A scoping review and survey provides the rationale, perceptions, and preferences for the integration of randomized and nonrandomized studies in evidence syntheses and GRADE assessments
To review the literature and obtain preferences and perceptions from experts regarding the role of randomized studies (RSs) and nonrandomized studies (NRSs) in systematic reviews of intervention effects. (Source: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology)
Source: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology - February 13, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Carlos A. Cuello-Garcia, Rebecca L. Morgan, Jan Brozek, Nancy Santesso, Jos Verbeek, Kris Thayer, Gordon Guyatt, Holger J. Sch ünemann Tags: Review Source Type: research

Essential medicines availability is still suboptimal in many countries: a scoping review
To identify uses of WHO Model list of essential medicines (EMs) and summarize studies examining EM and national EM lists (NEMLs). (Source: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology)
Source: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology - February 13, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Mersiha Mahmi ć-Kaknjo, Antonia Jeličić-Kadić, Ana Utrobičić, Kit Chan, Lisa Bero, Ana Marušić Tags: Review Source Type: research

Methods for analyzing matched designs with double controls: excess risk is easily estimated and misinterpreted when evaluating traffic deaths
To demonstrate analytic approaches for matched studies where two controls are linked to each case and events are accumulating counts rather than binary outcomes. A secondary intent is to clarify the distinction between total risk and excess risk (unmatched vs. matched perspectives). (Source: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology)
Source: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology - February 13, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Donald A. Redelmeier, Robert J. Tibshirani Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

GRADE Guidelines: 19. Assessing the certainty of evidence in the importance of outcomes or values and preferences —Risk of bias and indirectness
The Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) working group defines patient values and preferences as the relative importance patients place on the main health outcomes. We provide GRADE guidance for assessing the risk of bias and indirectness domains for certainty of evidence about the relative importance of outcomes. (Source: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology)
Source: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology - February 13, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Yuan Zhang, Pablo Alonso-Coello, Gordon H. Guyatt, Juan Jos é Yepes-Nuñez, Elie A. Akl, Glen Hazlewood, Hector Pardo-Hernandez, Itziar Etxeandia-Ikobaltzeta, Amir Qaseem, John W. Williams, Peter Tugwell, Signe Flottorp, Yaping Chang, Yuqing Zhang, Reem Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

GRADE Guidelines: 19. Assessing the certainty of evidence in the importance of outcomes or values and preferences -- Risk of bias and indirectness
The GRADE working group defines patient values and preferences as the relative importance patients place on the main health outcomes. We provide GRADE guidance for assessing the risk of bias and indirectness domains for certainty of evidence about the relative importance of outcomes. (Source: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology)
Source: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology - February 13, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Yuan Zhang, Pablo Alonso Coello, Gordon Guyatt, Juan Jose Yepes-Nunez, Elie A. Akl, Glen Hazlewood, Hector Pardo-Hernandez, Itziar Etxeandia-Ikobaltzeta, Amir Qaseem, John W. Williams, Peter Tugwell, Signe Flottorp, Yaping Chang, Yuqing Zhang, Reem A. Mus Source Type: research

Methods for Analyzing Matched Designs with Double Controls: Excess Risk is Easily Estimated and Misinterpreted When Evaluating Traffic Deaths
To demonstrate analytic approaches for matched studies where two controls are linked to each case and events are accumulating counts rather than binary outcomes. A secondary intent is to clarify the distinction between total risk and excess risk (unmatched vs matched perspectives). (Source: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology)
Source: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology - February 13, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Donald A. Redelmeier, Robert J. Tibshirani Source Type: research

A Scoping Review and Survey Provides the Rationale, Perceptions, and Preferences for the Integration of Randomized and Non-Randomized Studies in Evidence Syntheses and GRADE Assessments
To review the literature and obtain preferences and perceptions from experts regarding the role of randomized studies (RS) and non-randomized studies (NRS) in systematic reviews of intervention effects. (Source: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology)
Source: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology - February 13, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Carlos A. Cuello, Rebecca L. Morgan, Jan Brozek, Nancy Santesso, Jos Verbeek, Kris Thayer, Gordon Guyatt, Holger J. Sch ünemann Source Type: research

Essential medicines availability is still suboptimal in many countries: A scoping review
To identify uses of WHO Model list of essential medicines (EM) and summarize studies examining essential medicines (EM) and national EM lists (NEMLs). (Source: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology)
Source: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology - February 13, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Mersiha Mahmi ć-Kaknjo, Antonia Jeličić-Kadić, Ana Utrobičić, Kit Chan, Lisa Bero, Ana Marušić Source Type: research

GRADE Guidelines: 19. Assessing the certainty of evidence describing the relative importance of outcomes or values and preferences -- Risk of bias and indirectness
The GRADE working group defines patient values and preferences as the relative importance patients place on the main health outcomes. We provide GRADE guidance for assessing the risk of bias and indirectness domains for certainty of evidence about the relative importance of outcomes. (Source: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology)
Source: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology - February 13, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Yuan Zhang, Pablo Alonso Coello, Gordon Guyatt, Juan Jose Yepes-Nunez, Elie A. Akl, Glen Hazlewood, Hector Pardo-Hernandez, Itziar Etxeandia-Ikobaltzeta, Amir Qaseem, John W. Williams, Peter Tugwell, Signe Flottorp, Yaping Chang, Yuqing Zhang, Reem A. Mus Source Type: research

The win ratio approach did not alter study conclusions and may mitigate concerns regarding unequal composite end points in kidney transplant trials
The aim of the study was to determine the impact of using the win ratio approach and investigate whether this approach alters the interpretations or conclusions of a randomized trial in kidney transplantation. (Source: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology)
Source: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology - February 9, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Nicholas A. Fergusson, Tim Ramsay, Micha ël Chassé, Shane W. English, Greg A. Knoll Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

A joint frailty model provides for risk stratification of human immunodeficiency virus –infected patients based on unobserved heterogeneity
To investigate the association between recurrent AIDS-defining events and a semicompeting risk of death in patients with advanced, multidrug-resistant human immunodeficiency virus infection and to identify individuals at increased risk for these events using a joint frailty model. (Source: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology)
Source: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology - February 9, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Tae Hyun Jung, Tassos Kyriakides, Mark Holodniy, Denise Esserman, Peter Peduzzi Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Larger effect sizes in nonrandomized studies are associated with higher rates of EMA licensing approval
The aim of this study was to evaluate how often the European Medicines Agency (EMA) has authorized drugs based on nonrandomized studies and whether there is an association between treatment effects and EMA preference for further testing in randomized clinical trials (RCTs). (Source: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology)
Source: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology - February 9, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Benjamin Djulbegovic, Paul Glasziou, Farina A. Klocksieben, Tea Reljic, Magali VanDenBergh, Rahul Mhaskar, John P.A. Ioannidis, Iain Chalmers Tags: Review Source Type: research

Responsible Epidemiologic Research Practice: a guideline developed by a working group of the Netherlands Epidemiological Society
To develop a guideline on Responsible Epidemiologic Research Practice that will increase value and transparency, increase the accountability of the epidemiologists, and reduce research waste. (Source: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology)
Source: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology - February 9, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Gerard M.H. Swaen, Miranda Langendam, Joost Weyler, Huibert Burger, Sabine Siesling, Willem Jan Atsma, Lex Bouter Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Is providing uncertainty intervals in treatment ranking helpful in a network meta-analysis?
A popular method to assess the comparative efficacy or safety of multiple treatments is network meta-analysis (NMA), which is being conducted with increasing frequency in the health care literature [1,2]. In NMA, the authors usually present a hierarchy of the treatments for a specific outcome based on their efficacy or safety. A first approach to achieve this is by using treatment effect estimates along with a measure of uncertainty (eg, confidence intervals/credible intervals [CIs/CrIs]). As a second approach, the NMA authors usually apply different ranking statistics, such as the probability for a treatment of being the ...
Source: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology - February 9, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Areti Angeliki Veroniki, Sharon E. Straus, Gerta R ücker, Andrea C. Tricco Tags: Commentary Source Type: research

GRADE guidelines: 18. How ROBINS-I and other tools to assess risk of bias in nonrandomized studies should be used to rate the certainty of a body of evidence
To provide guidance on how systematic review authors, guideline developers, and health technology assessment practitioners should approach the use of the risk of bias in nonrandomized studies of interventions (ROBINS-I) tool as a part of GRADE's certainty rating process. (Source: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology)
Source: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology - February 9, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Holger J. Sch ünemann, Carlos Cuello, Elie A. Akl, Reem A. Mustafa, Jörg J. Meerpohl, Kris Thayer, Rebecca L. Morgan, Gerald Gartlehner, Regina Kunz, S Vittal Katikireddi, Jonathan Sterne, Julian PT Higgins, Gordon Guyatt, GRADE Working Group Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Pragmatic trials revisited: applicability is about individualization
Fifty years ago, Schwartz and Lellouch [1] published in the Journal of Chronic Diseases (the predecessor to the Journal of Clinical Epidemiology) the seminal article that described the differences between “explanatory” and “pragmatic” attitudes in therapeutic trials. Explanatory trials aim to understand how and why a clinical intervention works under ideal conditions. By contrast, pragmatic trials (also referred to as “practical,” “naturalistic,” or “effectiveness” trials) aim to guide real-word decisions about alternative interventions. (Source: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology)
Source: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology - February 9, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Jos é A. Sacristán, Tatiana Dilla Tags: Commentary Source Type: research

GRADE guidelines: 18. How ROBINS-I and other tools to assess risk of bias in nonrandomized studies should be used to rate the certainty of a body of evidence
To provide guidance on how systematic review authors, guideline developers, and health technology assessment practitioners should approach the use of the risk of bias in nonrandomized studies of interventions (ROBINS-I) tool as a part of GRADE's certainty rating process. (Source: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology)
Source: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology - February 9, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Holger J. Sch ünemann, Carlos Cuello, Elie A. Akl, Reem A. Mustafa, Jörg J. Meerpohl, Kris Thayer, Rebecca L. Morgan, Gerald Gartlehner, Regina Kunz, S Vittal Katikireddi, Jonathan Sterne, Julian PT Higgins, Gordon Guyatt, GRADE Working Group Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Is providing uncertainty intervals in treatment ranking helpful in a network meta-analysis?
A popular method to assess the comparative efficacy or safety of multiple treatments is network meta-analysis (NMA), which is being conducted with increasing frequency in the health care literature [1,2]. In NMA, the authors usually present a hierarchy of the treatments for a specific outcome based on their efficacy or safety. A first approach to achieve this is by using treatment effect estimates along with a measure of uncertainty (eg, confidence intervals/credible intervals [CIs/CrIs]). As a second approach, the NMA authors usually apply different ranking statistics, such as the probability for a treatment of being the ...
Source: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology - February 9, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Areti Angeliki Veroniki, Sharon E. Straus, Gerta R ücker, Andrea C. Tricco Tags: Commentary Source Type: research

Responsible Epidemiologic Research Practice: A guideline developed by a working group of the Netherlands Epidemiological Society
to develop a guideline on responsible epidemiologic research practice that will increase value and transparency, will increase the accountability of the epidemiologists and will reduce research waste. (Source: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology)
Source: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology - February 9, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Gerard M.H. Swaen, Miranda Langendam, Joost Weyler, Huibert Burger, Sabine Siesling, Willem Jan Atsma, Lex Bouter Source Type: research

The win ratio approach did not alter study conclusions and may mitigate concerns regarding unequal composite endpoints in kidney transplant trials
Determine the impact of using the win ratio approach and investigate whether this approach alters the interpretations or conclusions of a randomized trial in kidney transplantation. (Source: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology)
Source: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology - February 9, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Nicholas A. Fergusson, Tim Ramsay, Micha ël Chassé, Shane W. English, Greg A. Knoll Source Type: research

A joint frailty model provides for risk stratification of HIV-infected patients based on unobserved heterogeneity
To investigate the association between recurrent AIDS-defining events and a semi-competing risk of death in patients with advanced, multi-drug resistant HIV infection and to identify individuals at increased risk for these events using a joint frailty model. (Source: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology)
Source: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology - February 9, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Tae Hyun Jung, Tassos Kyriakides, Mark Holodniy, Denise Esserman, Peter Peduzzi Source Type: research

Commentary: Is providing uncertainty intervals in treatment ranking helpful in a network meta-analysis?
(Source: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology)
Source: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology - February 9, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Areti Angeliki Veroniki, Sharon E. Straus, Gerta R ücker, Andrea C. Tricco Source Type: research

GRADE Guidelines: 18. How ROBINS-I and other tools to assess risk of bias in non-randomized studies should be used to rate the certainty of a body of evidence
To provide guidance on how systematic review authors, guideline developers, and health technology assessment practitioners should approach the use of the risk of bias in non-randomized studies of interventions (ROBINS-I) tool as part of GRADE ’s certainty rating process. (Source: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology)
Source: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology - February 9, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Holger J. Sch ünemann, Carlos Cuello, Elie A. Akl, Reem A. Mustafa, Jörg J. Meerpohl, Kris Thayer, Rebecca L. Morgan, Gerald Gartlehner, Regina Kunz, S Vittal Katikireddi, Jonathan Sterne, Julian PT. Higgins, Gordon Guyatt, GRADE Working Group Source Type: research

Larger effect sizes in non-randomized studies are associated with higher rates of EMA licensing approval
Evaluate how often the European Medicines Agency (EMA) has authorized drugs based on non-randomized studies and whether there is an association between treatment effects and EMA preference for further testing in RCTs. (Source: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology)
Source: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology - February 9, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Benjamin Djulbegovic, Paul Glasziou, Farina A. Klocksieben, Tea Reljic, Magali VanDenBergh, Rahul Mhaskar, John P.A. Ioannidis, Iain Chalmers Source Type: research

Pragmatic Trials Revisited: Applicability is About Individualization
(Source: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology)
Source: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology - February 9, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Jos é A. Sacristán, Tatiana Dilla Source Type: research

Re-randomization increased recruitment and provided similar treatment estimates as parallel designs in trials of febrile neutropenia
Re-randomization trials allow patients to be re-enrolled for multiple treatment episodes. However, it remains uncertain to what extent re-randomization improves recruitment compared to parallel group designs or whether treatment estimates might be affected. (Source: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology)
Source: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology - February 8, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Brennan C. Kahan, Tim P. Morris, Erica Harris, Rupert Pearse, Richard Hooper, Sandra Eldridge Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Re-randomization increased recruitment and provided similar treatment estimates as parallel designs in trials of febrile neutropenia
Re-randomization trials allow patients to be re-enrolled for multiple treatment episodes. However, it remains uncertain to what extent re-randomization improves recruitment compared to parallel group designs, or whether treatment estimates might be affected. (Source: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology)
Source: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology - February 8, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Brennan C. Kahan, Tim P. Morris, Erica Harris, Rupert Pearse, Richard Hooper, Sandra Eldridge Source Type: research

Choice of time period to identify confounders for propensity score matching, affected the estimate: a retrospective cohort study of drug effectiveness in asthmatic children
To control for confounding by indication in comparative (drug) effectiveness studies, propensity score (PS) methods may be used. Since childhood diseases or outcomes often present as acute events, we compared the effect of using different look-back periods in electronic health-care data, to construct PSs. This was applied in our research on the effect of a combination of inhaled corticosteroids/long-acting beta-2 agonists (ICS  + LABA), either as fixed combination or used as loose combination (2 separate inhaler devices) in the prevention of severe asthma exacerbations. (Source: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology)
Source: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology - February 4, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Osemeke U. Osokogu, Javeed Khan, Swabra Nakato, Daniel Weibel, Maria de Ridder, Miriam C.J.M. Sturkenboom, Katia Verhamme Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality Evidence-based Practice Center methods provide guidance on prioritization and selection of harms in systematic reviews
Systematic reviews should provide balanced assessments of benefits and harms, while focusing on the most important outcomes. Selection of harms to be reviewed can be a challenge due to the potential for large numbers of diverse harms. (Source: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology)
Source: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology - February 4, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Roger Chou, William L. Baker, Lionel L. Ba ñez, Suchitra Iyer, Evan R. Myers, Sydne Newberry, Laura Pincock, Karen A. Robinson, Lyndzie Sardenga, Nila Sathe, Stacey Springs, Timothy J. Wilt Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

Choice of time period to identify confounders for propensity score matching, affected the estimate: a retrospective cohort study of drug effectiveness in asthmatic children
To control for confounding by indication in comparative (drug) effectiveness studies, propensity score (PS) methods may be used. Since childhood diseases or outcomes often present as acute events, we compared the effect of using different look-back periods in electronic health-care data, to construct PSs. This was applied in our research on the effect of a combination of inhaled corticosteroids/long-acting beta-2 agonists (ICS  + LABA), either as fixed combination or used as loose combination (2 separate inhaler devices) in the prevention of severe asthma exacerbations. (Source: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology)
Source: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology - February 4, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Osemeke U. Osokogu, Javeed Khan, Swabra Nakato, Daniel Weibel, Maria de Ridder, Miriam C.J.M. Sturkenboom, Katia Verhamme Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality Evidence-based Practice Center methods provide guidance on prioritization and selection of harms in systematic reviews
Systematic reviews should provide balanced assessments of benefits and harms, while focusing on the most important outcomes. Selection of harms to be reviewed can be a challenge due to the potential for large numbers of diverse harms. (Source: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology)
Source: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology - February 4, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Roger Chou, William L. Baker, Lionel L. Ba ñez, Suchitra Iyer, Evan R. Myers, Sydne Newberry, Laura Pincock, Karen A. Robinson, Lyndzie Sardenga, Nila Sathe, Stacey Springs, Timothy J. Wilt Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

Choice of time period to identify confounders for propensity score matching affected the estimate: A retrospective cohort study of drug effectiveness in asthmatic children
To control for confounding by indication in comparative (drug) effectiveness studies, propensity scores (PS) methods may be utilized. Since childhood diseases or outcomes often present as acute events, we compared the effect of using different look back periods in electronic health care data, to construct PSs. This was applied in our research on the effect of a combination of inhaled corticosteroids/long-acting beta-2-agonists (ICS+LABA), either as fixed combination or used as loose combination (2 separate inhaler devices) in the prevention of severe asthma exacerbations. (Source: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology)
Source: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology - February 4, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Osemeke U. Osokogu, Javeed Khan, Swabra Nakato, Daniel Weibel, Maria de Ridder, Miriam C.J.M. Sturkenboom, Katia Verhamme Source Type: research

AHRQ EPC methods provide guidance on prioritization and selection of harms in systematic reviews
Systematic reviews should provide balanced assessments of benefits and harms, while focusing on the most important outcomes. Selection of harms to be reviewed can be a challenge due to the potential for large numbers of diverse harms. (Source: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology)
Source: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology - February 4, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Roger Chou, William L. Baker, Lionel L. Ba ñez, Suchitra Iyer, Evan R. Myers, Sydne Newberry, Laura Pincock, Karen A. Robinson, Lyndzie Sardenga, Nila Sathe, Stacey Springs, Timothy J. Wilt Source Type: research

Non-corresponding authors in the era of meta-analyses
The exponential growth of the global scientific output requires review articles that summarize such escalating knowledge. The rate of growth in the number of published meta-analyses in the last decade is impressive, with meta-analyses being the most cited form of scientific article. The validity of the pooled estimates of effect heavily rely on the availability of data in the included articles. Unfortunately, inadequate reporting of the findings is common and often makes data extraction cumbersome. (Source: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology)
Source: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology - February 2, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Andrea Manca, Lucia Cugusi, Zeevi Dvir, Franca Deriu Tags: Brief Report Source Type: research

Non-corresponding authors in the era of meta-analyses
(Source: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology)
Source: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology - February 2, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Andrea Manca, Lucia Cugusi, Zeevi Dvir, Franca Deriu Source Type: research

Editorial Board
(Source: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology)
Source: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology - February 1, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Table of Contents
(Source: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology)
Source: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology - February 1, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Comparative effectiveness research requires competitive effectiveness
Often, interventions to be evaluated should be compared with other intervention(s) or usual care rather than with inactive (placebo) interventions or non-intervention. This is especially the case when there is already available care that is accepted to be effective and safe, and therefore cannot be omitted from the comparison for scientific, clinical and ethical reasons. In such cases, we speak about head-to-head comparisons in the context of comparative effectiveness research [1]. These terms underline that, in the interest of optimizing patient care and research waste control, clinical effectiveness research must focus o...
Source: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology - February 1, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Authors: J. Andr é Knottnerus, Peter Tugwell Tags: Editorial Source Type: research

A mapping of 115,000 randomized trials revealed a mismatch between research effort and health needs in non –high-income regions
Concerns exist as to whether the allocation of resources in clinical research is aligned with public health needs. We evaluated the alignment between the effort of clinical research through the conduct of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and health needs measured as the burden of diseases for all regions and a broad range of diseases. (Source: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology)
Source: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology - January 19, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Ignacio Atal, Ludovic Trinquart, Philippe Ravaud, Rapha ël Porcher Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

A mapping of 115,000 randomized trials revealed a mismatch between research effort and health needs in non-high-income regions
Concerns exist as to whether the allocation of resources in clinical research is aligned with public health needs. We evaluated the alignment between the effort of clinical research through the conduct of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and health needs measured as the burden of diseases for all regions and a broad range of diseases. (Source: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology)
Source: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology - January 19, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Ignacio Atal, Ludovic Trinquart, Philippe Ravaud, Rapha ël Porcher Source Type: research

Assessing risk of bias in studies that evaluate health care interventions: recommendations in the misinformation age
Methods to assess the risk of bias in a way that is reliable, reproducible. and transparent to readers, have evolved over time. Viswanathan et  al. recently provided updated recommendations for assessing risk of bias in systematic reviews of health care interventions. We comment on their recommendations and discuss new tools in development that we, as co-convenors and coordinators of the Cochrane Bias Methods Group, are leading, which com plement the methods recommended. (Source: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology)
Source: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology - January 15, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Matthew J. Page, Isabelle Boutron, Camilla Hansen, Douglas G. Altman, Asbj ørn Hróbjartsson Tags: Commentary Source Type: research

Assessing risk of bias in studies that evaluate health care interventions: recommendations in the misinformation age
Methods to assess risk of bias in a way that is reliable, reproducible and transparent to readers, have evolved over time. Viswanathan et al. recently provided updated recommendations for assessing risk of bias in systematic reviews of health care interventions. We comment on their recommendations, and discuss new tools in development that we, as co-convenors and coordinators of the Cochrane Bias Methods Group, are leading, which complement the methods recommended. (Source: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology)
Source: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology - January 15, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Matthew J. Page, Isabelle Boutron, Camilla Hansen, Douglas G. Altman, Asbj ørn Hróbjartsson Source Type: research

Registration in the international prospective register of systematic reviews (PROSPERO) of systematic review protocols was associated with increased review quality
A priori registration of systematic review protocols in international prospective register of systematic reviews (PROSPERO) can help reduce selective reporting of outcomes. The aim of this study was to assess the association between registration of orthodontic systematic reviews in PROSPERO and review quality with the Assessment of Multiple Systematic Reviews (AMSTAR) tool. (Source: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology)
Source: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology - January 12, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Sofia Sideri, Spyridon N. Papageorgiou, Theodore Eliades Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Registration in PROSPERO of systematic review protocols was associated with increased review quality
A priori registration of systematic review protocols in PROSPERO can help increase transparency and thereby the review ’s credibility. Aim of this study was to assess the influence of a priori registration of orthodontic systematic reviews in PROSPERO on the reviews’ quality with the Assessment of Multiple Systematic Reviews (AMSTAR) tool. (Source: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology)
Source: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology - January 12, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Sofia Sideri, Spyridon N. Papageorgiou, Theodore Eliades Source Type: research

A mixed linear model controlling for case underascertainment across multiple cancer registries estimated time trends in survival
Large temporal and geographical variation in survival rates estimated from epidemiological cancer registries coupled with heterogeneity in death certificate only (DCO) notifications makes it difficult to interpret trends in survival. The aim of our study is to introduce a method for estimating such trends while accounting for heterogeneity in DCO notifications in a cancer site-specific manner. (Source: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology)
Source: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology - January 9, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Stefan Dahm, Joachim Bertz, Benjamin Barnes, Klaus Kraywinkel Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Living systematic reviews, not only for clinical (placebo) research
During a recent placebo research conference at the University of Sydney, Australia (http://sydney.edu.au/medicine/pmri/education/continuing/symposia.php) where I presented a specific research database (www.jips.online) we had constructed over the last decade, I was made aware by Matthew Bagg from the Living Systematic Review Network that our approach mimics some of the elements of living systematic reviews, as they were recently published in this journal [1 –4]. Although this seemed a valid notion that I was not aware of, I was struck by the accompanying editorial [5] asking to expand the approach to guide future res...
Source: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology - January 9, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Paul Enck Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

A mixed linear model controlling for case underascertainment across multiple cancer registries estimated time trends in survival
Large temporal and geographical variation in survival rates estimated from epidemiological cancer registries coupled with heterogeneity in death certificate only (DCO) notifications makes it difficult to interpret trends in survival. The aim of our study is to introduce a method for estimating such trends while accounting for heterogeneity in DCO notifications in a cancer site-specific manner. (Source: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology)
Source: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology - January 9, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Stefan Dahm, Joachim Bertz, Benjamin Barnes, Klaus Kraywinkel Source Type: research

Will the following do 'A mixed linear model controlling for case underascertainment across multiple cancer registries estimated time trends in survival
Large temporal and geographical variation in survival rates estimated from epidemiological cancer registries coupled with heterogeneity in death certificate only (DCO) notifications makes it difficult to interpret trends in survival. The aim of our study is to introduce a method for estimating such trends while accounting for heterogeneity in DCO notifications in a cancer site-specific manner. (Source: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology)
Source: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology - January 9, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Stefan Dahm, Joachim Bertz, Benjamin Barnes, Klaus Kraywinkel Source Type: research

Living systematic reviews, not only for clinical (placebo) research
Living systematic reviews may be of relevance not only for the evaluation of RCT in clinical medicine, but also to foster future basic and translational research in medicine. (Source: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology)
Source: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology - January 9, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Paul Enck Source Type: research