A systematic review of measures estimates adherence and persistence to multiple medications
We reviewed measures used to estimate adherence and persistence to multiple cardiometabolic medications from prescription data, particularly for blood pressure-lowering, lipid-lowering, and/or glucose-lowering medication, and give guidance on which measures to choose. (Source: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology)
Source: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology - December 8, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Sofa D. Alfian, Ivan S. Pradipta, Eelko Hak, Petra Denig Tags: Review Source Type: research

A systematic review finds inconsistency in the measures used to estimate adherence and persistence to multiple cardiometabolic medications
We reviewed measures used to estimate adherence and persistence to multiple cardiometabolic medications from prescription data, particularly for blood pressure-lowering, lipid-lowering, and/or glucose-lowering medication, and give guidance on which measures to choose. (Source: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology)
Source: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology - December 8, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Sofa D. Alfian, Ivan S. Pradipta, Eelko Hak, Petra Denig Tags: Review Source Type: research

Noninferiority drug trials fail to report adequate methodological detail: an assessment of noninferiority trials from 2010 to 2015
Noninferiority (NI) trials are prevalent in many therapeutic areas and are used to evaluate new drugs [1 –4]. When reading NI trials, one must pay special attention to the justification for the NI margin [5,6]. With the NI margin being a key part of NI trial design, any questionable justification for the choice of the NI margin can lead to incorrectly declaring a new drug a reasonable alternative to the current standard therapy. Many comprehensive reviews have assessed the quality of reporting in NI trials and revealed considerable problems in reporting of the justification for NI margins [7–9]. (Source: Journa...
Source: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology - December 7, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Jenny Hong, Anthony Tung, Angus Kinkade, Aaron M. Tejani Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

An overview of statistical methods for handling non-adherence to intervention protocol in randomised control trials (RCTs): A methodological review
To undertake a methodological review of statistical methods used in randomised controlled trials (RCTs) for handling intervention non-adherence. (Source: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology)
Source: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology - December 7, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Mohammod Mostazir, Rod S. Taylor, William Henley, Ed Watkins Tags: Review Source Type: research

Automatic screening using word embeddings achieved high sensitivity and workload reduction for updating living network meta-analyses
We aimed to develop and evaluate an algorithm for automatically screening citations when updating living network meta-analysis (NMA). (Source: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology)
Source: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology - December 7, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Ivan Lerner, Perrine Cr équit, Philippe RAVAUD, Ignacio ATAL Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

The Actor-Partner Interdependence Model in shared decision making: An illustrative example of its application to the physician-patient dyad in primary care consultations
We applied the Actor-Partner Interdependence Model, a method used to evaluate the relationship process between two related persons, to patient/physician data about the effect of shared decision-making behaviors on patient and physician uncertainty. We discuss measurement and interpretation problems. (Source: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology)
Source: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology - December 7, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Authors: St éphane Turcotte, Hubert Robitaille, Louisa Blair, France Légaré Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Racial/Ethnic Disparities in Disease Burden and Costs Related to Exposure to Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals in the US: an Exploratory Analysis
Studies have documented disparities in exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDC), but no studies have investigated potential implications for racial/ethnic disparities in chronic disease and associated costs. Our objective was to examine EDC levels in the US population according to race/ethnicity and to quantify disease burden and associated costs. (Source: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology)
Source: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology - December 7, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Teresa M. Attina, Julia Malits, Mrudula Naidu, Leonardo Trasande Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Non-inferiority drug trials fail to report adequate methodological detail (an assessment of non-inferiority trials from 2010-2015)
(Source: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology)
Source: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology - December 7, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Jenny Hong, Anthony Tung, Angus Kinkade, Aaron M. Tejani Tags: Letter to the editor Source Type: research

The actor –partner interdependence model in shared decision-making: an illustrative example of its application to the physician–patient dyad in primary care consultations
We applied the actor –partner interdependence model, a method used to evaluate the relationship process between two related persons, to patient–physician data about the effect of shared decision-making behaviors on patient and physician uncertainty. We discuss measurement and interpretation problems. (Source: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology)
Source: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology - December 7, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Authors: St éphane Turcotte, Hubert Robitaille, Louisa Blair, France Légaré Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Racial/ethnic disparities in disease burden and costs related to exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals in the United States: an exploratory analysis
Studies have documented disparities in exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDC), but no studies have investigated potential implications for racial/ethnic disparities in chronic disease and associated costs. Our objective was to examine EDC levels in the US population according to race/ethnicity and to quantify disease burden and associated costs. (Source: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology)
Source: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology - December 7, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Teresa M. Attina, Julia Malits, Mrudula Naidu, Leonardo Trasande Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

An overview of statistical methods for handling nonadherence to  intervention protocol in randomized control trials: a methodological review
To undertake a methodological review of statistical methods used in randomized controlled trials (RCTs) for handling intervention nonadherence. (Source: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology)
Source: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology - December 7, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Mohammod Mostazir, Rod S. Taylor, William Henley, Ed Watkins Tags: Review Source Type: research

Improving representation in telephone-based health care access surveys requires purposeful efforts to include prepaid cell phone users
Access to health care and its impact on health status had been at the forefront of American health policy well before the passage of the Affordable Care Act (ACA). Four years after ACA implementation, the American public still rates health care as a top priority [1]. To better understand the impact ACA has upon access to health care (e.g., insurance, primary care, preventive care, unmet medical needs) and health status, states such as California, Colorado, and Ohio, all of which expanded Medicaid to include persons up to 138% of the federal poverty level (FPL) ($28,767 in 2018), conduct surveys of residents to estimate uni...
Source: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology - December 5, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Marcus E. Berzofsky, Caroline B. Scruggs, Bo Lu, Howard Speizer, Timothy Sahr Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

Systematic reviews of clinical practice guidelines: a methodological guide
Systematic reviews (SRs) of clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) are unique knowledge syntheses that require tailored approaches to, and greater subjectivity in, design and execution compared to other SRs in clinical epidemiology. We provide review authors structured direction on how to design and conduct methodologically rigorous SRs of CPGs. (Source: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology)
Source: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology - December 5, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Amy Johnston, Shannon E. Kelly, Shu-Ching Hsieh, Becky Skidmore, George A. Wells Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

GRADE approach to rate the certainty from a network meta-analysis: Addressing Incoherence
This article presents official guidance from the Grading of Recommendations Assessments, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) working group on how to address incoherence when assessing the certainty in the evidence from network meta-analysis. Incoherence represents important differences between direct and indirect estimates that contribute to a network estimate. Bias due to limitations in study design or publication bias, indirectness, and intransitivity may be responsible for incoherence. Addressing incoherence requires a judgment regarding the importance of the impact on the network estimate. (Source: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology)
Source: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology - December 5, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Romina Brignardello-Petersen, Reem A. Mustafa, Reed A.C. Siemieniuk, M. Hassan Murad, Thomas Agoritsas, Ariel Izcovich, Holger J. Sch ünemann, Gordon H. Guyatt, For the GRADE Working Group Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Getting More out of Meta-Analyses- A new approach to meta-analysis in light of unexplained heterogeneity
Meta-analyses sometimes summarize results in the presence of substantial unexplained between-study heterogeneity. As GRADE criteria highlight, unexplained heterogeneity reduces certainty in the evidence, resulting in limited confidence in the extent to which population average effect estimates apply to a specific group of patients. To address this problem, we propose that when researchers apply random-effect models, they should provide an analysis of the distribution of the effect that jointly considers the mean and standard-deviation parameters. (Source: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology)
Source: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology - December 5, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Amit Saad, Daniel Yekutieli, Shaul Lev-Ran, Raz Gross, Gordon Guyatt Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

The dynamics in Health-Related Quality of Life of patients with Stable Coronary Artery Disease were revealed: a network analysis
Health-related quality of Life (HRQoL) is a dynamic construct. Experience sampling methods (ESM) are becoming increasingly popular to capture within-person fluctuations in HRQoL. An emerging approach to analyze such momentary data is network analysis. Our aim was to explore the use of network analysis for investigating the dynamics within individual ’s HRQoL. (Source: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology)
Source: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology - December 5, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Tom H. Oreel, Denny Borsboom, Sacha Epskamp, Iris D. Hartog, Justine E. Netjes, Pythia T. Nieuwkerk, Jos é P.S. Henriques, Michael Scherer-Rath, Hanneke W.M. van Laarhoven, Mirjam A.G. Sprangers Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Conflict of interest is not associated with positive conclusions in toothpaste trials: a systematic survey
(Source: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology)
Source: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology - December 5, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Carolina C. Martins, John J. Riva, Ramon T. Firmino, Luis E. Colunga-Lozano, Ana Fl ávia Granville-Garcia, Yuan Zhang, Holger J. Schünemann Tags: Letter to the editor Source Type: research

Improving Representation in Telephone-based Healthcare Access Surveys Requires Purposeful Efforts to Include Prepaid Cellphone Users
(Source: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology)
Source: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology - December 5, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Marcus E. Berzofsky, Caroline B. Scruggs, Bo Lu, Howard Speizer, Timothy Sahr Tags: Letter to the editor Source Type: research

Getting more out of meta-analyses: a new approach to meta-analysis in light of unexplained heterogeneity
Meta-analyses sometimes summarize results in the presence of substantial unexplained between-study heterogeneity. As GRADE criteria highlight, unexplained heterogeneity reduces certainty in the evidence, resulting in limited confidence in average effect estimates. The aim of this paper is to provide a new clinically useful approach to estimating an intervention effect in light of unexplained heterogeneity. (Source: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology)
Source: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology - December 5, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Amit Saad, Daniel Yekutieli, Shaul Lev-Ran, Raz Gross, Gordon Guyatt Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Cover 2 Editorial Board
(Source: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology)
Source: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology - December 4, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Table of Contents
(Source: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology)
Source: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology - December 4, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Multimorbidity and Comorbidity are now separate MESH headings
Nicholson et  al. in a commentary point out that confusion continues within clinical epidemiology articles and elsewhere as to how to reliably distinguish between ‘comorbidity’ and ‘multimorbidity’. Although differentiated in a paper by van der Akker (AK was an author) [1], only now in January 2018 has MeSH designated definitions and a different classification term for multimorbidity, distinct from comorbidity. Nicholson et al. re-emphasize that this is more than a semantic difference. While both terms focus on the occurrence of multiple chronic conditions within the same individual, the t...
Source: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology - December 4, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Peter Tugwell, J. Andr é Knottnerus Tags: Editorial Source Type: research

The Shrinking Scope of Pragmatic Trials: A Methodological Reflection on their Domain of Applicability
(Source: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology)
Source: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology - November 27, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Ray Pawson Tags: Review Source Type: research

Quality of stepped-wedge trial reporting can be reliably assessed using an updated CONSORT: crowd-sourcing systematic review
The Consolidated Standards Of Reporting Trials (CONSORT) extension for the stepped-wedge cluster randomised trial (SW-CRT) is a recently published reporting guideline for SW-CRTs. We assess the quality of reporting of a recent sample of SW-CRTs according to the 26 items in the new guideline using a novel crowd sourcing methodology conducted independently and in duplicate, with random assignment, by 50 reviewers. We assessed reliability of the quality assessments, proposing this as a novel way to assess robustness of items in reporting guidelines. (Source: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology)
Source: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology - November 27, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Authors: K. Hemming, K. Carroll, J. Thompson, A. Forbes, M. Taljaard, the SW-CRT review group Tags: Review Source Type: research

Hybrid models were found to be very elegant to disentangle longitudinal within and between subject relationships
The interpretation of a regression coefficient obtained from a longitudinal data analysis is a combination of a within subject part and a between subject part. The hybrid model is used to disentangle the two components. The purpose of this paper is to illustrate and discuss the use of the hybrid model in epidemiological studies. (Source: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology)
Source: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology - November 27, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Jos WR. Twisk, Wieke de Vente Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Quality of stepped-wedge trial reporting can be reliably assessed using an  updated CONSORT: crowd-sourcing systematic review
The Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials extension for the stepped-wedge cluster randomized trial (SW-CRT) is a recently published reporting guideline for SW-CRTs. We assess the quality of reporting of a recent sample of SW-CRTs. (Source: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology)
Source: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology - November 27, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Karla Hemming, Kelly Carroll, Jennifer Thompson, Andrew Forbes, Monica Taljaard, The SW-CRT Review Group Tags: Review Source Type: research

Hybrid models were found to be very elegant to disentangle longitudinal within- and between-subject relationships
The interpretation of a regression coefficient obtained from a longitudinal data analysis is a combination of a within-subject part and a between-subject part. The hybrid model is used to disentangle the two components. The purpose of this article was to illustrate and discuss the use of the hybrid model in epidemiologic studies. (Source: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology)
Source: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology - November 27, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Jos W.R. Twisk, Wieke de Vente Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Sample size calculations need to be adequate and parsimonious
(Source: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology)
Source: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology - November 26, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Bruno Mario Cesana, Paolo Antonelli Tags: Letter to the editor Source Type: research

Re: reply to letter by B. D. McCullough regarding Walter N. Kernan, Catherine M. Viscoli, Robert W. Makuch, Lawrence M. Brass, and Ralph  I. Horwitz (1999), “stratified randomization for clinical trials,” Journal of Clinical Epidemiology 52 (1), 19–26
Thank you for inviting our reply to the letter by Dr.  McCullough regarding our review of stratified randomization for clinical trials, which was published almost 20 years ago in JCE [1]. We are delighted that this article is still finding an audience but chagrined that Dr. McCullough has found an error in Table 1. (Source: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology)
Source: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology - November 19, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Walter N. Kernan, Catherine M. Viscoli, Ralph I. Horwitz Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

Reply to letter by B. D. McCullough regarding Kernan, Walter N., Catherine M. Viscoli, Robert W. Makuch, Lawrence M. Brass, and Ralph I. Horwitz (1999), “Stratified Randomization for Clinical Trials,” Journal of Clinical Epidemiology 52(1), 19-26
(Source: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology)
Source: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology - November 19, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Walter N. Kernan, Catherine M. Viscoli, Ralph I. Horwitz Tags: Letter to the editor Source Type: research

An Error in An Old Paper Illustrates the Need for Data/Code Archives - Author response
Thank you for inviting our reply to the letter by Dr.  McCullough regarding our review of stratified randomization for clinical trials, which was published almost 20 years ago in JCE [1]. We are delighted that this article is still finding an audience but chagrined that Dr. McCullough has found an error in Table 1. (Source: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology)
Source: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology - November 19, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Walter N. Kernan, Catherine M. Viscoli, Ralph I. Horwitz Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

Systematic review showed that stepped wedge cluster randomized trials often did not reach their planned sample size
To determine, how often stepped wedge cluster randomized controlled trials reach their planned sample size, and what reasons are reported for choosing a stepped wedge trial design. (Source: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology)
Source: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology - November 17, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Felizitas A. Eichner, Rolf HH. Groenwold, Diederick E. Grobbee, Katrien Oude Rengerink Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Generalizability of findings from Randomized Controlled Trials is limited in the Leading General Medical Journals
To document reporting of study characteristics of RCTs in the four leading general medical journals ; and to appraise the generalizability of the evidence. (Source: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology)
Source: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology - November 17, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Antti Malmivaara Tags: Review Source Type: research

“An Error in An Old Paper Illustrates the Need for Data/Code Archives”
(Source: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology)
Source: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology - November 17, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Authors: B.D. McCullough Tags: Letter to the editor Source Type: research

Stratification by quality induced selection bias in a meta-analysis of clinical trials
This study examines if restricting primary meta-analyses to studies at low risk of bias or presenting meta-analyses stratified according to risk of bias is indeed the right approach to explore potential methodological bias. (Source: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology)
Source: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology - November 17, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Jennifer Stone, Usha Gurunathan, Kathryn Glass, Zachary Munn, Peter Tugwell, Suhail A.R. Doi Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Randomised trial seeking to induce the Hawthorne effect found no evidence for any effect on self-reported alcohol consumption online
We tested the hypothesis that participants who know the behavioural focus of a study and are thus aware that a particular behaviour is being studied, will modify that behaviour, independently of any possible effect of assessment, thereby dismantling a Hawthorne effect into two putative components. (Source: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology)
Source: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology - November 17, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Jim McCambridge, Amanda Wilson, John Attia, Natasha Weaver, Kypros Kypri Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Randomized trial seeking to induce the Hawthorne effect found no evidence for any effect on self-reported alcohol consumption online
We tested the hypothesis that participants who know the behavioral focus of a study and are thus aware that a particular behavior is being studied will modify that behavior, independently of any possible effect of assessment, thereby dismantling a Hawthorne effect into two putative components. (Source: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology)
Source: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology - November 17, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Jim McCambridge, Amanda Wilson, John Attia, Natasha Weaver, Kypros Kypri Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Systematic review showed that stepped-wedge cluster randomized trials often did not reach their planned sample size
To determine how often stepped-wedge cluster randomized controlled trials reach their planned sample size, and what reasons are reported for choosing a stepped-wedge trial design. (Source: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology)
Source: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology - November 17, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Felizitas A. Eichner, Rolf H.H. Groenwold, Diederick E. Grobbee, Katrien Oude Rengerink Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Analyzing excess risk from matched designs with double controls: author's response
Tedeschi provides a thoughtful perspective on the interpretation and calculation of excess risk. We largely agree, and this was our rationale for raising the caution that excess risk is easily misinterpreted [1]. This was also our reason for providing a detailed exposition and concrete example to help explain the distinction to a larger audience of general medical readers. By contrast, clinical research studies sometimes publish findings expressed solely as an excess risk without fully considering these concerns [2]. (Source: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology)
Source: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology - November 16, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Donald A. Redelmeier, Robert J. Tibshirani Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

Analyzing Excess Risk from Matched Designs with Double Controls: Author response
(Source: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology)
Source: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology - November 16, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Donald Redelmeier, Robert J. Tibshirani Source Type: research

Issues in interpreting and estimating the excess risk in case of count data
(Source: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology)
Source: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology - November 14, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Federico Tedeschi Tags: Letter to the editor Source Type: research

The methodological quality of dose-response meta-analyses needed substantial improvement: A cross-sectional survey and proposed recommendations
To investigate methodological quality of published dose-response meta-analysis (DRMA) and explore study characteristics associated with the quality. (Source: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology)
Source: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology - November 13, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Chang Xu, Yu Liu, Peng-Li Jia, Ling Li, Tong-Zu Liu, Liang-Liang Cheng, Ke Deng, A.S.M. Borhan, Lehana Thabane, Xin Sun Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Randomised trials involving surgery did not routinely report considerations of learning and clustering effects
To establish current practice of the management of learning and clustering effects, by treating centre and surgeon, in the design and analysis of randomised surgical trials. (Source: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology)
Source: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology - November 12, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Elizabeth J. Conroy, Anna Rosala-Hallas, Jane M. Blazeby, Girvan Burnside, Jonathan A. Cook, Carrol Gamble Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

The TRIP database showed most Acute Respiratory Infections questions were already addressed by Cochrane reviews
Cochrane systematic reviews require more methodological support from Cochrane Review Groups (CRGs) than is customary in journals, CRGs must prioritise reviews to conserve resources. The TRIP database provided a dataset of questions to guide prioritization for the Acute Respiratory Infections (ARI) CRG. (Source: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology)
Source: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology - November 12, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Justin Clark, Matt Carter, Anna Mae Scott, Jon Brassey, Chris Del Mar Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Randomized trials involving surgery did not routinely report considerations of learning and clustering effects
To establish current practice of the management of learning and clustering effects, by treating center and surgeon, in the design and analysis of randomized surgical trials. (Source: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology)
Source: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology - November 12, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Elizabeth J. Conroy, Anna Rosala-Hallas, Jane M. Blazeby, Girvan Burnside, Jonathan A. Cook, Carrol Gamble Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Response to letter to editor “Only ITT analysis provides information about the actual effects of a health policy”
We thank Bender et  al for their reply and will briefly provide some comments. With its firm focus on internal validity, a randomized controlled trial (RCT) is first and foremost used to estimate intervention effects. Why else use such a firm design? In our reply to the original letter, we merely argued that under th e assumption of noncompliance bias, that is first, incomplete participation, and second, differences between actual participants and nonparticipants, then a complier average causal effect (CACE) analysis will provide a less-biased estimate of the intervention effects (not the population effects) tha n an ...
Source: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology - November 10, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Lars Bruun Larsen, Trine Thilsing, Jens Sondergaard, Anne-Louise Bjerregaard Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

Marginal structural models and other analyses allow multiple estimates of treatment effects in randomized clinical trials: meta-epidemiological analysis
To determine how marginal structural models (MSMs), which are increasingly used to estimate causal effects, are used in randomized clinical trials (RCTs) and compare their results with those from intention-to-treat (ITT) or other analyses. (Source: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology)
Source: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology - November 10, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Hannah Ewald, Benjamin Speich, Aviv Ladanie, Heiner C. Bucher, John PA. Ioannidis, Lars G. Hemkens Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

“Only ITT analysis provides information about the actual effects of a health policy”
(Source: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology)
Source: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology - November 10, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Lars Bruun Larsen, Trine Thilsing, Jens Sondergaard, Anne-Louise Bjerregaard Tags: Letter to the editor Source Type: research

A cross-sectional bibliometric study showed suboptimal journal endorsement rates of STROBE and its extensions
The STrengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) Statement provides guidance on reporting observational studies. Many extensions have been created for specialized methods or fields. We determined endorsement prevalence and typology by journals in extension-related fields. (Source: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology)
Source: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology - November 10, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Melissa K. Sharp, Ru žica Tokalić, Guadalupe Gómez, Elizabeth Wager, Douglas G. Altman, Darko Hren Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Model Based Economic Evaluations of Diagnostic Point of Care Tests Were Rarely Fit for Purpose
Linked evidence models are recommended to predict health benefits and cost-effectiveness of diagnostic tests. We considered how published models accounted for changes in patient pathways that occur with point of care tests (POCTs), and their impact of on patient health and costs. (Source: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology)
Source: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology - November 10, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Katie Breheny, Andrew J. Sutton, Jonathan J. Deeks Tags: Original Article Source Type: research