Putative mechanisms explaining neuro-COVID
With interest we read the article by Kayhanian et al. about the presumed neuro-immunological mechanisms underlying the involvement of the central nervous system (CNS) and the peripheral nervous system (PNS) (neuro-COVID), about the neuro-immunological responses to the viral infection, and about the therapeutic approaches for neuro-COVID (Keyhanian et al., 2020). Proposed mechanisms explaining neuro-COVID were direct attack of the virus, neuro-inflammation, autoimmune responses to the infection, hypercoagulability, metabolic injury, or hypoxic injury (Keyhanian et al., 2020). (Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology)
Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology - December 1, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Josef Finsterer Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

A case of monofocal motor neuropathy with GM1 and GD1b antibodies improved with intravenous immunoglobulin
We present the case of a middle age man presenting with progressive weakness and hypotrophy in the left leg and difficulty in walking, in which we have diagnosed a dysimmune mononeuropathy. Treatment with IVIg was performed with substantial improvement. (Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology)
Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology - November 30, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Vittorio Mantero, Paola Basilico, Paolo Borelli, Antonio Cappello, Andrea Salmaggi, Andrea Rigamonti Tags: Short Communication Source Type: research

Peri-adolescent asthma: Acute impacts on innate immune response, corticosterone, and microglia in mice
Asthma is highly comorbid with anxiety in youth. We investigated the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and microglia as mechanisms underlying asthma and anxiety comorbidity. We induced asthma symptoms in developing BALB/cJ mice (house dust mite [HDM] for inflammation, methacholine [MCH] for bronchoconstriction). On the last day of exposure, we analyzed samples at six timepoints. Lung IL-5 and IL-1 β expression peaked 4 h after final HDM exposure. Circulating corticosterone was blunted in a sex- and treatment-specific temporal pattern. (Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology)
Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology - November 24, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Jasmine I. Caulfield, Kerri J. Schopf, Sonia A. Cavigelli Source Type: research

The multiple faces of encephalitis: Antibody profile in a case series of autoimmune encephalitis in Bogot á, Colombia
There is a lack of population based studies of autoimmune encephalitis (AE) in Latin American countries, especially in Colombia. The aim of this study is to characterize patients with AE managed in three centers in Bogot á-Colombia, emphasizing on antibody profile. We conducted a retrospective case-series study, including 9 patients. The most prevalent antibody found was NMDAR, followed by LGI1. Some distinguishing features included: faciobrachial dystonia and hyponatremia in LGI1, a younger age and good outcome in NMDAR, a notable response to steroids in anti TPO-Thyroglobulin, a cerebellar syndrome associated with...
Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology - November 24, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Habib Moutran-Barroso, Hellen Kreinter-Rosembaun, S. Maria Alejandra Beltran, Hern án Bayona, Luis Carlos Mayor Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

Editorial Board
(Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology)
Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology - November 18, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Interleukin-6 response to insulin-induced hypoglycemia is associated with hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activation
Increased plasma levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6) in response to acute hypoglycemia have been well documented. Aiming to study the interaction between IL-6 and counter-regulatory hormones during hypoglycemic stress we conducted an exploratory single center study involving 26 adult patients undergoing insulin tolerance test. Insulin-induced hypoglycemia elicited a significant dynamic response of IL-6, adrenaline, noradrenaline, GH, prolactin, ACTH and serum and salivary cortisol (P   (Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology)
Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology - November 13, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Juliana B. Drummond, Beatriz S. Soares, Erica L.M. Vieira, William Pedrosa, Antonio L. Teixeira, Ant ônio Ribeiro-Oliveira Source Type: research

Low serum Α-SYNUCLEIN and oligomer Α-SYNUCLEIN levels in multiple sclerosis patients
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune, inflammatory, demyelinating neurodegenerative disease progressing with attacks. Alpha-synuclein ( α-Syn), a neuronal protein, has been previously associated with the inflammation and development of neurodegenerative diseases. Although the cause of neurodegeneration in multiple sclerosis is mainly associated with inflammation, α-Syn may play a role in the pathogenesis of MS, as in other classic al neurodegenerative diseases such as synucleinopathies. In multiple sclerosis, α-Syn has been directly studied in central nervous system lesions and cerebrospinal fluid (CS...
Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology - November 11, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Nuray Bilge, Fatma Simsek, Recep Yevgi, Mustafa Ceylan, Seda Askin Source Type: research

A case of area postrema variant of neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder following SARS-CoV-2 infection
Neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD) is a disabling autoimmune astrocytopathic channelopathy, characterized by the presence of pathogenic antibodies to aquaporin-4 (AQP-4) water channels. Several viral infections including HIV, influenza virus, varicella zoster virus, and Epstein Barr virus, among others, have been alleged to trigger NMOSD in both immunocompetent and immunocompromised individuals. Neurological manifestations of coronavirus infectious disease of 2019 (COVID-19) have been ever evolving and the spectrum of neuraxial involvement is broadening. (Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology)
Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology - November 11, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Ritwik Ghosh, Kaustav De, Devlina Roy, Arpan Mandal, Subrata Biswas, Subhrajyoti Biswas, Swagatam Sengupta, Dinabandhu Naga, Mrinalkanti Ghosh, Juli án Benito-León Tags: Short Communication Source Type: research

Association between donor/recipient MTRR gene polymorphisms and the risk of new-onset neurological complications after liver transplantation
This study focuses on clinical risk factors and susceptibility gene polymorphisms of neurological complications after liver transplantation. A better predictive model is obtained. This study proves that MTRR is an independent susceptibility gene for neurological complications. Compared with the independent risk factor of abdominal infection, MTRR has a more advantageous value in predicting neurological complications after liver transplantation. (Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology)
Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology - November 7, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Haojun Wang, Huan Liu, Xin Wang, Feng Wang, Qingguo Xu, Tongwang Yang, Ge Guan, Yong Zhang, Yandong Sun, Cunle Zhu, Xinqiang Li, Yunjin Zang Source Type: research

COVID-19 associated with sensorimotor polyradiculoneuropathy and skin lesions: A case report
We reported a patient with COVID-19 (confirmed with Lung HRCT scan and positive SARS-CoV-2 PCR) who developed acute progressive flaccid tetraparesis and maculopapular pigmented plaques on the limbs, 2  weeks after respiratory symptoms. (Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology)
Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology - November 6, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Reza Boostani, Fariborz Reazai Talab, Naser Tayyebi Meibodi, Fariba Zemorshidi Source Type: research

SARS-CoV-2 and nervous system: From pathogenesis to clinical manifestation
Since the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), a growing body of evidence indicates that besides common COVID-19 symptoms, patients may develop various neurological manifestations affecting both the central and peripheral nervous systems as well as skeletal muscles. These manifestations can occur prior, during and even after the onset of COVID-19 general symptoms. In this Review, we discuss the possible neuroimmunological mechanisms underlying the nervous system and skeletal muscle involvement, and viral triggered neuroimmunological conditions...
Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology - November 6, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Kiandokht Keyhanian, Raffaella Pizzolato Umeton, Babak Mohit, Vahid Davoudi, Fatemeh Hajighasemi, Mehdi Ghasemi Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

Alterations in peripheral blood monocyte and dendritic cell subset homeostasis in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis patients
Antigen-presenting cells participate and are implicated in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis. In our study we assessed the frequency of plasmacytoid (pDC) and myeloid (mDC) dendritic cells and the classical, intermediate and non-classical monocytes subsets, as well as their phenotypic and functional profile. We evaluated peripheral blood from relapsing-remitting patients treated with IFN- β in remission and relapse phases and from healthy subjects. In remission, we observed a decrease of mDC/pDC ratio and a return to normal values in relapse. (Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology)
Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology - November 5, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Andreia Monteiro, Pedro Rosado, Luiza Rosado, Ana Mafalda Fonseca, Margarida Coucelo, Artur Paiva Tags: Short Communication Source Type: research

Correlation between IL-31 and sCD40L plasma levels in Fingolimod-treated patients with Relapsing-Remitting Multiple Sclerosis (RRMS)
Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is a chronic, autoimmune, demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS). Currently, several protocols are described for the different phases of MS. In this longitudinal study, we aim to quantify the concentration of plasma cytokines of MS patients treated with Fingolimod alone or after Glatiramer Acetate (GA) or Interferon-beta (IFN- β), in order to compeer both treatments and describes if it is possible to use them as biomarkers. (Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology)
Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology - November 5, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Marcus Vin ícius Magno Gonçalves, Wesley Nogueira Brandão, Carla Longo, Jean Pierre Schatzmann, Giordani Rodrigues dos Passos, Gabriela Löw Pagliarini, Osvaldo Jose Moreira do Nascimento, Daniel Rodrigo Marinowic, Denise Cantarelli Machado, Jefferson Source Type: research

An uncommon presentation of paraneoplastic limbic encephalitis
We describe a case of an uncommon presentation of PLE in a female who presented with a one- year duration of short-term memory loss and mild behavioral changes who was eventually diagnosed with PLE associated with breast cancer.Our case demonstrates atypical presentation of PLE, with chronic presentation and an uncharacteristic mild neurological symptoms.This case aims to highlight the importance of a diagnostic work up of autoimmune encephalitis in selected cases that does not present with common diagnostic criteria. (Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology)
Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology - November 4, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Yoel Schwartzmann, Yael Paran, Orna Aizenstein, Yifat Alcalay, Avi Gadoth Tags: Short Communication Source Type: research

Seasonal variation of onset in patients with anti-aquaporin-4 antibodies and anti-myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein antibody
This study aimed to determine the seasonal impact on the clinical onset of inflammatory neurological diseases of the central nervous system by analyzing the onset month with information on clinical manifestations in Japanese patients. As a result, patients with anti-aquaporin-4 antibodies (AQP4-IgG)-positive neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMOSD) showed spring –summer predominance of the clinical onset. Conversely, patients with anti-myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein antibody (MOG-IgG)-associated disease showed autumn–winter predominance of the clinical onset. (Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology)
Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology - October 28, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Tetsuya Akaishi, Juichi Fujimori, Toshiyuki Takahashi, Tatsuro Misu, Yoshiki Takai, Shuhei Nishiyama, Kimihiko Kaneko, Ryo Ogawa, Michiaki Abe, Tadashi Ishii, Masashi Aoki, Kazuo Fujihara, Ichiro Nakashima Source Type: research

The combined treatment of NAD+ and atorvastatin ameliorates the development of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in C57BL/6 mice
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a demyelinating and degenerating disorder of the central nervous system impacting many patients worldwide. Due to the complex pathogenesis of MS, drugs to treat MS often show partial effectiveness. Earlier experiments have demonstrated that both atorvastatin and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) may ameliorate experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), which is known as a classical model of MS, via different protective mechanisms. Since combination therapy can exhibit more beneficial effects than monotherapy, we observed the protective effects of combined treatment of atorvastatin an...
Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology - October 24, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Huanhuan Sun, Jueqiong Wang, Li Guo, Ying Wang, Jing Zhang, Jinli Wang, Moyuan Quan, Bin Li Source Type: research

Upregulation of interleukin (IL)-31, a cytokine producing CXCR1 peripheral immune cells, contributes to the immune abnormalities of autism spectrum disorder
This study aims to investigate the role of inflammatory cytokines and transcription factors of the CXCR1 cells in children with ASD. In the current study, we investigated the cytokines and transcription factors produced by CXCR1+ cells (IL-31, IL-9, IL-21R, IL-21, NF- κB p65, RORγT, STAT1, and FoxP3) in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), from children with ASD and typically developing (TD) control children, using flow cytometric analysis. (Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology)
Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology - October 24, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Sheikh F. Ahmad, Mushtaq A. Ansari, Ahmed Nadeem, Saleh A. Bakheet, Laila Y. AL-Ayadhi, Abdulaziz M.S. Alsaad, Mohammed A. Assiri, Haneen A. Al-Mazroua, Sabry M. Attia Source Type: research

Modelling multiple sclerosis using induced pluripotent stem cells
Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is one of the leading causes of non-traumatic neurological disability among young adults. Due to its complex pathology and the lack of reliable disease models, there are no effective therapies for MS to prevent neurodegeneration or promote neuroprotection, and hence stop disease progression. The emergence of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC) has allowed the generation of patient-specific neural cell types for disease modelling, drug screening, and cell therapy. In this review, the challenges related with the use of iPSC-derived cells in MS are discussed, with a special focus on the functional st...
Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology - October 16, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: J úlia Martínez-Larrosa, Clara Matute-Blanch, Xavier Montalban, Manuel Comabella Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

Brain astrocytes and microglia express functional MR1 molecules that present microbial antigens to mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells
It is unknown whether brain astrocytes and microglia have the capacity to present microbial antigens via the innate immune MR1/MAIT cell axis. We have detected MAIT cells in the normal mouse brain and found that both astrocytes and microglia are MR1+. When we stimulated brain astrocytes and microglia with E. coli, and then co-cultured them with MAIT cells, MR1 surface expression was upregulated and MAIT cells were activated in an antigen-dependent manner. Considering the association of MAIT cells with inflammatory conditions, including those in the CNS, the MR1/MAIT cell axis could be a novel therapeutic target in neuroinf...
Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology - October 15, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Raj Priya, Randy R. Brutkiewicz Source Type: research

Characteristics of internalization of NMDA-type GluRs with antibodies to GluN1 and GluN2B
To characterize internalization of NMDA-type glutamate receptors (GluRs) by antibodies to NMDA-type GluRs, we produced rabbit antibodies to N-terminals of human GluN1 and GluN2B, and examined internalization of NMDA-type GluRs in HEK293T cells using confocal microscopy. Internalization of NMDA-type GluRs occurred from at least 10  min after incubation with antibodies to GluN1 and or GluN2B and was temperature-dependent. These findings confirm that antibodies to N-terminals of GluN1 and GluN2B present in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with NMDAR encephalitis can mediate prompt internalization of NMDA-type GluR comple...
Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology - October 14, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Yukitoshi Takahashi, Shigeko Nishimura, Emiko Takao, Risa Kasai, Kaoru Enokida, Kuniko Ida, Masataka Fukuoka, Takayoshi Koike, Hiroo Omatsu, Tokito Yamaguchi, Shiho Takano, Tomoyuki Yoshida, Hisashi Mori Source Type: research

Protection induced by estradiol benzoate in the MPP+ rat model of Parkinson's disease is associated with the regulation of the inflammatory cytokine profile in the nigro striatum
Previously, we have demonstrated that β-estradiol-3-benzoate (EB) has a protective effect on the neurodegenerative experimental model of Parkinson's disease. The protective effect is through the induction of the expression of paraoxonase-2 (PON2) in the striatum. PON2 has proven to have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity, this protein has a beneficial effect in MPP+ model in rats decreasing the lipid peroxidation and the oxidative stress. Furthermore, the molecular effect and the pathway by which EB induces protection were not further pursued. (Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology)
Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology - October 14, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Yoshajandith Aguirre-Vidal, Jorge Morales-Montor, Carmen T. G ómez de León, Pedro Ostoa-Saloma, Mariana Díaz-Zaragoza, Sergio Montes, Marcela Arteaga-Silva, Antonio Monroy-Noyola Source Type: research

Severe worsening of myasthenic symptoms after the eculizumab discontinuation
Myasthenia gravis (MG) is an autoantibody-mediated disease of the neuromuscular junction. The neuromuscular junction damage associated with MG is caused by anti-acetylcholine receptor (AChR) antibody and complements. Recently, eculizumab (an anti-C5 monoclonal antibody) was approved for patients with anti-AChR antibody-positive generalized refractory MG. Here, we report a Japanese man with MG who well responded to eculizumab, but experienced acute severe worsening of myasthenic symptoms 2  months after its discontinuation. (Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology)
Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology - October 8, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Akiyuki Uzawa, Yukiko Ozawa, Manato Yasuda, Satoshi Kuwabara Tags: Short Communication Source Type: research

T cells show preferential adhesion to enteric neural cells in culture and are close to neural cells in the myenteric ganglia of Crohn's patients.
Plexitis in the proximal margin of intestinal resections are associated with post-operative recurrence of Crohn's disease. To understand their formation, in vitro analyzes were performed. T cells adhered preferentially to neuron and glial cells in mixed primary cultures of enteric nervous system and T cell activation increased their adhesion capacity. Higher number of T lymphocytes in close proximity to enteric glial cells was also observed in the myenteric ganglia of Crohn's patients as compared to control. (Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology)
Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology - October 5, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Julie Pabois, Tony Durand, Catherine Le Berre, Jacques Gonzales, Michel Neunlist, Arnaud Bourreille, Philippe Naveilhan, Isabelle Neveu Tags: Short Communication Source Type: research

Macrophage-specific deletion of BACE1 does not enhance macrophage recruitment to the injured peripheral nerve
Following peripheral nerve injury, macrophages are recruited to the injury site from circulation to clear cellular debris. Injured β-secretase 1 (BACE1) knockout mice have enhanced macrophage recruitment and debris clearance, which may be due to BACE1 activity in macrophages or the hypomyelination observed in BACE1 knockout mice. To assess if BACE1 expression by macrophages mediates enhanced macrophage recruitment we utilized mice with macrophage specific deletion of BACE1 and saw no increase in macrophage recruitment following injury. (Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology)
Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology - October 5, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: John Fissel, Mohamed H. Farah Source Type: research

Editorial Board
(Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology)
Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology - September 29, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

AQP4 autoantibodies in patients with idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus
Idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH) is a common neurological disorder with unknown etiology. A selective depletion of aquaporin 4 (AQP4) has been shown in iNPH patients. We collected serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from 43 iNPH patients and 35 with other neurodegenerative conditions, and sera from 43 healthy subjects. All samples were tested for AQP4-IgG/IgA/IgM antibodies using a live cell-based assay. No patients or controls had serum/CSF AQP4-IgG/IgA. One/43 iNPH patient and 0/43 controls tested positive for serum AQP4-IgM. (Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology)
Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology - September 28, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Gastaldi Matteo, Todisco Massimiliano, Carlin Giorgia, Scaranzin Silvia, Zardini Elisabetta, Minafra Brigida, Zangaglia Roberta, Pichiecchio Anna, Reindl Markus, Jarius Sven, Pacchetti Claudio, Franciotta Diego Tags: Short Communication Source Type: research

ESTRIOL in regulation of cell-mediated immune reactions in multiple sclerosis
The effect of pregnancy hormone estriol (E3) on innate and adaptive immunity cells functions in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) in comparison with healthy donors (HD) was studied. E3 inhibited phagocytic activity of neutrophils and enhanced monocytes IDO activity. Treg percentage increased and number of Th17 and iNKT cells decreased under E3 influence. At the same time, E3 stimulated production of IL-10 and inhibited secretion of IL-17. The hormonal effects were realized on the cells of both HD and MS patients. (Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology)
Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology - September 28, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Irina Nekrasova, Sergei Shirshev Source Type: research

“Borderline” idiopathic CD4+ T-cell lymphocytopenia presenting with atypical progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy
Idiopathic CD4+ lymphocytopenia (ICL) is a rare disorder characterized by low counts of CD4+ cells ( (Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology)
Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology - September 28, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Clemente Dato, Andrea Elefante, Cinzia Coppola, Mariarosa Anna Beatrice Melone, Giacomo Lus, Antonella Costagliola, Giorgia Bruno, Gianfranco Puoti Tags: Short Communication Source Type: research

Paraneoplastic cerebellar degeneration associated with anti-protein kinase Cgamma antibodies in a Chinese patient
Anti-protein kinase Cgamma (anti-PKC γ) antibodies are rare onconeural antibodies associated with paraneoplastic cerebellar degeneration (PCD). To date, only two patients with PCD and anti-PKCγ antibodies have been reported. Here, we report a Chinese patient with PCD and anti-PKCγ antibodies. Screening for tumor revealed lymphoepith elial carcinoma in tonsil. The patient's symptoms improved gradually after radiotherapy for the lymphoepithelial carcinoma and intravenous immunoglobulin immunotherapy. (Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology)
Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology - September 27, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Haitao Ren, Dachun Zhao, Xiaolu Xu, Yingmai Yang, Siyuan Fan, Wenhan Li, Hongzhi Guan Tags: Short Communication Source Type: research

Prozone phenomenon observed in indirect immunofluorescence assay by antibodies against neuronal antigens
A marked prozone effect was observed in indirect immunofluorescence with human sera and human cerebrospinal fluid in two clinical cases involving breast carcinoma with paraneoplastic neuronal antibodies, and anti- N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) receptor antibodies. Anti-Yo antibodies and anti-NMDA antibodies were not detectable under high concentrations (1:10 serum dilution and neat CSF respectively) but showed a true effect when sufficiently diluted at 1:80 and 1:5 respectively. This paper demonstrates that prozone effects have their occurrences in indirect immunofluorescence, and clinicians and laboratory technicians sh...
Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology - September 27, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Annamma Mathai, Suprabha Panicker, Sudheeran Kannoth, Anandkumar Anandakuttan Source Type: research

Covid-19 systemic infection exacerbates pre-existing acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM)
Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) is an uncommon diagnosis in adults. It is known to be due to an abnormal immune response to a systemic infection rather than direct viral invasion to the central nervous system. There have been few reports of ADEM diagnosed in the setting of COVID-19 systemic infection. However, we report a case of Coxsackie induced ADEM that remitted but got exacerbated by COVID-19 infection. The patient contracted the COVID-19 infection shortly after being discharged to a rehabilitation facility. (Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology)
Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology - September 24, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Omar Hussein, Ahmed Abd Elazim, Michel T. Torbey Tags: Short Communication Source Type: research

The emerging role of the BDNF-TrkB signaling pathway in the modulation of pain perception
The brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a crucial neuromodulator in pain transmission both in peripheral and central nervous system (CNS). Despite evidence of a pro-nociceptive role of BDNF, recent studies have reported contrasting results, including anti-nociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities. Moreover, BDNF polymorphisms can interfere with BDNF role in pain perception. In Val66Met carriers, the Met allele may have a dual role, with anti-nociceptive actions in normal condition and pro-nociceptive effects during chronic pain. (Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology)
Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology - September 23, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Natalia Cappoli, Elisabetta Tabolacci, Paola Aceto, Cinzia Dello Russo Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

The combination of CC chemokine receptor type 5(CCR5) and Treg cells predicts prognosis in patients with ischemic stroke
Regulatory T cells (Tregs) play an important role in T cells. CC chemokine receptor 5 is a highly expressed chemokine receptor in T cells. They play an important role in inflammation and immune response of stroke. (Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology)
Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology - September 23, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Jiru Zhang, Gang Liu, Dandan Chen, Zhiqiang Wang, Dan Chen, Youwei Liu, Weifeng Yu Source Type: research

Selective modulation of trans-endothelial migration of lymphocyte subsets in multiple sclerosis patients under fingolimod treatment
We examined the effect of the disease state and treatment with fingolimod on the transmigration of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) in an in vitro BBB model. Patients' leucocyte numbers, subsets and phenotypes were assessed by flow cytometry. (Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology)
Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology - September 22, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Simon Hawke, Anna Zinger, Pierre-Georges Juillard, Karen Holdaway, Scott N. Byrne, Georges E. Grau Source Type: research

COVID-19-related encephalopathy presenting with aphasia resolving following tocilizumab treatment
We report the case of a middle-aged woman with COVID-19-related encephalopathy presenting as expressive aphasia and inattentiveness, subsequently progressing to agitation and marked confusion. Brain MRI and CSF analysis were unremarkable, while EEG showed slowing with frontal sharp waves. Neuropsychiatric symptoms resolved following treatment with tocilizumab.CNS involvement in COVID-19 may present as a subacute encephalopathy characterized by prominent frontal lobe dysfunction, with language disturbances as first neurological manifestation. (Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology)
Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology - September 22, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Lorenzo Muccioli, Umberto Pensato, Ilaria Cani, Luca Guerra, Federica Provini, Giorgio Bordin, Luca Albini Riccioli, Raffaele Lodi, Paolo Tinuper, Francesca Bisulli Tags: Short Communication Source Type: research

Repeated administration of LPS exaggerates amphetamine-induced locomotor response and causes learning deficits in mice
Immune activation contributes to the pathophysiology of psychiatric disorders. Administration of a single dose of lipopolysaccharides (LPS) has been shown to induce depressive- and anxiety-like behaviors in rodents through activation of the kynurenine pathway, increasing levels of the N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor agonist quinolinic acid. Conversely, repeated administration of LPS produces increased levels of the NMDA receptor antagonist kynurenic acid. Here we show that repeated LPS administration increases sensitivity to D-amphetamine and produces cognitive deficits and anxiety-like behavior. (Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology)
Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology - September 21, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Maximilian Tufvesson-Alm, Sophie Imbeault, Xi-Cong Liu, Yiran Zheng, Anthi Faka, Doo-Sup Choi, Lilly Schwieler, G öran Engberg, Sophie Erhardt Source Type: research

Comparison of anti-acetylcholine receptor profiles between Chinese cases of adult- and juvenile-onset myasthenia gravis using cell-based assays
Juvenile-onset myasthenia gravis (JOMG) is a unique clinical subtype in China, featured by a higher prevalence of ocular myasthenia gravis (OMG), higher seronegativity of acetylcholine receptor (AChR) antibodies, and better prognosis than that in adult-onset myasthenia gravis (AOMG). We previously identified low-affinity AChR antibodies in Chinese JOMG patients using cell-based assays (CBAs), indicating a predominantly AChR antibody-positive profile. Here, we further screened AChR antibodies in both Chinese AOMG and JOMG patients by CBAs. (Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology)
Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology - September 20, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Chong Yan, Rui Zhao, Jie Song, Xuelin Feng, Jianying Xi, Sushan Luo, Huahua Zhong, Shuizhen Zhou, Wenhui Li, Chongbo Zhao Source Type: research

Antibodies to the α3 subunit of the ganglionic-type nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in patients with autoimmune encephalitis
Since autonomic dysfunction is closely associated with autoimmune encephalitis (AE), the objective of this study was to determine the autonomic symptoms and the prevalence of anti- α3 subunit of the ganglionic-type nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (gAChRα3) antibodies in the patients with AE. We reviewed the clinical features of 19 AE patients, and specifically analyzed sera for anti-gAChRα3 antibodies using the luciferase immunoprecipitation system (LIPS) assay. Cardiovasc ular autonomic symptoms were found to be common in patients with AE, and hypersalivation was seen only in patients with NMDAR encepha...
Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology - September 20, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Makoto Yamakawa, Akihiro Mukaino, Akio Kimura, Yuki Nagasako, Yuki Kitazaki, Yasushi Maeda, Osamu Higuchi, Koutaro Takamatsu, Mari Watari, Nobuaki Yoshikura, Masamichi Ikawa, Izumi Sugimoto, Yasuhisa Sakurai, Hidenori Matsuo, Yukio Ando, Takayoshi Shimoha Tags: Short Communication Source Type: research

The treatment effect on peripheral B cell markers in antibody positive myasthenia gravis patients
In this study, we aimed to detect B cell associated factors concerning immunosuppressive treatment in generalized non-thymomatous MG patients. Although CD19+ B cell distribution did not vary among disease subgroups, expressions of both CD38 and BAFFR were altered on B cells in MG patients under immunosuppressive therapy. (Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology)
Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology - September 19, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: V. Yilmaz, E. Tuzun, H. Durmus-Tekce, P. Oflazer, F. Aysal, Y. Parman, O. Gungor-Tuncer, F. Deymeer, G. Saruhan-Direskeneli Tags: Short Communication Source Type: research

Early decrease in intermediate monocytes in peripheral blood is characteristic of multiple system atrophy-cerebellar type
To identify biomarkers for multiple system atrophy-cerebellar type (MSA-C), we used flow cytometry to measure surface marker expression of peripheral blood monocytes from patients with MSA-C or hereditary spinocerebellar degeneration (hSCD) and from healthy controls (HCs). The percentage of intermediate monocytes was significantly lower in MSA-C patients than in hSCD patients and HCs and showed significant positive correlations with disease duration and unified MSA rating scale scores. The percentage of CD62L+ intermediate monocytes was significantly lower in MSA-C patients than in hSCD patients and HCs. (Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology)
Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology - September 18, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Dai Matsuse, Ryo Yamasaki, Guzailiayi Maimaitijiang, Hiroo Yamaguchi, Katsuhisa Masaki, Noriko Isobe, Takuya Matsushita, Jun-ichi Kira Tags: Short Communication Source Type: research

Modulation of immune responses by bile acid receptor agonists in myasthenia gravis
Bile acids bind to multiple receptors, including Takeda G protein –coupled receptor 5 (TGR5) and farnesoid-X-receptors alpha (FXRα). We compared the response of PBMCs to the activation of these receptors in healthy controls and myasthenic patients. We found that TGR5 is a more potent negative regulator of T cell cytokine response than FXRα in both groups. In c ontrast, TGR5 and FXRα agonists elicit distinct B cell responses in myasthenia compared to controls, specifically on the frequency of IL-6+ B cells and regulatory B cells, as well as IL-10 secretion from PBMCs. (Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology)
Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology - September 17, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Quentin Howlett-Prieto, Collin Langer, Kourosh Rezania, Betty Soliven Source Type: research

The neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio in Alzheimer's disease: Current understanding and potential applications
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a chronic neurodegenerative disorder affecting millions of people, and its prevalence is expected to continue to grow in the older age population. It is characterized by cognitive impairment and dementia on the long term leading to a wide spectrum of social and financial burdens. Due to these burdens, there is a need to have a better understanding of the disease pathophysiology as well as to come up with more readily available and cost-effective screening tools to provide an acceptable estimate of the disease risk/diagnosis in the early years of the disease before dementia develops as it is in t...
Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology - September 17, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Ahmed Sayed, Eshak I. Bahbah, Serageldin Kamel, George E. Barreto, Ghulam Md Ashraf, Mohamed Elfil Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

Three cases of rheumatoid meningitis with elevated CSF neopterin levels
Rheumatoid meningitis (RM) is a rare but treatable central nervous system (CNS) manifestation of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) with various clinical presentations and atypical cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) findings. There are no established biomarkers for RM, making diagnosis a challenge. Herein, we present three cases of RM: two patients with RA diagnosis and one without. CSF analysis showed pleocytosis in only one case. In contrast, CSF neopterin levels were elevated in all three cases and decreased after steroid therapy. (Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology)
Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology - September 15, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Noriyuki Miyaue, Hayato Yabe, Yuki Yamanishi, Satoshi Tada, Rina Ando, Masahiro Nagai Tags: Short Communication Source Type: research

Low-dose rituximab lowers serum Exosomal miR-150-5p in AChR-positive refractory myasthenia gravis patients
Two potentially related microRNAs (miRNAs; miR-150-5p and miR-146a-5p) were examined after low-dose rituximab (RTX) treatment in patients with acetylcholine receptor antibody (AChR)-positive refractory myasthenia gravis (MG). In this prospective, open-label, and self-controlled pilot trial, 12 AChR-positive refractory MG patients were administrated a single, low dose of RTX and followed up at six months. Results showed that RTX decreased the serum exosomal miR-150-5p, scores on three clinical indices (MGFA, MMT, ADL), and patients' prednisolone requirement. (Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology)
Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology - September 14, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Huahua Zhong, Jun Lu, Sisi Jing, Jianying Xi, Chong Yan, Jie Song, Sushan Luo, Chongbo Zhao Source Type: research

Isolated opsoclonus heralding neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder
Opsoclonus is an ocular motility disorder characterized by spontaneous, arrhythmic conjugate saccades of varying amplitude occurring in all directions of gaze without normal intersaccadic interval. Etiological spectrum of opsoclonus encompasses paraneoplastic and neoplastic conditions, infectious and para-infectious encephalitis, autoimmune, metabolic, and toxic encephalopathies, motor neuron diseases, multiple sclerosis, and, rarely, neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD). Opsoclonus has never been reported as a presenting manifestation heralding NMOSD. (Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology)
Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology - September 13, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Ritwik Ghosh, Souvik Dubey, Biman Kanti Ray, Siktha Purkait, Alak Pandit, Juli án Benito-León Tags: Short Communication Source Type: research

Anti-CASPR2 antibody associated encephalitis with anosmia and demyelinating pseudotumor: A case report
A 20-year-old female presented with fine motor deficits and visual field defect was admitted to our hospital. CSF tests for autoimmune encephalitis antibodies and onconeuronal antibodies were unremarkable. MRI showed unilateral lesion involving left basal ganglia, external capsule, insula, hippocampus, and amygdala, which was considered to be demyelinating pseudotumor after surgical intervention. The patient's symptoms relieved so she didn't consent to immunotherapy. Two years and a half later our patient reported sudden anosmia. (Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology)
Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology - September 11, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Xiang Xing, Jinmei Li, Siliang Chen, Linmao Zheng, Wentao Feng, Yanhui Liu Tags: Short Communication Source Type: research

Elevated inflammatory proteins in cerebrospinal fluid from patients with painful knee osteoarthritis are associated with reduced symptom severity
Neuroinflammation and periphery-to-CNS neuroimmune cross-talk in patients with painful knee osteoarthritis (OA) are poorly understood. We utilized proximity extension assay to measure the level of 91 inflammatory proteins in CSF and serum from OA patients and controls. The patients had elevated levels of 48 proteins in CSF indicating neuroinflammation. Ten proteins were correlated between CSF and serum and potentially involved in periphery-to-CNS neuroimmune cross-talk. Seven CSF proteins, all with previously reported neuroprotective effects, were associated with lower pain intensity and milder knee-related symptoms. (Sour...
Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology - September 10, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Vinko Palada, Aisha Siddiqah Ahmed, Eva Freyhult, Anders Hugo, Kim Kultima, Camilla I. Svensson, Eva Kosek Source Type: research

Extraparenchymal human neurocysticercosis induces autoantibodies against brain tubulin and MOG35 –55 in cerebral spinal fluid version 15-07-2020
Neurocysticercosis (NC) presents two broad clinical entities: extraparenchymal (EP-NC) and parenchymal (P-NC). Using ELISA methodology, we demonstrate autoantibodies to tubulin and the Major oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) in the CSF of most, but not all, EP-NC samples. Levels of these autoantibodies were considerably reduced or absent in the P-NC samples. There was a striking correlation between levels of anti-tubulin and anti-MOG, and the significant correlation between the levels of autoantibodies and cellularity in the CSF, suggests that stimulation of the autoantibody response may be a function of cerebral inflamma...
Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology - September 10, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: R. Michael E. Parkhouse, Sciutto Edda, Hern ández Marisela, M. Cortez Maria, Carpio Arturo, Fleury Agnes Source Type: research

Probiotics protect against gut dysbiosis associated decline in learning and memory
Gut-Brain-Axis imbalance due to gut dysbiosis by antibiotics may lead to neurobehavioral changes. Here we determine neuroprotective effect of probiotic against gut dysbiosis associated decline in learning and memory. Oral Ampicillin was used to induce gut dysbiosis while probiotic was administered along with antibiotic as treatment in Swiss albino mice. Antibiotic decreased Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium, Firmicutes and Clostridium level. This was followed by reduced cognition, hippocampal neuronal density, intestinal crypt depth, villus length and increased corticohippocampal acetylcholinesterase, myeloperoxidase activity...
Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology - September 9, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Suparna Roy Sarkar, Papiya Mitra Mazumder, Sugato Banerjee Source Type: research

Glucocorticoid receptor gene polymorphisms in Guillain-Barr é syndrome
Guillain-Barr é syndrome (GBS) is an immune-mediated paralytic disorder. Glucocorticoid receptor (GR) gene polymorphisms affect the sensitivity to glucocorticoids and have been related to microbial colonization and infection, and thereby may influence susceptibility to GBS. The associations between GR polymorphi sms (ER22/23EK, N363S, BclI, TthIII-1and GR-9beta) and development of GBS were investigated in 151 patients and 151 healthy controls. GR polymorphisms or haplotypes were not associated with GBS susceptibility. (Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology)
Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology - September 7, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Avizit Das, Sarah Khurshid, Shoma Hayat, Rasel Ahmed, Zhahirul Islam Source Type: research