Genetic risk score for adult body mass index associations with childhood and adolescent weight gain in an African population
ConclusionsThe results suggest that genetic susceptibility to higher adult BMI can be tracked from childhood in this African population. This supports the notion that prevention of adult obesity should begin early in life. The genetic risk score combined with other non-genetic risk factors, such as BMI trajectory membership in our case, has the potential to be used to screen for early identification of individuals at increased risk of obesity and other related NCD risk factors in order to reduce the adverse health risk outcomes later. (Source: Genes and Nutrition)
Source: Genes and Nutrition - August 1, 2018 Category: Nutrition Source Type: research

High nutrient intake during the early postnatal period accelerates skeletal muscle fiber growth and maturity in intrauterine growth-restricted pigs
ConclusionThe present findings suggest that high nutrient intake during the suckling period could improve skeletal muscle growth and maturity, which is associated with increasing the expression of protein deposition-related genes and accelerating the development of glycolytic-type myofiber in pigs. (Source: Genes and Nutrition)
Source: Genes and Nutrition - July 27, 2018 Category: Nutrition Source Type: research

Biomarkers of food intake for cocoa and liquorice (products): a systematic review
ConclusionsFor cocoa, specific BFIs were missing, mainly because the individual BFIs were also found in foods having a similar composition, such as tea (polyphenols) or coffee (caffeine). However, a combination of individual BFIs might lead to discriminating profiles between cocoa (products) and foods with a similar composition. Therefore, studies directly comparing the consumption of cocoa to these similar products are needed, enabling efforts to find a unique profile per product. For liquorice, we identified 18-GA as a promising BFI; however, important information on its validity is missing; thus, more research is necess...
Source: Genes and Nutrition - July 27, 2018 Category: Nutrition Source Type: research

Betaine reduces β-amyloid-induced paralysis through activation of cystathionine-β-synthase in an Alzheimer model of Caenorhabditis elegans
ConclusionOur studies show that betaine is able to reduce homocysteine levels and β-amyloid-induced toxicity in aC. elegans model for Alzheimer ’s disease. This effect is independent of the remethylation pathway but requires the transsulfuration pathway mediated by cystathionine-β-synthase. (Source: Genes and Nutrition)
Source: Genes and Nutrition - July 27, 2018 Category: Nutrition Source Type: research

Genetic polymorphism in selenoprotein P modifies the response to selenium-rich foods on blood levels of selenium and selenoprotein P in a randomized dietary intervention study in Danes
ConclusionsOur study indicates that genetically determined variation inSELENOP leads to different responses in expression of selenoproteins following consumption of selenium-rich foods. This study also emphasizes the importance of taking individual aspects such as genotypes into consideration when assessing risk in public health recommendations. (Source: Genes and Nutrition)
Source: Genes and Nutrition - July 13, 2018 Category: Nutrition Source Type: research

Optimal vitamin D spurs serotonin: 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D represses serotonin reuptake transport ( SERT ) and degradation ( MAO-A ) gene expression in cultured rat serotonergic neuronal cell lines
ConclusionsThese results are consistent with the concept that vitamin D maintains extracellular fluid serotonin concentrations in the brain, thereby offering an explanation for how vitamin D could influence the trajectory and development of neuropsychiatric disorders. Given the profile of gene regulation in cultured RN46A-B14 serotonergic neurons, we conclude that 1,25D acts not only to induce serotonin synthesis, but also functions at an indirect, molecular-genomic stage to mimic SSRIs and MAO inhibitors, likely elevating serotonin in the CNS. These data suggest that optimal vitamin D status may contribute to improving be...
Source: Genes and Nutrition - July 11, 2018 Category: Nutrition Source Type: research

Metabolic transition of milk triacylglycerol synthesis in response to varying levels of palmitate in porcine mammary epithelial cells
ConclusionsResults from this study suggest that palmitate stimulated the cytosolic TAG accumulation in pMECs, probably by promoting lipogenic genes and proteins that are involved in lipid synthesis. However, addition of palmitate decreased the fatty acid de novo synthesis in pMECs. (Source: Genes and Nutrition)
Source: Genes and Nutrition - July 6, 2018 Category: Nutrition Source Type: research

Exploring the cellular network of metabolic flexibility in the adipose tissue
ConclusionWe have constructed an abstracted network covering glucose and fatty acid oxidation, as well as thePDC-PDK regulatory switch. In addition, we have shown how the network can be used for data visualisation and as a resource for follow-up studies. (Source: Genes and Nutrition)
Source: Genes and Nutrition - July 5, 2018 Category: Nutrition Source Type: research

Correction to: Plasma fatty acid levels and gene expression related to lipid metabolism in peripheral blood mononuclear cells: a cross-sectional study in healthy subjects
Unfortunately, after publication of this article [1], it was noticed that some corrections to Table 2 were not carried out. The corrected Table 2 can be seen below and the original article has also been updated to reflect this. (Source: Genes and Nutrition)
Source: Genes and Nutrition - July 5, 2018 Category: Nutrition Source Type: research

Biomarkers of intake for coffee, tea, and sweetened beverages
AbstractNon-alcoholic beverages are important sources of nutrients and bioactive compounds that may influence human health and increase or decrease the risk of chronic diseases. A wide variety of beverage constituents are absorbed in the gut, found in the systemic circulation and excreted in urine. They may be used as compliance markers in intervention studies or as biomarkers of intake to improve measurements of beverage consumption in cohort studies and reveal new associations with disease outcomes that may have been overlooked when using dietary questionnaires. Here, biomarkers of intake of some major non-alcoholic beve...
Source: Genes and Nutrition - July 4, 2018 Category: Nutrition Source Type: research

Validation of biomarkers of food intake —critical assessment of candidate biomarkers
AbstractBiomarkers of food intake (BFIs) are a promising tool for limiting misclassification in nutrition research where more subjective dietary assessment instruments are used. They may also be used to assess compliance to dietary guidelines or to a dietary intervention. Biomarkers therefore hold promise for direct and objective measurement of food intake. However, the number of comprehensively validated biomarkers of food intake is limited to just a few. Many new candidate biomarkers emerge from metabolic profiling studies and from advances in food chemistry. Furthermore, candidate food intake biomarkers may also be iden...
Source: Genes and Nutrition - May 30, 2018 Category: Nutrition Source Type: research

Dietary and genetic risk scores and incidence of type 2 diabetes
ConclusionsThe findings thus show that both genetic heredity and dietary habits previously associated with T2D add to the risk of T2D, but they seem to act in an independent fashion, with the consequence that all individuals, whether at high or low genetic risk, would benefit from favourable food choices. (Source: Genes and Nutrition)
Source: Genes and Nutrition - May 16, 2018 Category: Nutrition Source Type: research

Investigation of the influence of high glucose on molecular and genetic responses: an in vitro study using a human intestine model
AbstractBackgroundDietary glucose consumption has increased worldwide. Long-term high glucose intake contributes to the development of obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Obese people tend to eat glucose-containing foods, which can lead to an addiction to glucose, increased glucose levels in the blood and intestine lumen, and exposure of intestinal enterocytes to high dietary glucose. Recent studies have documented a role for enterocytes in glucose sensing. However, the molecular and genetic relationship between high glucose levels and intestinal enterocytes has not been determined. We aimed to identify relevant t...
Source: Genes and Nutrition - April 30, 2018 Category: Nutrition Source Type: research

ONS: an ontology for a standardized description of interventions and observational studies in nutrition
ConclusionsThe ONS is the first systematic effort to provide a solid and extensible formal ontology framework for nutritional studies. Integration of new information can be easily achieved by the addition of extra modules (i.e., nutrigenomics, metabolomics, nutrikinetics, and quality appraisal). The ONS provides a unified and standardized terminology for nutritional studies as a resource for nutrition researchers who might not necessarily be familiar with ontologies and standardization concepts. (Source: Genes and Nutrition)
Source: Genes and Nutrition - April 30, 2018 Category: Nutrition Source Type: research

Plasma fatty acid levels and gene expression related to lipid metabolism in peripheral blood mononuclear cells: a cross-sectional study in healthy subjects
ConclusionGenes involved in lipid metabolism were differentially expressed in PBMCs depending on the plasma fatty acid levels. This finding may increase our understanding of how fatty acids influence lipid metabolism at a molecular level in humans. (Source: Genes and Nutrition)
Source: Genes and Nutrition - April 10, 2018 Category: Nutrition Source Type: research

Effect of β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate on miRNA expression in differentiating equine satellite cells exposed to hydrogen peroxide
ConclusionsOur results suggest that ESC pre-incubated with HMB and exposed to H2O2 could affect expression on miRNA levels responsible for skeletal muscle development, cell proliferation and differentiation, and activation of tissue repair after injury. Enrichment analyses for targeted genes revealed that a large group of genes was associated with the regulation of signaling pathways crucial for muscle tissue development, protein metabolism, muscle injury, and regeneration, as well as with oxidative stress response. (Source: Genes and Nutrition)
Source: Genes and Nutrition - April 10, 2018 Category: Nutrition Source Type: research

Omega-3 fatty acid DHA modulates p53, survivin, and microRNA-16-1 expression in KRAS-mutant colorectal cancer stem-like cells
ConclusionWt-p53, survivin, and microRNA-16-1 appear to be promising molecular targets of DHA. Thus, DHA might represent an attractive anti-tumor agent directed against KRAS-mutant CCSCs. (Source: Genes and Nutrition)
Source: Genes and Nutrition - April 2, 2018 Category: Nutrition Source Type: research

Analysis of circulating angiopoietin-like protein 3 and genetic variants in lipid metabolism and liver health: the DiOGenes study
ConclusionWe clarify the link between circulating levels of ANGPTL3 and specific markers of liver function. We demonstrate that changes in ANGPLT3 and CK-18 during LCD are under genetic control fromtrans-acting variants. Our results suggest an extended function of ANGPTL3 in the inflammatory state of liver steatosis and toward liver metabolic processes. (Source: Genes and Nutrition)
Source: Genes and Nutrition - April 2, 2018 Category: Nutrition Source Type: research

High-fat diet modifies expression of hepatic cellular senescence gene p16(INK4a) through chromatin modifications in adult male rats
ConclusionsOur study demonstrated that HF diet regulated cellular senescence marker p16(INK4a) through chromatin modifications, which may promote hepatic fat accumulation and steatosis. (Source: Genes and Nutrition)
Source: Genes and Nutrition - March 14, 2018 Category: Nutrition Source Type: research

Studying microbial functionality within the gut ecosystem by systems biology
AbstractHumans are not autonomous entities. We are all living in a complex environment, interacting not only with our peers, but as true holobionts; we are also very much in interaction with our coexisting microbial ecosystems living on and especially within us, in the intestine. Intestinal microorganisms, often collectively referred to as intestinal microbiota, contribute significantly to our daily energy uptake by breaking down complex carbohydrates into simple sugars, which are fermented to short-chain fatty acids and subsequently absorbed by human cells. They also have an impact on our immune system, by suppressing or ...
Source: Genes and Nutrition - March 6, 2018 Category: Nutrition Source Type: research

FTO genotype, dietary protein intake, and body weight in a multiethnic population of young adults: a cross-sectional study
AbstractBackgroundVariation in the fat mass and obesity-associated gene (FTO) has been associated with susceptibility to obesity, but the association appears to be modified by diet. We investigated whether dietary protein intake modifies the association betweenFTO variant rs1558902 and body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference in young adults (n = 1491) from the cross-sectional Toronto Nutrigenomics and Health Study.ResultsLifestyle, genetic, anthropometric, and biochemical data were collected and diet was assessed using a Toronto-modified Willett Food Frequency Questionnaire. General linear models strati...
Source: Genes and Nutrition - February 20, 2018 Category: Nutrition Source Type: research

Guidelines for Biomarker of Food Intake Reviews (BFIRev): how to conduct an extensive literature search for biomarker of food intake discovery
AbstractIdentification of new biomarkers of food and nutrient intake has developed fast over the past two decades and could potentially provide important new tools for compliance monitoring and dietary intake assessment in nutrition and health science. In recent years, metabolomics has played an important role in identifying a large number of putative biomarkers of food intake (BFIs). However, the large body of scientific literature on potential BFIs outside the metabolomics area should also be taken into account. In particular, we believe that extensive literature reviews should be conducted and that the quality of all su...
Source: Genes and Nutrition - February 20, 2018 Category: Nutrition Source Type: research

An update on vitamin B12-related gene polymorphisms and B12 status
The objective of this literature review was to identify and discuss reports of associations between single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in vitamin B12 pathway genes and their influence on the circulating levels of vitamin B12.MethodsRelevant articles were obtained through a literature search on PubMed through to May 2017. An article was included if it examined an association of a SNP with serum or plasma vitamin B12 concentration. Beta coefficients and odds ratios were used to describe the strength of an association, and aP 
Source: Genes and Nutrition - February 6, 2018 Category: Nutrition Source Type: research

Genetic polymorphisms of antioxidant enzymes CAT and SOD affect the outcome of clinical, biochemical, and anthropometric variables in people with obesity under a dietary intervention
AbstractBackgroundGenetic polymorphisms of antioxidant enzymes CAT, GPX, and SOD are involved in the etiology of obesity and its principal comorbidities. The aim of the present study was to analyze the effect of aforementioned SNPs over the output of several variables in people with obesity after a nutritional intervention. The study included 92 Mexican women, which received a dietary intervention by 3  months. Participants were genotyped and stratified into two groups: (1) carriers; mutated homozygous plus heterozygous (CR) and (2) homozygous wild type (WT). A comparison between CR and WT was done in clinical (CV), b...
Source: Genes and Nutrition - January 8, 2018 Category: Nutrition Source Type: research

Proposed guidelines to evaluate scientific validity and evidence for genotype-based dietary advice
AbstractNutrigenetic research examines the effects of inter-individual differences in genotype on responses to nutrients and other food components, in the context of health and of nutrient requirements. A practical application of nutrigenetics is the use of personal genetic information to guide recommendations for dietary choices that are more efficacious at the individual or genetic subgroup level relative to generic dietary advice. Nutrigenetics is unregulated, with no defined standards, beyond some commercially adopted codes of practice. Only a few official nutrition-related professional bodies have embraced the subject...
Source: Genes and Nutrition - December 15, 2017 Category: Nutrition Source Type: research

A scheme for a flexible classification of dietary and health biomarkers
AbstractBiomarkers are an efficient means to examine intakes or exposures and their biological effects and to assess system susceptibility. Aided by novel profiling technologies, the biomarker research field is undergoing rapid development and new putative biomarkers are continuously emerging in the scientific literature. However, the existing concepts for classification of biomarkers in the dietary and health area may be ambiguous, leading to uncertainty about their application. In order to better understand the potential of biomarkers and to communicate their use and application, it is imperative to have a solid scheme f...
Source: Genes and Nutrition - December 12, 2017 Category: Nutrition Source Type: research

Fructose ingestion impairs expression of genes involved in skeletal muscle ’s adaptive response to aerobic exercise
ConclusionsOur results show that fructose ingestion impairs the expression of genes involved in biological processes relevant to exercise-induced remodeling of skeletal muscle. This might provide novel insight on how a dietary factor contributes to the genesis of disorders of glucose metabolism. (Source: Genes and Nutrition)
Source: Genes and Nutrition - December 8, 2017 Category: Nutrition Source Type: research

Ranges of phenotypic flexibility in healthy subjects
ConclusionThe results of the metabolic PhenFlex test in conjunction with the health space reliably assessed health on an individual basis. This quantification can be used in the future for personalized health quantification and advice. (Source: Genes and Nutrition)
Source: Genes and Nutrition - December 6, 2017 Category: Nutrition Source Type: research

Synbiotic effects of β-glucans from cauliflower mushroom and Lactobacillus fermentum on metabolic changes and gut microbiome in estrogen-deficient rats
ConclusionOVX changed gut microbiota and was associated with menopausal symptoms; however, the synbiotics, CFM and LFE, prevented menopausal symptoms and improved the gut microbiota in estrogen-deficient rats. (Source: Genes and Nutrition)
Source: Genes and Nutrition - November 9, 2017 Category: Nutrition Source Type: research

A prospective study of dietary and supplemental zinc intake and risk of type 2 diabetes depending on genetic variation in SLC30A8
AbstractBackgroundThe solute carrier family 30 member 8 gene (SLC30A8) encodes a zinc transporter in the pancreatic beta cells and the major C-allele of a missense variant (rs13266634; C/T; R325W) inSLC30A8 is associated with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D). We hypothesized that the association between zinc intake and T2D may be modified by theSLC30A8 genotype.ResultsWe carried out a prospective study among subjects with no history cardio-metabolic diseases in the Malm ö Diet and Cancer Study cohort (N = 26,132, 38% men; 86% with genotype data). Zinc intake was assessed using a diet questionnaire ...
Source: Genes and Nutrition - October 30, 2017 Category: Nutrition Source Type: research

Gene-nutrient interactions and susceptibility to human obesity
The objective of this review article is to provide concise and updated information on energy balance, heritability of body weight, origins of gene variants, and gene-nutrient interactions in relation to human obesity. It is proposed that knowledge of these related topics will provide valuable insight for future preventative lifestyle intervention using targeted nutritional and medicinal therapies. (Source: Genes and Nutrition)
Source: Genes and Nutrition - October 30, 2017 Category: Nutrition Source Type: research

Impact of supplementation with a food-derived microbial community on obesity-associated inflammation and gut microbiota composition
ConclusionsTaken together, these results indicate a protective effect of MBC microbiota supplementation toward HFD-induced fat accumulation and triglyceride and cholesterol levels, as well as inflammation, suggesting a stronger effect of a mixed microbial consortium vs single-strain probiotic supplementation. The immunomodulatory activity exerted by the MBC microbiota could be due to synergistic interactions within the microbial consortium, highlighting the important role of dietary microbes with yet uncharacterised probiotic effect. (Source: Genes and Nutrition)
Source: Genes and Nutrition - October 4, 2017 Category: Nutrition Source Type: research

Does dietary fat affect inflammatory markers in overweight and obese individuals? —a review of randomized controlled trials from 2010 to 2016
ConclusionMost interventions showed either no or minor effects of dietary fat intake on inflammatory markers in overweight and obese subjects. To progress our understanding on how diet and dietary components affect our health, mechanistic studies are required. Hence, future studies should include whole diets and characterization of obese phenotypes at a molecular level, including omics data and gut microbiota. (Source: Genes and Nutrition)
Source: Genes and Nutrition - October 4, 2017 Category: Nutrition Source Type: research

Amino acid supplements and metabolic health: a potential interplay between intestinal microbiota and systems control
AbstractDietary supplementation of essential amino acids (EAAs) has been shown to promote healthspan. EAAs regulate, in fact, glucose and lipid metabolism and energy balance, increase mitochondrial biogenesis, and maintain immune homeostasis. Basic science and epidemiological results indicate that dietary macronutrient composition affects healthspan through multiple and integrated mechanisms, and their effects are closely related to the metabolic status to which they act. In particular, EAA supplementation can trigger different and even opposite effects depending on the catabolic and anabolic states of the organisms. Among...
Source: Genes and Nutrition - October 4, 2017 Category: Nutrition Source Type: research

Ancestors ’ dietary patterns and environments could drive positive selection in genes involved in micronutrient metabolism—the case of cofactor transporters
ConclusionsThese findings could support the importance of considering individual ’s genetic makeup along with their metabolic profile when tailoring personalized dietary interventions for optimizing health. (Source: Genes and Nutrition)
Source: Genes and Nutrition - October 4, 2017 Category: Nutrition Source Type: research

Dietary and health biomarkers —time for an update
AbstractIn the dietary and health research area, biomarkers are extensively used for multiple purposes. These include biomarkers of dietary intake and nutrient status, biomarkers used to measure the biological effects of specific dietary components, and biomarkers to assess the effects of diet on health. The implementation of biomarkers in nutritional research will be important to improve measurements of dietary intake, exposure to specific dietary components, and of compliance to dietary interventions. Biomarkers could also help with improved characterization of nutritional status in study volunteers and to provide much m...
Source: Genes and Nutrition - September 29, 2017 Category: Nutrition Source Type: research

Role of microRNAs in obesity and obesity-related diseases
AbstractIn recent years, the link between regulatory microRNAs (miRNAs) and diseases has been the object of intensive research. miRNAs have emerged as key mediators of metabolic processes, playing crucial roles in maintaining/altering physiological processes, including energy balance and metabolic homeostasis. Altered miRNAs expression has been reported in association with obesity, both in animal and human studies. Dysregulation of miRNAs may affect the status and functions of different tissues and organs, including the adipose tissue, pancreas, liver, and muscle, possibly contributing to metabolic abnormalities associated...
Source: Genes and Nutrition - September 25, 2017 Category: Nutrition Source Type: research

Short-term dietary methionine supplementation affects one-carbon metabolism and DNA methylation in the mouse gut and leads to altered microbiome profiles, barrier function, gene expression and histomorphology
AbstractBackgroundMethionine, a central molecule in one-carbon metabolism, is an essential amino acid required for normal growth and development. Despite its importance to biological systems, methionine is toxic when administered at supra-physiological levels. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of short-term methionine dietary modulation on the proximal jejunum, the section of the gut specifically responsible for amino acid absorption, in a mouse model. Eight-week-old CBA/J male mice were fed methionine-adequate (MAD; 6.5  g/kg) or methionine-supplemented (MSD; 19.5 g/kg) diets for 3.5 or 6 ...
Source: Genes and Nutrition - September 6, 2017 Category: Nutrition Source Type: research

Multi-parameter comparison of a standardized mixed meal tolerance test in healthy and type 2 diabetic subjects: the PhenFlex challenge
ConclusionThe PFT enables the quantification of all relevant metabolic processes involved in maintaining or regaining homeostasis of metabolic health. Studying both healthy subjects and subjects with impaired metabolic health showed that the PFT revealed new processes laying underneath health. This study provides the first evidence towards adopting the PFT as gold standard in nutrition research. (Source: Genes and Nutrition)
Source: Genes and Nutrition - August 29, 2017 Category: Nutrition Source Type: research

Lactase persistence in Tunisia as a result of admixture with other Mediterranean populations
ConclusionsOur study provided a first report of LP-associated alleles and haplotypes in the Tunisian population. We highlighted a gradient followed by LP diffusion from Europe to North Africa. Based on the rich historic background of Tunisia, we suggest that this adaptive trait was introduced in that geographic region by a relatively recent gene flow. (Source: Genes and Nutrition)
Source: Genes and Nutrition - August 24, 2017 Category: Nutrition Source Type: research

Formidable challenges to the notion of biologically important roles for dietary small RNAs in ingesting mammals
AbstractThe notion of uptake of active diet-derived small RNAs (sRNAs) in recipient organisms could have significant implications for our understanding of oral therapeutics and nutrition, for the safe use of RNA interference (RNAi) in agricultural biotechnology, and for ecological relationships. Yet, the transfer and subsequent regulation of gene activity by diet-derived sRNAs in ingesting mammals are still heavily debated. Here, we synthesize current information based on multiple independent studies of mammals, invertebrates, and plants. Rigorous assessment of these data emphasize that uptake of active dietary sRNAs is ne...
Source: Genes and Nutrition - July 7, 2017 Category: Nutrition Source Type: research

Bioavailability of transgenic microRNAs in genetically modified plants
ConclusionsThese preliminary results imply digestive stability and high expression levels of miRNAs in plants do not readily equate to bioavailability. This initial work suggests novel engineering strategies be employed to enhance miRNA bioavailability when attempting to use transgenic foods as a delivery platform. (Source: Genes and Nutrition)
Source: Genes and Nutrition - July 7, 2017 Category: Nutrition Source Type: research

Examining for an association between candidate gene polymorphisms in the metabolic syndrome components on excess weight and adiposity measures in youth: a cross-sectional study
ConclusionsOur observation suggests that AGT-rs699 and FTO-rs17817449 variants may contribute to the risk development of excess weight and an increase in the BMI, while IRS2-rs1805097 showed a protector effect; in addition, UCP3- rs1800849 showed a decreasing waist circumference. Socioeconomic and perinatal factors had no effect on the associations of the candidate gene. (Source: Genes and Nutrition)
Source: Genes and Nutrition - July 4, 2017 Category: Nutrition Source Type: research

Diet-derived microRNAs: unicorn or silver bullet?
AbstractIn ancient lore, a bullet cast from silver is the only effective weapon against monsters. The uptake of active diet-derived microRNAs (miRNAs) in consumers may be the silver bullet long sought after in nutrition and oral therapeutics. However, the majority of scientists consider the transfer and regulation of consumer ’s gene activity by these diet-derived miRNAs to be a fantasy akin to spotting a unicorn. Nevertheless, groups like Dr. Chen-Yu Zhang’s lab in Nanjing University have stockpiled breathtaking amounts of data to shoot down these naysayers. Meanwhile, Dr. Ken Witwer at John Hopkins has steadf...
Source: Genes and Nutrition - June 22, 2017 Category: Nutrition Source Type: research

Navigating dietary small RNAs
AbstractWhen a novel nutritional concept comes along, scientists become enthusiastic and start new explorations. In 2012, the field was enthralled with a study suggesting plant-based nucleic acid “information” acts as a bioactive to regulate animal metabolism. (Source: Genes and Nutrition)
Source: Genes and Nutrition - June 22, 2017 Category: Nutrition Source Type: research

Milk exosomes: beyond dietary microRNAs
AbstractExtracellular vesicles deliver a variety of cargos to recipient cells, including the delivery of cargos in dietary vesicles from bovine milk to non-bovine species. The rate of discovery in this important line of research is slowed by a controversy whether the delivery and bioactivity of a single class of vesicle cargos, microRNAs, are real or not. This opinion paper argues that the evidence in support of the bioavailability of microRNAs encapsulated in dietary exosomes outweighs the evidence produced by scholars doubting that phenomenon is real. Importantly, this paper posits that the time is ripe to look beyond mi...
Source: Genes and Nutrition - June 22, 2017 Category: Nutrition Source Type: research

Obesity and microbiota: an example of an intricate relationship
AbstractIt is widely accepted that metabolic disorders, such as obesity, are closely linked to lifestyle and diet. Recently, the central role played by the intestinal microbiota in human metabolism and in progression of metabolic disorders has become evident. In this context, animal studies and human trials have demonstrated that alterations of the intestinal microbiota towards enhanced energy harvest is a characteristic of the obese phenotype. Many publications, involving both animal studies and clinical trials, have reported on the successful exploitation of probiotics and prebiotics to treat obesity. However, the molecu...
Source: Genes and Nutrition - June 15, 2017 Category: Nutrition Source Type: research

Folate deficiency as predisposing factor for childhood leukaemia: a review of the literature
ConclusionOverall, maternal folic acid supplementation before and during pregnancy seems to confer protection against the risk of childhood leukaemia in the offspring. The optimal folic acid requirements and supplementation doses need to be established, especially in conjunction with other vitamins in order to determine the most successful combinations of nutrients to maintain genomic health and wellbeing. Further research is therefore needed to uncover the role of maternal diet as a whole, as it represents a main factor capable of inducing permanent changes in the foetus. (Source: Genes and Nutrition)
Source: Genes and Nutrition - June 2, 2017 Category: Nutrition Source Type: research

Enrichment of in vivo transcription data from dietary intervention studies with in vitro data provides improved insight into gene regulation mechanisms in the intestinal mucosa
ConclusionsShort-term gene expression responses to dietary interventions as measured in the in vitro bioassay have a low predictability for long-term responses as measured in the intestinal mucosa in vivo. The short-term responses of a set regulatory and effector genes, as measured in this bioassay, however, provided additional insight into how specific processes in piglets and broilers may be modulated by “early” signalling molecules produced by enterocytes. The relevance of this set of regulatory/effector genes and cognate biological processes for zinc deficiency and supplementation, gluten allergy (rye), and...
Source: Genes and Nutrition - April 13, 2017 Category: Nutrition Source Type: research

Transcriptomic responses of the liver and adipose tissues to altered carbohydrate-fat ratio in diet: an isoenergetic study in young rats
ConclusionsThese results indicate that the alteration of dietary C-F balance differentially affects the transcriptomes of metabolizing and energy-storing tissues. (Source: Genes and Nutrition)
Source: Genes and Nutrition - April 8, 2017 Category: Nutrition Source Type: research