulted in hypertrophic pachymeningitis with spinal cord compression. This case expands the phenotypic presentation for the neurological sequelae of IgG4-RD. Our case hints that spinal IgG4-RD may be misdiagnosed, and IgG4-RD in patients should be considered when the patient has a dural mass. (Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology)
Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology - July 13, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Hong-xing Li, Lin Zuo, Xiao-xiao Peng, Qiang Zong, Kai Zhang, Yi-zhe Liu, Han Wang, Guang-liang Han Tags: Short Communication Source Type: research

Hemorrhagic encephalopathy associated with COVID-19
We present a critically ill man with a COVID-19-associated hemorrhagic encephalopathy. SARS-CoV-2 RNA was not detected in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) or blood. CSF analyses suggested dysregulation of pro-inflammatory cytokine pathways, particularly tumor necrosis factor- α and interleukin-6, consistent with a cytokine release syndrome. (Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology)
Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology - July 13, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Jonathan D. Krett, Gordon A.E. Jewett, Charissa Elton-Lacasse, Kevin Fonseca, Christopher Hahn, Selena Au, Marcus W. Koch Tags: Short Communication Source Type: research

Fatal familial insomnia: A new case description with early response to immunotherapy
We present the case of a 46-year-old male with a rapidly progressive multidomain cognitive impairment, associated with instability in gait, myoclonus and persistent and progressive insomnia. (Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology)
Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology - July 10, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: E. Toribio-D íaz, Sonia Quintas, Alejandra Peláez-Hidalgo, Javier Villacieros-Álvarez, Elvira García Cobos, Erika García Di'Ruggiero Tags: Short Communication Source Type: research

Unilateral chronic pulsatile headache as the single manifestation of anti-MOG antibody-associated unilateral cerebral cortical encephalitis
Unilateral cerebral cortical encephalitis (UCCE) with myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG)-antibody comprises a new spectrum of disease entities generally presenting seizures. Here, we report a case of a young adult with anti-MOG antibody-associated UCCE who only presented persistent left pulsatile headache. Neurological examination revealed no deficits. Brain MRI showed a fluid-attenuated inversion recovery hyperintense lesion along the swollen left cerebral cortex. The patient was positive for anti-MOG antibodies. (Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology)
Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology - July 10, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Juichi Fujimori, Ryo Ogawa, Takaki Murata, Kazutaka Jin, Yukako Yazawa, Ichiro Nakashima Tags: Short Communication Source Type: research

Neuromyelitis optica practice and prescribing changes in the setting of Covid19: A survey of neurologists
This study reports and analyzes the findings from the responses of 192 neurologists in the United States and Canada to a new survey instrument distributed in April 2020 to assess NMO practice and prescribing changes during the Covid19 pandemic. (Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology)
Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology - July 10, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Shawheen J. Rezaei, Andre C. Vogel, Brittany Gazdag, Nicholas Alakel, Aditya Ravi Kumar, Farrah J. Mateen Source Type: research

Efficacy and safety of rituximab in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis: A systematic review and meta-analysis
This study aimed to quantitatively review and summarize the effectiveness and safety of rituximab (RTX) treatment for patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS). (Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology)
Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology - July 9, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Xin Tian, Chaoyang Chen, Lingyun Ma, Ran Wei, Min Li, Xiaoqing Wang, Ye Wu, Ying Zhou, Yimin Cui Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

Treatment of idiopathic orbital myositis with frequent relapses: First case with tacrolimus and review of literature
A 41-year-old man presented with a 2-year history of recurrent painful ophthalmoplegia. Previous brain magnetic resonance imaging showed isolated enlargement of extraocular muscles with enhancement. A diagnosis of idiopathic orbital myositis (IOM) was given. Though the patient initially responded dramatically to corticosteroid, he began developing steroid resistance from his third attack and experienced frequent relapses. Therefore, tacrolimus was added to his regimen. The patient had full symptom recovery after tacrolimus and reported no relapses in the 1-year follow-up. (Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology)
Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology - July 8, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Yang Zheng, Yin-Xi Zhang, Mei-Ping Ding Tags: Short Communication Source Type: research

Neuroinflammation and fibrosis in stroke: The good, the bad and the ugly
Stroke is the leading cause of death and the main cause of disability in surviving patients. The detrimental interaction between immune cells, glial cells, and matrix components in stroke pathology results in persistent inflammation that progresses to fibrosis. A substantial effort is being directed toward understanding the exact neuroinflammatory events that take place as a result of stroke. The initiation of a potent cytokine response, along with immune cell activation and infiltration in the ischemic core, has massive acute deleterious effects, generally exacerbated by comorbid inflammatory conditions. (Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology)
Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology - July 8, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Narayanappa Amruta, Abir Rahman, Emmanuel Pinteaux, Gregory Bix Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

Antibodies to Epstein-Barr virus and neurotropic viruses in multiple sclerosis and optic neuritis
Antibody indices to MRZ are of diagnostic value in multiple sclerosis (MS). Here, we have investigated, if this panel could be extended to increase diagnostic value.Samples from relapsing-remitting (RR) MS and optic neuritis (ON) patients were tested for reactivity to antigens from Epstein-Barr, Varicella Zoster, Measles, Mumps and Rubella (EMMRZ) viruses. Increased IgG levels in serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) were found in RRMS patients, along with a significant correlation between serum and CSF. (Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology)
Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology - July 7, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Gunnar Houen, Julie Heiden, Nicole H. Trier, Anette H. Draborg, Michael E. Benros, R ūta Zinkevičiūtė, Rasa Petraitytė-Burneikienė, Evaldas Ciplys, Rimantas Slibinskas, Jette L. Frederiksen Source Type: research

An interplay between immune response and neurodegenerative disease progression: An assessment using Drosophila as a model
Neurodegeneration, the slow and progressive loss of neurons in the central nervous system has become a major challenge to public health worldwide particularly with elderly people. Until recently, the brain and immune system were studied exclusively, independent of each other representing two distinct systems. Recent studies ensue crosstalk between these two systems to maintain homeostasis. Though the progressive loss of specific neuronal subsets is a hallmark of neurodegenerative disease, emerging evidences indicate that immune response also plays a critical role in disease progression. (Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology)
Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology - July 6, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Jyoti Dhankhar, Namita Agrawal, Anju Shrivastava Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

An interplay between immune responses and neurodegenerative diseases progression: An assessment using Drosophila as a model
Neurodegeneration, the slow and progressive loss of neurons in the central nervous system has become a major challenge to public health worldwide particularly with elderly people. Until recently, the brain and immune system were studied exclusively, independent of each other representing two distinct systems. Recent studies ensue the crosstalk between these two systems to maintain homeostasis. Though the progressive loss of specific neuronal subsets is a hallmark of neurodegenerative diseases, emerging evidence indicates that immune response also plays a critical role in disease progression. (Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology)
Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology - July 6, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Jyoti, Namita Agrawal, Anju Shrivastava Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

The role of human herpesvirus-6 and inflammatory markers in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis
This study aimed to determine the prevalence of HHV-6 antibody response in MS patients and investigate the levels of pro/anti-inflammatory cytokine and chemokines in MS patients in comparison with healthy subjects. (Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology)
Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology - July 3, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Hossein Keyvani, Hamid Zahednasab, Hussain ali abraham Aljanabi, Muhammad Asadi, Rasoul Mirzaei, Maryam Esghaei, Sajad Karampoor Source Type: research

Neuroinflammation drives APOE genotype-dependent differential expression of neprilysin
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a devastating neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the deposition of amyloid-beta (A β) plaques and widespread neuroinflammation. While the cause of AD remains unknown, multiple factors likely contribute to the disease, including heart disease, diabetes, previous head injury, as well as a number of genetic determinants. Inheritance of the apolipoprotein (APOE) ε4 allele represents the strongest genetic risk factor for development of AD, driving pathogenesis and increasing overall disease severity. (Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology)
Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology - July 3, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: David Graykowski, Kyle Kasparian, John Caniglia, Yelena Gritsaeva, Eiron Cudaback Source Type: research

Stress and cancer. Part I: Mechanisms mediating the effect of stressors on cancer
Observations indicating a link between psychosocial stress and cancer can be traced back almost 2 millennia. However, the pathways and mechanisms interconnecting them has only been elucidated in more detail since the end of the 20th century. Importantly, recently accumulated evidences have confirmed the ability of stress to promote the induction and progression of cancer. The main aim of this review is to describe the pathways and mechanisms mediating the stimulatory effects of the neuroendocrine stress response on the induction of cancer, potentiation of cancer growth, and the development of metastases. (Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology)
Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology - July 3, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Boris Mravec, Miroslav Tibensky, Lubica Horvathova Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

Stress and cancer. Part II: Therapeutic implications for oncology
Accumulated evidence has confirmed the ability of stress to promote the induction and progression of cancer (for review see Stress and cancer. Part I: Mechanisms mediating the effect of stressors on cancer). In support of this, data from clinical trials utilizing approaches that reduce stress-related signaling have shown prolonged survival of cancer patients. Therefore, the question has arisen as to how we can utilize this knowledge in the daily treatment of cancer patients. The main aim of this review is to critically analyze data from studies utilizing psychotherapy or treatment by β-blockers on the survival of canc...
Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology - July 3, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Boris Mravec, Miroslav Tibensky, Lubica Horvathova Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

TH17/Treg imbalance and IL-17A increase after severe aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage
To evaluate cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and peripheral blood (PB) Treg, TH17 cells, TH1, TH2 and related cytokines in the acute phase of aSAH we assessed TH17, TH1, TH2, T regulatory cells and neutrophils in 39 aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) patients and 56 controls.PB TH17 cells and TH17/Treg ratio were higher in CSF and PB of aSAH patients. Serum and CSF IL-17A levels were increased in aSAH. Serum IL-17A levels were associated with vasospasm and ICU mortality.Study results support the role of TH17/IL17 axis in aSAH pathogenesis, turning it into a potential clinical biomarker and a novel target for research. (Sou...
Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology - June 26, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Leandro Moraes, Natalia TriasLic, Andreina Brugnini, Pedro Grille, Daniela Lens, Alberto Biestro, Sofia Grille Source Type: research

Neutrophil to-lymphocyte ratio as a possible predictor of prognosis in recently diagnosed multiple sclerosis patients
MS is the most common cause of disability in young adults. The exact underlying cause of MS is unknown but is thought to occur with the influence of environmental factors in genetically susceptible individuals (Thompson et al., 2018). With a prevalence of 50 –300 per 100,000 people, about 2.3 million people are estimated to live with MS globally (Browne et al., 2014). Tissue damage results from a complex and dynamic interplay between the immune system, glia (myelin-making oligodendrocytes and their precursors, microglia, and astrocytes), and neurons. (Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology)
Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology - June 26, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Mehmet Fatih Yetkin, Meral Mirza Source Type: research

Rituximab as an effective therapeutic option in refractory Neuro-Beh çet syndrome
Beh çet's disease (BD) is an inflammatory disease of unknown etiology with periods of relapses and remissions. Neuro-Behçet syndrome (NBS) is one of the main causes of long-term morbidity and mortality, making its prompt recognition and early treatment fundamental to achieving a better outcome. Curren tly there are no treatment guidelines either for BS or NB, making the management of these patients particularly difficult. (Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology)
Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology - June 26, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Christian Garcia-Estrada, Adriana Casallas-Vanegas, Indhira Zabala-Angeles, Enrique Gomez-Figueroa, Ver ónica Rivas-Alonso, José Flores-Rivera Tags: Short Communication Source Type: research

Effect of rapamycin on repeated immobilization stress-induced immune alterations in the rat spleen
Chronic stress modulates immune system functions via neuroendocrine pathways. Rapamycin inhibits activity of immune cells through the mTOR signaling pathway. We investigated the effect of rapamycin (15  mg/kg, 3-times/week) on neuroimmune-endocrine system in the spleen of rats exposed to 42 cycles of 2-h immobilization. Rapamycin enhanced the activity of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis induced by stress exposure, prevented stress-induced expression of natural killer cell markers whi le reversed stress-evoked decline of Th2 immune response markers. (Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology)
Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology - June 24, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Ivana Rokytova, Boris Mravec, Marcela Laukov á, Peter Vargovic Source Type: research

Editorial Board
(Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology)
Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology - June 23, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

The effect of 6  weeks of high intensity interval training on myelin biomarkers and demyelination in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis model
Exercise has been shown to increase myelin biomarkers such as klotho and PLP and improve clinical and pathological symptoms using the experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) model of multiple sclerosis (MS). In the present study, we evaluated whether 6  weeks of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) prior to induction of EAE increase klotho and/or PLP and attenuate the severity of symptoms and/or disease progression in EAE model. Our data demonstrate that HIIT increased klotho and PLP and decreased disability. (Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology)
Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology - June 23, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Fattaneh Farahmand, Maryam Nourshahi, Maryam Soleimani, Hamid Rajabi, Kevin.E Power Source Type: research

The effect of 6  weeks of high intensity interval training on myelin biomarkers and demyelination in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis model
Exercise has been shown to increase myelin biomarkers such as klotho and PLP and improve clinical and pathological symptoms using the experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) model of multiple sclerosis (MS). In the present study, we evaluated whether 6  weeks of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) prior to induction of EAE increase klotho and/or PLP and attenuate the severity of symptoms and/or disease progression in EAE model. Our data demonstrate that HIIT increased klotho and PLP and decreased disability. (Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology)
Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology - June 23, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: F. Farahmand, M. Nourshahi, M. Soleimani, H. Rajabi, K. Power Source Type: research

Chronic encephalopathy and locked-in state due to scrub typhus related CNS vasculitis
Scrub Typhus, prevalent in Asia-Pacific region, often has neurological manifestations in the setting of acute febrile illness, as acute encephalitis syndrome. (Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology)
Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology - June 23, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Sanjiv Sharma, Samhita Panda, Sarbesh Tiwari, Apoorv Patel, Vidhi Jain Tags: Short Communication Source Type: research

Fasudil inhibits the activation of microglia and astrocytes of transgenic Alzheimer's disease mice via the downregulation of TLR4/Myd88/NF- κB pathway
Emerging evidence suggests an association of Alzheimer's Disease (AD) with microglial and astrocytic dysregulation. Recent studies have proposed thatactivated microglia can transform astrocytes to a neurotoxic A1 phenotype, which has been shown to be involved in the promotion of neuronal damage in severalneurodegenerative diseases, including AD. In the present study, we observed anobvious microglial activation and A1-specific astrocyte response in the brain tissue of APP/PS1 Tg mice. Fasudil treatment improved the cognitive deficits of APP/PS1 Tg mice, inhibited microglial activation and promoted their transformation to an...
Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology - June 22, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Min-fang Guo, Hui-yu Zhang, Yan-hua Li, Qing-fang Gu, Wen-yue Wei, Yu-yin Wang, Xiao-juan Zhang, Xiao-qin Liu, Li-juan Song, Zhi Chai, Jie-zhong Yu, Cun-gen Ma Source Type: research

Guillain-Barr é syndrome in a patient infected with SARS-CoV-2, a case report
The COVID-19 is a novel condition affecting all the world, so every manifestation of disease should be reported. Neurologic manifestations of the disease are increasingly identified and this will help clinician to improve their diagnostic and therapeutic skills in dealing with COVID-19 patients. (Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology)
Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology - June 19, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Mohammad Amin Farzi, Hormoz Ayromlou, Naser Jahanbakhsh, Parisa Hadavi Bavil, Abdolali Janzadeh, Farid Karkon Shayan Source Type: research

Relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis: A profile of interleukine-1 gene cluster polymorphisms in Iraqi patients
In this case-control study, 68 relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) patients and 133 control were genotyped for IL1A −889 (rs1800587), IL1B−511 (rs16944), IL1B+3962 (rs1143634), IL1R1pst11970 (rs2234650) and IL1RNmspa1 11,100 (rs315952) variants. Sequence-specific-primer-polymerase-chain-reaction was the genotyping method. Logistic regression analysis demonstrated protective effects of IL1B−511, IL1R1pst1197 0 and IL1RNmspa1 11,100 against MS incidence, while no association was found with IL1A−889 and IL1B+3962 variants. (Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology)
Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology - June 17, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Milad A.S. Al-Naseri, Ehab D. Salman, Ali H. Ad'hiah Source Type: research

Cerebellar ataxia as the initial symptom with lesions involving the cerebellum in patient with anti-NMDAR encephalitis: A rare case report and literature review
Cerebellar ataxia is an atypical presentation of anti-N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (anti-NMDAR) encephalitis. In patients with anti-NMDAR encephalitis, cerebellar ataxia often develops simultaneously or sequentially with clinical features of demyelinating disorders, paraneoplastic neurologic syndromes, despite unremarkable brain magnetic resonance imaging findingsimagery (MRI). Herein, we report a patient with anti-NMDAR encephalitis who developed dizziness and gait ataxia as the initial symptoms, simultaneously showing MRI hyperintensities involving the cerebellum, even before manifesting behavioral and cognitive symptom...
Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology - June 17, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Baojie Wang, Chunjuan Wang, Haitao Ren, Hongzhi Guan, Shougang Guo Tags: Short Communication Source Type: research

Role of gut microbiota in the GBR12909 model of mania-like behavior in mice
Growing evidence suggests a role for brain-gut-microbiota axis in affective disorders including major depression and bipolar disorder (BD). Herein, we aim to explore, by employing germ-free (GF) mice, the effect of the indigenous microbiota in the development of mania-like behavior. Conventional and GF mice were evaluated for the hyperlocomotion induced by the dopamine transporter inhibitor GBR12909 (15  mg/Kg), a validated model for mania-like behavior. Inflammatory mediators and neurotrophic factors were quantified in the prefrontal cortex, hippocampus and striatum. (Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology)
Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology - June 16, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Aline Silva de Miranda, Érica Leandro Marciano Vieira, Juliana dos Reis Bastos, Rodrigo Novaes Ferreira, Jacques R. Nicoli, Mauro Martins Teixeira, Leda Quercia Vieira, Fabrício A. Moreira, Antônio Lúcio Teixeira Source Type: research

Free light chain kappa and the polyspecific immune response in MS and CIS – Application of the hyperbolic reference range for most reliable data interpretation
The objective of this study was the application and interpretation of FLC-k data in quotient diagrams with a hyperbolic reference range and to confirm the superior evaluation in comparison with another proposed reference method and cut-off values. Secondly, the performance of the FLC-k quotient diagram was analyzed in respect to MS and CIS patients and in relation to the polyspecific immune response. (Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology)
Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology - June 12, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Marie S üße, Hansotto Reiber, Matthias Grothe, Astrid Petersmann, Matthias Nauck, Alexander Dressel, Malte Johannes Hannich Source Type: research