Comparative evidence on harms in pediatric randomized clinical trials from less developed versus more developed countries is limited
Evaluate comparative harm rates from medical interventions in pediatric randomized clinical trials (RCTs) from more developed (MDCs) and less developed countries (LDCs). (Source: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology)
Source: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology - November 27, 2017 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Dario Tedesco, Mufiza Farid-Kapadia, Martin Offringa, Zulfiqar A. Bhutta, Yvonne Maldonado, John P.A. Ioannidis, Despina G. Contopoulos-Ioannidis Tags: Review Source Type: research

The efficiency of database searches for creating systematic reviews was improved by search filters
To compare Clinical Queries (CQs) for randomized trials of therapy ‘methods’ and ‘NOT’ limits search filters with Cochrane methods filters (CSs). (Source: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology)
Source: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology - November 27, 2017 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Dalton Budhram, Tamara Navarro-Ruan, R Brian Haynes Source Type: research

Comparative Evidence on Harms in Pediatric RCTs from Less Developed versus More Developed Countries Is Limited
Evaluate comparative harm-rates from medical interventions in pediatric randomized-trials (RCTs) from more-developed (MDCs) and less-developed countries (LDCs). (Source: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology)
Source: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology - November 27, 2017 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Dario Tedesco, Mufiza Farid-Kapadia, Martin Offringa, Zulfiqar A. Bhutta, Yvonne Maldonado, John P.A. Ioannidis, Despina G. Contopoulos-Ioannidis Source Type: research

Training health professionals to recruit into challenging randomized controlled trials improved confidence: the development of the QuinteT RCT Recruitment Training Intervention
To describe and evaluate a training intervention for recruiting patients to randomized controlled trials (RCTs), particularly for those anticipated to be difficult for recruitment. (Source: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology)
Source: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology - November 27, 2017 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Nicola Mills, Daisy Gaunt, Jane M. Blazeby, Daisy Elliott, Samantha Husbands, Peter Holding, Leila Rooshenas, Marcus Jepson, Bridget Young, Peter Bower, Catrin Tudur Smith, Carrol Gamble, Jenny L. Donovan Source Type: research

Participation and retention can be high in randomized controlled trials targeting underserved populations: a systematic review and meta-analysis
The majority of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) are conducted at institutions that underserved populations may not readily access because of socioeconomic limitations [1 –3]. A substantial proportion of underserved populations receive health care at safety-net institutions [4–7] and remain loyal to these institutions because of established relationships with clinical personnel [8]. Consequently, participation and retention of underserved populations for RCTs at safety-net institutions may not face similar barriers as other health care institutions. (Source: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology)
Source: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology - November 25, 2017 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Rohit P. Ojha, Bradford E. Jackson, Yan Lu, Mandy Burton, Somer E. Blair, Brooke R. MacDonald, Tzu-Chun Chu, Kari J. Teigen, Melissa Acosta Tags: Letters to the Editor Source Type: research

Participation And Retention Can Be High In Randomized Controlled Trials Targeting Underserved Populations: A Systematic Review And Meta-Analysis
We aimed to systematically review published literature to assess study-level sources of heterogeneity in participation and retention for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) conducted exclusively at safety-net institutions, which are primary sources of care for underserved populations. (Source: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology)
Source: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology - November 25, 2017 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Rohit P. Ojha, Bradford E. Jackson, Yan Lu, Mandy Burton, Somer E. Blair, Brooke MacDonald, Tzu-Chun Chu, Kari Teigen, Melissa Acosta Source Type: research

Controversy and debate on dengue vaccine series —paper 1: review of a licensed dengue vaccine: inappropriate subgroup analyses and selective reporting may cause harm in mass vaccination programs
Severe life-threatening dengue fever usually occurs when a child is infected by dengue virus a second time. This is caused by a phenomenon called antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE). Since dengue vaccines can mimic a first infection in seronegative children (those with no previous infection), a natural infection later in life could lead to severe disease. The possibility that dengue vaccines can cause severe dengue through ADE has led to serious concern regarding the safety of mass vaccination programs. (Source: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology)
Source: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology - November 24, 2017 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Antonio L. Dans, Leonila F. Dans, Mary Ann D. Lansang, Maria Asuncion A. Silvestre, Gordon H. Guyatt Tags: Controversy and Debate on Dengue Vaccine Series Source Type: research

Review of a licensed dengue vaccine: Inappropriate subgroup analyses and selective reporting may cause harm in mass vaccination programs
Severe life-threatening dengue fever usually occurs when a child is infected by dengue virus a 2nd time. This is caused by a phenomenon called antibody dependent enhancement or ADE. Since dengue vaccines can mimic a first infection in seronegative children (those with no previous infection), a natural infection later in life could lead to severe disease. The possibility that dengue vaccines can cause severe dengue through ADE has led to serious concern regarding the safety of mass vaccination programs. (Source: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology)
Source: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology - November 24, 2017 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Antonio L. Dans, Leonila F. Dans, Mary Ann D. Lansang, Maria Asuncion A. Silvestre, Gordon H. Guyatt Source Type: research

Poor performance of clinical prediction models: the harm of commonly applied methods
To evaluate limitations of common statistical modeling approaches in deriving clinical prediction models and explore alternative strategies. (Source: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology)
Source: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology - November 23, 2017 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Ewout W. Steyerberg, Hajime Uno, John P.A. Ioannidis, Ben van Calster, Collaborators Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Multiple overlapping systematic reviews facilitate the origin of disputes: the case of thrombolytic therapy for pulmonary embolism
To explore disagreements in multiple systematic reviews (SRs) assessing the benefit-to-harm ratio of thrombolytic therapy in patients with intermediate-risk pulmonary embolism (PE). (Source: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology)
Source: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology - November 21, 2017 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Nicoletta Riva, Livia Puljak, Lorenzo Moja, Walter Ageno, Holger Sch ünemann, Nicola Magrini, Alessandro Squizzato Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Instrumental variable methods for a binary outcome were used to informatively address noncompliance in a randomized trial in surgery
We present and compare different methods to calculate the treatment effect on a binary outcome as a rate ratio in a randomized surgical trial. (Source: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology)
Source: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology - November 20, 2017 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Jonathan A. Cook, Graeme S. MacLennan, Tom Palmer, Noemi Lois, Richard Emsley Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Instrumental variable methods for a binary outcome were used to informatively address non-compliance in a randomised trial in surgery
We present and compare different methods to calculate the treatment effect on a binary outcome as a rate ratio in a randomised surgical trial. (Source: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology)
Source: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology - November 20, 2017 Category: Epidemiology Authors: J.A. Cook, G.S. Maclennan, T. Palmer, N. Lois, R. Emsley Source Type: research

Multiple performance measures are needed to evaluate triage systems in the emergency department
Emergency department triage systems can be considered prediction rules with an ordinal outcome, where different directions of misclassification have different clinical consequences. We evaluated strategies to compare the performance of triage systems and aim to propose a set of performance measures that should be used in future studies. (Source: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology)
Source: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology - November 14, 2017 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Joany M. Zachariasse, Daan Nieboer, Rianne Oostenbrink, Henri ëtte A. Moll, Ewout W. Steyerberg Source Type: research

A systematic review highlights the need to investigate the content validity of patient-reported outcome measures for physical functioning in low back pain
To summarize the evidence on content and structural validity of 17 patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) to measure physical functioning in LBP. (Source: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology)
Source: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology - November 14, 2017 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Alessandro Chiarotto, Raymond W. Ostelo, Maarten Boers, Caroline B. Terwee Source Type: research

Off-label treatments were not consistently better or worse than approved drug treatments in randomized trials
Off-label drug use is highly prevalent, but controversial and often discouraged assuming generally inferior medical effects associated with off-label use. (Source: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology)
Source: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology - November 13, 2017 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Aviv Ladanie, John P.A. Ioannidis, Randall S. Stafford, Hannah Ewald, Heiner C. Bucher, Lars G. Hemkens Source Type: research

Citation analysis is also useful to assess the eligibility of biomedical research works for inclusion in living systematic reviews
I have read with much interest the JCE series advocating the use of human efforts and machine automation to create and update living systematic reviews (LSRs) [1]. I recognize that the series provides important information on how biomedical research works are verified as eligible for inclusion in LSRs using semantic classification and crowdsourcing techniques [1]. However, this paper has not dealt with another technique that has been recently shown to be useful (when jointly used with semantic classification and crowdsourcing techniques) in assessing the eligibility of papers for inclusion in LSRs: This important technique...
Source: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology - November 11, 2017 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Houcemeddine Turki Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

Citation analysis may well have a role to play in study identification, but more evaluation and system development are required
I would like to thank Houcemeddine Turki [1] for his interest in the paper that I and my colleagues recently published [2], and for drawing our attention to the potential utility of citation networks for identifying eligible studies for inclusion in systematic reviews. (Source: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology)
Source: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology - November 11, 2017 Category: Epidemiology Authors: James Thomas Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

Citation analysis is also useful to assess the eligibility of biomedical research works for inclusion in Living systematic reviews
In this research letter, I explain how the analysis of the citation network and of the co-citation network of a given topic and the use of the snowballing techniques can be useful to verify the eligibility of a paper for inclusion in the Living Systematic Review (LSR) of that topic. (Source: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology)
Source: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology - November 11, 2017 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Houcemeddine Turki Source Type: research

Citation analysis may well have a role to play in study identification, but more evaluation and systems development is required
(Source: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology)
Source: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology - November 11, 2017 Category: Epidemiology Authors: James Thomas Source Type: research

Trial registry searches for randomized controlled trials of new drugs required registry-specific adaptation to achieve adequate sensitivity
To analyze the availability of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of new drugs in trial registries and to develop and test different search strategies in ClinicalTrials.gov (CT.gov), the EU Clinical Trials Register (EU-CTR), and the International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP). (Source: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology)
Source: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology - November 10, 2017 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Marco Knelangen, Elke Hausner, Maria-Inti Metzendorf, Sibylle Sturtz, Siw Waffenschmidt Tags: Review Source Type: research

The proposed ‘concordance-statistic for benefit’ provided a useful metric when modeling heterogeneous treatment effects
Clinical prediction models that support treatment decisions are usually evaluated for their ability to predict the risk of an outcome rather than treatment benefit – the difference between outcome risk with versus without therapy. We aimed to define performance metrics for a model’s ability to predict treatment benefit. (Source: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology)
Source: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology - November 10, 2017 Category: Epidemiology Authors: David van Klaveren, Ewout W. Steyerberg, Patrick W. Serruys, David M. Kent Source Type: research

Trial registry searches for RCTs of new drugs required registry-specific adaptation to achieve adequate sensitivity
(Source: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology)
Source: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology - November 10, 2017 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Marco Knelangen, Elke Hausner, Maria-Inti Metzendorf, Sibylle Sturtz, Siw Waffenschmidt Source Type: research

Using reference values to define disease based on the lower limit of normal biased the population attributable fraction, but not the population excess risk: the example of chronic airflow obstruction
The impact of disease on population health is most commonly estimated by the population attributable fraction (PAF). This measurement, an estimate of the proportion of the disease in the population that is attributable to the exposure, is sensitive to the way that the disease is defined. When disease is defined from reference values that are derived from the distribution of values in the “normal” population the PAF is difficult to interpret. Using measures of chronic airflow obstruction as an example, we demonstrate that where normality is defined by centiles (or fractiles) of values in a “normal” p...
Source: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology - November 6, 2017 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Peter Burney, Cosetta Minelli Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Recommendations for primary studies evaluating therapeutic medical devices were identified and systematically reported through reviewing existing guidance
(Source: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology)
Source: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology - November 6, 2017 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Petra Schnell-Inderst, Theresa Hunger, Annette Conrads-Frank, Marjan Arvandi, Uwe Siebert Source Type: research

Characterization of gastrointestinal adverse effects reported in clinical studies of corticosteroid therapy
To examine whether 159 studies included in a previous meta-analysis reported on gastrointestinal bleeding or perforation in accordance with the CONSORT extension for reporting harms outcomes (CONSORT Harms recommendations checklist); whether differences were associated with funding source, journal, or publication year; and whether the CONSORT Harms checklist is a suitable tool for evaluation of adverse effects reporting. (Source: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology)
Source: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology - November 4, 2017 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Tone Westergren, Sigrid Narum, Marianne Klemp Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

The split-plot design was useful for evaluating complex, multilevel interventions, but there is need for improvement in its design and report
To describe the sample size calculation, analysis and reporting of split-plot (S-P) randomized controlled trials in health care (trials that use two units of randomization: one at a cluster-level and one at a level lower than the cluster). (Source: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology)
Source: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology - November 4, 2017 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Beatriz Goul ão, Graeme MacLennan, Craig Ramsay Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

Characterization of gastrointestinal adverse effects reporting in clinical studies of corticosteroid therapy
To examine whether 159 studies included in a previous meta-analysis reported on gastrointestinal bleeding or perforation in accordance with the the CONSORT extension for reporting harms outcomes (CONSORT Harms recommendations checklist), whether differences were associated with funding source, journal or publication year, and whether the CONSORT Harms checklist is a suitable tool for evaluation of adverse effects reporting. (Source: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology)
Source: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology - November 4, 2017 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Tone Westergren, Sigrid Narum, Marianne Klemp Source Type: research

The split-plot design was useful for evaluating complex, multi-level interventions but there is need for improvement in its design and report
To describe the sample size calculation, analysis and reporting of split-plot randomised controlled trials (RCT) in healthcare (trials that use two units of randomisation: one at a cluster-level and one at a level lower than the cluster). (Source: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology)
Source: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology - November 4, 2017 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Beatriz Goul ão, Graeme MacLennan, Craig Ramsay Source Type: research

Reproducible research practices are underused in systematic reviews of biomedical interventions
To evaluate how often reproducible research practices, which allow others to recreate the findings of studies, given the original data, are used in systematic reviews (SRs) of biomedical research. (Source: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology)
Source: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology - November 4, 2017 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Matthew J. Page, Douglas G. Altman, Larissa Shamseer, Joanne E. McKenzie, Nadera Ahmadzai, Dianna Wolfe, Fatemeh Yazdi, Ferr án Catalá-López, Andrea C. Tricco, David Moher Source Type: research

Same family, different species: Methodological conduct and quality varies according to purpose for five types of knowledge synthesis
To characterize methodological conduct, reporting, and quality of five knowledge synthesis (KS) approaches. (Source: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology)
Source: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology - November 2, 2017 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Andrea C. Tricco, Wasifa Zarin, Marco Ghassemi, Vera Nincic, Erin Lillie, Matthew J. Page, Larissa Shamseer, Jesmin Antony, Patricia Rios, Jeremiah Hwee, Areti Angeliki Veroniki, David Moher, Lisa Hartling, Ba ’ Pham, Sharon E. Straus Source Type: research

Editorial Board
(Source: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology)
Source: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology - November 1, 2017 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Table of Contents
(Source: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology)
Source: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology - November 1, 2017 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Current study design labels are confusing! Call for consensus on better terminology that clearly reflects specific features
Journal of Clinical Epidemiology is receiving more manuscripts on non-randomized studies and this is reflected in the recent series on quasi-experimental designs [1]. Contrary to popular belief, some Cochrane Reviews do include non-randomized studies of not only harm but also benefit. In this issue Polus et  al. found 136 reviews published in the Cochrane Library in the 3 years 2012–2015 – these covered a range of types of interventions. However, this review confirms that there are major substantive problems in the way that non-randomized studies are classified and analyzed. (Source: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology)
Source: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology - November 1, 2017 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Peter Tugwell, J. Andr é Knottnerus Tags: Editorial Source Type: research

Use of the PRECIS-II instrument to categorize reports along the efficacy-effectiveness spectrum in an hepatitis C virus care continuum systematic review and meta-analysis
There is increasing recognition of the importance of the distinction between efficacy and effectiveness research in the design, conduct, and evaluation of interventions and program outcomes. There is a concurrent increase in the application of systematic reviews and meta-analyses. These two lines of inquiry are only beginning to meet. There is an emerging need for systematic reviews and meta-analyses to account for differences in degrees to which included studies reflect either efficacy and effectiveness designs. (Source: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology)
Source: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology - November 1, 2017 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Ashly E. Jordan, David C. Perlman, Daniel J. Smith, Jennifer R. Reed, Holly Hagan Source Type: research

Explaining odds ratios as conditional risk ratios
We thank Dr. Tedeschi [1] for his commentary on our paper [2]. Before responding, we recall that our original motivation was to provide a derivation of the odds ratio, OR (as  a parameter), that does not involve odds and which has an interpretation in terms of patient numbers as a conditional risk ratio given discordant pairs. This led us to then consider matched pairs, with dependence within pairs. (Source: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology)
Source: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology - October 31, 2017 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Fred M. Hoppe, Daniel J. Hoppe, Stephen D. Walter Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

Explaining Odds Ratios as Conditional Risk Ratios
(Source: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology)
Source: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology - October 31, 2017 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Fred M. Hoppe, Daniel J. Hoppe, Stephen D. Walter Source Type: research

A clarification on odds ratios as conditional risk ratios
Hoppe et  al. [1] propose a new interpretation of the odds ratio (OR) for situations where individuals are paired and then randomized to either the treatment or the control condition. They show that the OR is equivalent to the risk ratio (RR) conditionally on pairs having different outcomes and describe two cases, calling them “parallel groups” and “matched pairs,” respectively. In the former case (authors define it as unmatched case, given that pairs are matched randomly), the OR is called “common OR,” and it is equal to: p1*(1−p2)/p2*(1−p1) (defining p1 and p2 as the p...
Source: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology - October 30, 2017 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Federico Tedeschi Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

Comparable outcomes among trial and nontrial participants in a clinical trial of antibiotics for childhood pneumonia: a retrospective cohort study
We compared characteristics and outcomes of children enrolled in a randomized controlled trial (RCT) comparing oral amoxicillin and benzyl penicillin for the treatment of chest indrawing pneumonia vs. children who received routine care to determine the external validity of the trial results. (Source: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology)
Source: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology - October 30, 2017 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Ambrose Agweyu, Jacquie Oliwa, David Gathara, Naomi Muinga, Elizabeth Allen, Richard J. Lilford, Mike English Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Comparable outcomes among trial and non-trial participants in a clinical trial of antibiotics for childhood pneumonia: A retrospective cohort study
We compared characteristics and outcomes of children enrolled in a randomized controlled trial (RCT) comparing oral amoxicillin and benzyl penicillin for the treatment of chest indrawing pneumonia versus children who received routine care to determine the external validity of the trial results. (Source: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology)
Source: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology - October 30, 2017 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Ambrose Agweyu, Jacquie Oliwa, David Gathara, Naomi Muinga, Elizabeth Allen, Richard J. Lilford, Mike English Source Type: research

Self-Reported Medication Use Validated Through Record Linkage to National Prescribing Data
Researchers need to be confident about the reliability of epidemiological studies that quantify medication use through self-report. Some evidence suggests that psychiatric medications are systemically under-reported. Modern record linkage enables validation of self-report with national prescribing data as gold standard. Here, we investigated the validity of medication self-report for multiple medication types. (Source: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology)
Source: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology - October 30, 2017 Category: Epidemiology Authors: J.D. Hafferty, A.I. Campbell, L.B. Navrady, M.J. Adams, D. MacIntyre, S.M. Lawrie, K. Nicodemus, D.J. Porteous, A.M. McIntosh Source Type: research

A clarification on odds ratios as conditional risk ratios
(Source: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology)
Source: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology - October 30, 2017 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Federico Tedeschi Source Type: research

Ten recommendations for assessing the comparative effectiveness of therapeutic medical devices: A targeted review and adaptation
(Source: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology)
Source: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology - October 28, 2017 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Petra Schnell-Inderst, Theresa Hunger, Annette Conrads-Frank, Marjan Arvandi, Uwe Siebert Source Type: research

Cluster-randomized controlled trials evaluating complex interventions in general practices are mostly ineffective: a systematic review
The aim of this study was to evaluate how frequently complex interventions are shown to be superior to routine care in general practice-based cluster-randomized controlled studies (c-RCTs) and to explore whether potential differences explain results that come out in favor of a complex intervention. (Source: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology)
Source: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology - October 27, 2017 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Andrea Siebenhofer, Michael A. Paulitsch, Gudrun Pregartner, Andrea Berghold, Klaus Jeitler, Christiane Muth, Jennifer Engler Tags: Review Source Type: research

Association between prospective registration and overall reporting and methodological quality of systematic reviews: a meta-epidemiological study
To investigate the differences in main characteristics, reporting and methodological quality between prospectively registered and non-registered systematic reviews. (Source: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology)
Source: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology - October 27, 2017 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Long Ge, Jin-hui Tian, Ya-nan Li, Jia-xue Pan, Ge Li, Dang Wei, Xin Xing, Bei Pan, Yao-long Chen, Fu-jian Song, Ke-hu Yang Source Type: research

Cluster-randomised controlled trials evaluating complex interventions in general practices are mostly ineffective: A systematic review
To evaluate how frequently complex interventions are shown to be superior to routine care in general practice-based cluster-randomised studies (c-RCTs), and to explore whether potential differences explain results that come out in favour of a complex intervention. (Source: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology)
Source: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology - October 27, 2017 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Andrea Siebenhofer, Michael A. Paulitsch, Gudrun Pregartner, Andrea Berghold, Klaus Jeitler, Christiane Muth, Jennifer Engler Source Type: research

Advances in the GRADE approach to rate the certainty in estimates from  a network meta-analysis
This article describes conceptual advances of the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) working group guidance to evaluate the certainty of evidence (confidence in evidence, quality of evidence) from network meta-analysis (NMA). Application of the original GRADE guidance, published in 2014, in a number of NMAs has resulted in advances that strengthen its conceptual basis and make the process more efficient. This guidance will be useful for systematic review authors who aim to assess the certainty of all pairwise comparisons from an NMA and who are familiar with the basic concepts of NMA...
Source: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology - October 16, 2017 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Romina Brignardello-Petersen, Ashley Bonner, Paul E. Alexander, Reed A. Siemieniuk, Toshi A. Furukawa, Bram Rochwerg, Glen S. Hazlewood, Waleed Alhazzani, Reem A. Mustafa, M. Hassan Murad, Milo A. Puhan, Holger J. Sch ünemann, Gordon H. Guyatt, GRADE Wor Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

A Bayesian model that jointly considers comparative effectiveness research and patients ’ preferences may help inform GRADE recommendations: An application to rheumatoid arthritis treatment recommendations
To estimate the preferred treatment for early rheumatoid arthritis (ERA) using a novel Bayesian approach that jointly considers patients ’ preferences and comparative effectiveness research (Source: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology)
Source: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology - October 16, 2017 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Glen S. Hazlewood, Claire Bombardier, George Tomlinson, Deborah Marshall Source Type: research

Advances in the GRADE approach to rate the certainty in estimates from a network meta-analysis
This article describes conceptual advances of the Grading of Recommendations Assessments, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) working group guidance to evaluate certainty of evidence (confidence in evidence, quality of evidence) from network meta-analysis (NMA). Application of the original GRADE guidance, published in 2014, in a number of NMAs has resulted in advances that strengthen its conceptual basis and make the process more efficient. This guidance will be useful for systematic reviewer authors who aim to assess the certainty of all pairwise comparisons from an NMA and who are familiar with the basic concepts of NMA ...
Source: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology - October 16, 2017 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Romina Brignardello-Petersen, Ashley Bonner, Paul E. Alexander, Reed A. Siemieniuk, Toshi A. Furukawa, Bram Rochwerg, Glen S. Hazlewood, Waleed Alhazzani, Reem A. Mustafa, M. Hassan Murad, Milo A. Puhan, Holger J. Sch ünemann, Gordon H. Guyatt, GRADE Wor Source Type: research