Modulation of cardiac renin-angiotensin system, redox status and inflammatory profile by different volumes of aerobic exercise training in obese rats.
ano DC, Corte Frantz ED Abstract Overactivation of the classical arm of the renin-angiotensin (Ang) system (RAS) occurs during inflammation, oxidative stress and obesity-induced cardiomyopathy. The activation of the protective arm of RAS may act to counterbalance the deleterious effects of the classical RAS. Although aerobic exercise training (AET) shifts the balance of the RAS towards the protective arm, little is known about the molecular adaptations to different volumes of AET. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of AET volume on the modulation of RAS, as well as on cardiac biomarkers of oxidative ...
Source: Free Radical Biology and Medicine - June 21, 2020 Category: Biology Authors: Alexandre-Santos B, Alves R, Matsuura C, Sepúlveda-Fragoso V, Velasco LL, Machado MV, Vieira AB, Fernandes T, Oliveira EM, Tibiriçá E, Lucas da Nóbrega AC, Magliano DC, Corte Frantz ED Tags: Free Radic Biol Med Source Type: research

Activation of PPAR γ reduces N-acetyl-cysteine -induced hypercorticoidism by down-regulating MC2R expression into adrenal glands.
In conclusion, our findings showed that antioxidant supplementation induced a state of hypercorticoidism through down-regulation of PPARγ expression in the adrenals, in a mechanism probably related to a down-regulation of ACTH receptor expression. PMID: 32574682 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Free Radical Biology and Medicine)
Source: Free Radical Biology and Medicine - June 20, 2020 Category: Biology Authors: Ventura RD, Chaves AS, Magalhães NS, Gonzalez FB, Pacini MF, Pérez AR, Silva PMR, Martins MA, Carvalho VF Tags: Free Radic Biol Med Source Type: research

Corrigendum to "Role of oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease" [Free Radic. Biol. Med. 152 (2020) 116-141].
Corrigendum to "Role of oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease" [Free Radic. Biol. Med. 152 (2020) 116-141]. Free Radic Biol Med. 2020 Jun 19;: Authors: Chen Z, Tian R, She Z, Cai J, Li H PMID: 32571642 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Free Radical Biology and Medicine)
Source: Free Radical Biology and Medicine - June 19, 2020 Category: Biology Authors: Chen Z, Tian R, She Z, Cai J, Li H Tags: Free Radic Biol Med Source Type: research

N-acetyl-cysteine in combination with celecoxib inhibits Deoxynivalenol induced skin tumor initiation via induction of autophagic pathways in swiss mice.
Abstract Deoxynivalenol is a trichothecene mycotoxin which naturally contaminates small grain, cereals intended for human and animal consumption. Investigations for dermal toxicity of DON has been needed and highlighted by WHO. Previous studies on dermal toxicity suggest that DON has DNA damaging potential leading to skin tumor initiation in mice skin. However, little is known regarding its protection/prevention considering its toxicological manifestations arising after dermal exposure. Collectively, our study demonstrated that N-acetylcysteine (NAC), precursor of glutathione, significantly alters the genotoxic po...
Source: Free Radical Biology and Medicine - June 16, 2020 Category: Biology Authors: Mishra S, Divakar A, Srivastava S, Dewangan J, Sharma D, Asthana S, Chaturvedi S, Wahajuddin M, Kumar S, Rath SK Tags: Free Radic Biol Med Source Type: research

Unexpected rapid aerobic transformation of 2,2,6,6-tetraethyl-4-oxo(piperidin-1-yloxyl) radical by cytochrome P450 in the presence of NADPH: evidence against a simple reduction of the nitroxide moiety to the hydroxylamine.
Abstract Aminoxyl radicals (nitroxides) are a class of compounds with important biomedical applications, serving as antioxidants, spin labels for proteins, spin probes of oximetry, pH, or redox status in electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR), or as contrast agents in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). However, the fast reduction of the radical moiety in common tetramethyl-substituted cyclic nitroxides within cells, yielding diamagnetic hydroxylamines, limits their use in spectroscopic and imaging studies. In vivo half-lives of commonly used tetramethyl-substituted nitroxides span no more than a few minutes. Therefo...
Source: Free Radical Biology and Medicine - June 16, 2020 Category: Biology Authors: Babić N, Orio M, Peyrot F Tags: Free Radic Biol Med Source Type: research

Cold plasma seed priming modulates growth, redox homeostasis and stress response by inducing reactive species in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum).
Abstract Seed germination and vegetative growth are two important plant growing stages that are vulnerable to physical and biological stress. Improvement in crop germination potential and seedling growth rate generally leads to high crop productivity. Cold plasma is a promising technology used to improve seed germination and growth. Structural changes on tomato seed surface exposed with cold air plasma jet for a different time period (1 min, 5 min, 10 min) was examined by SEM. For in-depth study, different physiological parameter such as seed germination and seedling growth, biochemical parameter such as reactive ...
Source: Free Radical Biology and Medicine - June 16, 2020 Category: Biology Authors: Adhikari B, Adhikari M, Ghimire B, Chandra Adhikari B, Park G, Choi EH Tags: Free Radic Biol Med Source Type: research

Redox-dependent PPAR γ/Tnpo1 complex formation enhances PPARγ nuclear localization and signaling.
Redox-dependent PPARγ/Tnpo1 complex formation enhances PPARγ nuclear localization and signaling. Free Radic Biol Med. 2020 Jun 15;: Authors: Teratani T, Tomita K, Toma-Fukai S, Nakamura Y, Itoh T, Shimizu H, Shiraishi Y, Sugihara N, Higashiyama M, Shimizu T, Inoue I, Takenaka Y, Hokari R, Adachi T, Shimizu T, Miura S, Kanai T Abstract The nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)γ has been implicated in the pathogenesis of various human diseases including fatty liver. Although nuclear translocation of PPARγ plays an important role in PPARγ signali...
Source: Free Radical Biology and Medicine - June 15, 2020 Category: Biology Authors: Teratani T, Tomita K, Toma-Fukai S, Nakamura Y, Itoh T, Shimizu H, Shiraishi Y, Sugihara N, Higashiyama M, Shimizu T, Inoue I, Takenaka Y, Hokari R, Adachi T, Shimizu T, Miura S, Kanai T Tags: Free Radic Biol Med Source Type: research

Modulation of Redox and insulin signaling underlie the anti-hyperglycemic and antioxidant effects of diphenyl diselenide in zebrafish.
arbosa NV Abstract The organic selenium compound diphenyl diselenide (DD) has been recognized as an antioxidant and neuroprotective agent, exerting an anti-hyperglycemic effect in experimental models of diabetes. However, the precise mechanisms involved in the protection are unclear. Using the zebrafish (Danio rerio) as a model organism, here we investigated biomarkers underlying the protective effects of DD against hyperglycemia, targeting in a transcriptional approach the redox and insulin-signaling pathway. Fish were fed on a diet containing DD (3 mg/kg) for 74 days. In the last 14 days, they were exposed to a ...
Source: Free Radical Biology and Medicine - June 13, 2020 Category: Biology Authors: Dos Santos MM, de Macedo GT, Prestes AS, Ecker A, Müller TE, Leitemperger J, Fontana BD, Ardisson-Araújo DMP, Rosemberg DB, Barbosa NV Tags: Free Radic Biol Med Source Type: research

Honokiol attenuates oxidative stress-dependent heart dysfunction in chronic Chagas disease by targeting AMPK / NFE2L2 / SIRT3 signaling pathway.
al RS PMID: 32540353 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Free Radical Biology and Medicine)
Source: Free Radical Biology and Medicine - June 12, 2020 Category: Biology Authors: Caballero EP, Mariz-Ponte N, Rigazio CS, Santamaría MH, Corral RS Tags: Free Radic Biol Med Source Type: research

The Latency of Peroxisomal Catalase in Terms of Effectiveness Factor for Pancreatic and Glioblastoma Cancer Cell Lines in the Presence of High Concentrations of H2O2: Implications for the use of Pharmacological Ascorbate in Cancer Therapy.
Abstract Previous research has identified variation in cancer cell line response to high levels of extracellular H2O2 (eH2O2) exposure. This directly contributes to our understanding cellular efficacy of pharmacological ascorbate (P-AscH-) therapy. Here we investigate the factors contributing to latency of peroxisomal catalase of a cell and the importance of latency in evaluating cell exposure to eH2O2. First, we develop a mathematical framework for the latency of catalase in terms of an effectiveness factor, ηeff, to describe the catalase activity in the presence of high levels of eH2O2. A simplified relation...
Source: Free Radical Biology and Medicine - June 6, 2020 Category: Biology Authors: Erudaitius DT, Buettner GR, Rodgers VGJ Tags: Free Radic Biol Med Source Type: research

Bavachin suppresses human placental choriocarcinoma cells by targeting electron transport chain complexes and mitochondrial dysfunction.
Abstract Phytoestrogens are naturally derived estrogen-like therapeutic compounds that have long been studied for their role as anti-cancer agents and supplements during chemotherapy. Bavachin is a therapeutic phytoestrogen used to treat cancer, inflammation, and diabetes mellitus. Though the therapeutic effects of bavachin on various diseases have been explored, its anti-cancer effects and related mechanisms in human placental choriocarcinoma remain unknown. This is the first study to identify the anti-cancer potential of bavachin on human placental choriocarcinoma cell lines JEG3 and JAR. Placental mitochondria ...
Source: Free Radical Biology and Medicine - June 4, 2020 Category: Biology Authors: Lee JY, Lim W, Song G Tags: Free Radic Biol Med Source Type: research

Chaperone activity of large-size subunit catalases.
erg W Abstract Large-size subunit catalases (LSCs) have a C-terminal domain that is structurally similar to DJ-1 and Hsp31 proteins, which have well documented chaperone activity. Like chaperones, LSCs are abundant proteins that are induced under stress conditions and during cell differentiation in different microorganisms. Here we document that the C-terminal domain of LSCs assist other proteins to preserve their active conformation. Heat, urea, or H2O2 denaturation of alcohol dehydrogenase was prevented by LSCs or the C-terminal domain of Catalase-3 (TDC3); in contrast, small-size subunit catalases (SSCs) or LSC...
Source: Free Radical Biology and Medicine - June 2, 2020 Category: Biology Authors: Nava-Ramírez T, Hansberg W Tags: Free Radic Biol Med Source Type: research

Increasing ovarian NAD+ levels improve mitochondrial functions and reverse ovarian aging.
Abstract Loss of follicles together with decreased oocyte quality and quantity contribute to age-associated ovarian senescence and infertility. Although underlying mechanisms for ovarian senescence are still unknown, mitochondrial dysfunctions have been reported. Here, we showed age-dependent decreases in ovarian Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide (NAD+) levels in mice whereas supplementing aging mice with nicotinamide riboside (NR), an NAD+ precursor, increased ovarian NAD+ content. We found that increases in ovarian NAD+ levels in aging mice led to increased number of ovarian follicles and ovulatory potential as ...
Source: Free Radical Biology and Medicine - May 31, 2020 Category: Biology Authors: Yang Q, Cong L, Wang Y, Luo X, Li H, Wang H, Zhu J, Dai S, Jin H, Yao G, Shi S, Hsueh AJ, Sun Y Tags: Free Radic Biol Med Source Type: research

Role of Nrf2 in MALAT1/ HIF-1 α loop on the regulation of angiogenesis in diabetic foot ulcex.
We report significant reduction in the expression of lncRNA MALAT1 in the infected Diabetic foot ulcers subjects which is positively correlated with the expression of angiogenic factors Nrf2, HIF-1α and VEGF. Further, expression of pro-inflammatory markers TNF-α and IL-6 increased while, the expression of anti-inflammatory marker IL-10 decreased in infected DFU tissues. Involvement of lncRNA MALAT1 in angiogenesis in EA.hy926 cells is demonstrated by silencing the expression of Nrf2, HIF-1α, and VEGF through interference mediated by MALAT1. Similarly, its inflammatory role is demonstrated by silencing t...
Source: Free Radical Biology and Medicine - May 27, 2020 Category: Biology Authors: Jayasuriya R, Dhamodharan U, Amin KN, Anandharaj A, Rajesh K, Ramkumar KM Tags: Free Radic Biol Med Source Type: research

Urinary markers of nucleic acid oxidation increase with age, obesity and insulin resistance in Danish children and adolescents.
This study investigates the associations between urinary markers of nucleic acid oxidation and Body Mass Index (BMI), age, sex and cardiometabolic risk factors in children and adolescents with and without obesity. METHODS: We studied 543 children and adolescents from an obesity clinic cohort (n = 418) and a population-based cohort (n = 125), all aged 6-18 years. Anthropometrics, urine and blood samples were collected. A validated liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method was used to measure the nucleic acid oxidation markers. RESULTS: Compared with the population-based cohort, children and ado...
Source: Free Radical Biology and Medicine - May 25, 2020 Category: Biology Authors: Jørs A, Lund MAV, Jespersen T, Hansen T, Poulsen HE, Holm JC Tags: Free Radic Biol Med Source Type: research

Therapeutic treatment with vitamin C reduces focal cerebral ischemia-induced brain infarction in rats by attenuating disruptions of blood brain barrier and cerebral neuronal apoptosis.
In this study we demonstrated that parenteral administration of vitamin C significantly improved neurological deficits and reduced brain infarction and brain edema by attenuating the transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO)-induced nitrosative stress, inflammatory responses, and the resultant disruptions of blood brain barrier and cerebral neuronal apoptosis. These results suggest that parenteral administration of vitamin C has potential as an adjuvant agent with intravenous thrombolysis or endovascular thrombectomy in acute treatment of ischemic stroke. PMID: 32450129 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (So...
Source: Free Radical Biology and Medicine - May 22, 2020 Category: Biology Authors: Chang CY, Chen JY, Wu MH, Hu ML Tags: Free Radic Biol Med Source Type: research

CYP11A1-derived vitamin D3 products protect against UVB-induced inflammation and promote keratinocytes differentiation.
Abstract UVB radiation mediates inflammatory responses causing skin damage and defects in epidermal differentiation. 1α,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3) interacts with the vitamin D3 receptor (VDR) to regulate inflammatory responses. Additionally, 1,25(OH)2D3/VDR signaling represents a potential therapeutic target in the treatment of skin disorders associated with inflammation and poor differentiation of keratinocytes. Since the protective effect of 1,25(OH)2D3 against UVB-induced skin damage and inflammation is recognized, CYP11A1-derived vitamin D3-hydroxyderivatives including 20(OH)D3, 1,20(OH)2D3, 20...
Source: Free Radical Biology and Medicine - May 21, 2020 Category: Biology Authors: Chaiprasongsuk A, Janjetovic Z, Kim TK, Tuckey RC, Li W, Raman C, Panich U, Slominski AT Tags: Free Radic Biol Med Source Type: research

Proteomic profiling reveals mitochondrial alterations in Rett syndrome.
In conclusion, our proteomic analysis confirms the pathological relevance of mitochondrial dysfunction in RTT pathogenesis and progression. PMID: 32445864 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Free Radical Biology and Medicine)
Source: Free Radical Biology and Medicine - May 20, 2020 Category: Biology Authors: Cicaloni V, Pecorelli A, Tinti L, Rossi M, Benedusi M, Cervellati C, Spiga O, Santucci A, Hayek J, Salvini L, Tinti C, Valacchi G Tags: Free Radic Biol Med Source Type: research

Cadmium desynchronizes neurotransmitter release in the neuromuscular junction: Key role of ROS.
Abstract Cd2+ is one of the most widespread environmental pollutants and its accumulation in central and peripheral nervous systems leads to neurotoxicity as well as aggravation of common neurodegenerative diseases. Mechanism of the Cd2+ toxicity is far from being resolved. Here, using microelectrode recordings of postsynaptic responses and fluorescent redox indicators we studied the effect of Cd2+ in the submicromolar range on timing of neurotransmitter release and oxidative status in two functionally different compartments of the same frog motor nerve terminal. Cd2+ (0.1-1 μM) acting as typical voltage-gate...
Source: Free Radical Biology and Medicine - May 20, 2020 Category: Biology Authors: Tsentsevitsky AN, Zakyrjanova GF, Petrov AM Tags: Free Radic Biol Med Source Type: research

The circular RNA TLK1 exacerbates myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury via targeting miR-214/RIPK1 through TNF signaling pathway.
CONCLUSION: Taken together, our study revealed an up-regulated circRNA, circTLK1, could exacerbate myocardial IRI via targeting miR-214/RIPK1-mediated TNF signaling pathway, which may provide therapeutic targets for treatment. PMID: 32445866 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Free Radical Biology and Medicine)
Source: Free Radical Biology and Medicine - May 20, 2020 Category: Biology Authors: Song YF, Zhao L, Wang BC, Sun JJ, Hu JL, Zhu XL, Zhao J, Zheng DK, Ge ZW Tags: Free Radic Biol Med Source Type: research

Exploring the FMN binding site in the mitochondrial outer membrane protein mitoNEET.
Abstract MitoNEET is a mitochondrial outer membrane protein that hosts a redox active [2Fe-2S] cluster in the C-terminal cytosolic domain. Increasing evidence has shown that mitoNEET has an essential role in regulating energy metabolism in human cells. Previously, we reported that the [2Fe-2S] clusters in mitoNEET can be reduced by the reduced flavin mononucleotide (FMNH2) and oxidized by oxygen or ubiquinone-2, suggesting that mitoNEET may act as a novel redox enzyme catalyzing electron transfer from FMNH2 to oxygen or ubiquinone. Here, we explore the FMN binding site in mitoNEET by using FMN analogs and find tha...
Source: Free Radical Biology and Medicine - May 20, 2020 Category: Biology Authors: Tasnim H, Landry AP, Fontenot CR, Ding H Tags: Free Radic Biol Med Source Type: research

Interaction kinetics of selenium-containing compounds with oxidants.
Abstract Selenium compounds have been identified as potential oxidant scavengers for biological applications due to the nucleophilicity of Se, and the ease of oxidation of the selenium centre. Previous studies have reported apparent second order rate constants for a limited number of oxidants (e.g. HOCl, ONOOH) with some selenium species, but these data are limited. Here we provide apparent second order rate constants for reaction of selenols (RSeH), selenides (RSeR') and diselenides (RSeSeR') with biologically-relevant oxidants (HOCl, H2O2, other peroxides) as well as overall consumption data for the excited stat...
Source: Free Radical Biology and Medicine - May 18, 2020 Category: Biology Authors: Carroll L, Gardiner K, Ignasiak M, Holmehave J, Shimodaira S, Breitenbach T, Iwaoka M, Ogilby PR, Pattison DI, Davies MJ Tags: Free Radic Biol Med Source Type: research

Scientific landscape of oxidative stress in male reproductive research: A scientometric study.
This article illustrates the scientific landscape of OS in male reproductive research over the past several decades (1941-2018) using a scientometric approach. Scientometric data (articles per year, authors, affiliations, journals, and countries) on OS related to male reproduction were retrieved from the Scopus database and analyzed for each decade. Our analysis revealed an increasing trend in OS-based male reproductive research from 1941 to 2018 with a steep raise in publications and research collaborations starting from the period 1991-2000 (R2 = 0.81). Semen abnormalities and varicocele were the major areas investig...
Source: Free Radical Biology and Medicine - May 18, 2020 Category: Biology Authors: Agarwal A, Baskaran S, Panner Selvam MK, Finelli R, Barbarosie C, Robert KA, Iovine C, Master K, Henkel R Tags: Free Radic Biol Med Source Type: research

Circulating inflammation-related factors are correlated with systemic redox status in IgA nephropathy; a case-control study.
CONCLUSIONS: Patients with IGAN had disturbed redox status. Several circulating inflammation-related factors were elevated, suggesting activation of the non-canonical NF-kB pathway. There was a positive relationship between systemic redox status and the level of inflammation-related factors, partially independent of GFR. The present findings raise the question of whether circulating oxidized free Cys and/or nitrate may be employed as prognostic biomarkers for IGAN in the future. PMID: 32428564 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Free Radical Biology and Medicine)
Source: Free Radical Biology and Medicine - May 16, 2020 Category: Biology Authors: Apeland T, Mansoor MA, Furriol J, Ushakova A, Jonsson G, Stangeland K, Marti HP Tags: Free Radic Biol Med Source Type: research

Oxidative stress and antioxidant response in rainbow trout fry exposed to acute hypoxia is affected by selenium nutrition of parents and during first exogenous feeding.
-Dicharry S Abstract Selenium (Se) deficiency is a problem widely encountered in humans and terrestrial livestock production with increasing attention also in aquaculture. Se supports the antioxidant system, which becomes especially important during stressful conditions. In the present study, the effect of Se-supplementation in broodstock and fry diets on the performance and antioxidant metabolism of rainbow trout fry under acute hypoxia was investigated. Rainbow trout broodstock were fed plant-ingredient based diets either without any Se-supplementation (Se level: 0.3 mg/kg) or supplemented with Se supplied as ...
Source: Free Radical Biology and Medicine - May 14, 2020 Category: Biology Authors: Wischhusen P, Larroquet L, Durand T, Oger C, Galano JM, Rocher A, Vigor C, Jesu Prabhu PA, Véron V, Briens M, Roy J, Kaushik SJ, Fauconneau B, Fontagné-Dicharry S Tags: Free Radic Biol Med Source Type: research

Zinc and the modulation of Nrf2 in human neuroblastoma cells.
Abstract Zinc plays a key role in the modulation of neuronal redox homeostasis. A decreased zinc availability is associated with neuronal NADPH oxidase and nitric oxide synthase activation, deregulation of redox signaling, and impaired glutathione synthesis. The present work tested the hypothesis that zinc is necessary in the neuronal defense response against dopamine (DA)-induced oxidative stress, in particular through heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) upregulation. DA showed higher cytotoxicity when zinc availability was low. Human IMR-32 neuroblastoma cells responded to high DA concentrations (100 μM) by upregulatin...
Source: Free Radical Biology and Medicine - May 13, 2020 Category: Biology Authors: Kaufman Z, Salvador GA, Liu X, Oteiza PI Tags: Free Radic Biol Med Source Type: research

Corrigendum to "The antimetastatic effect and underlying mechanisms of thioredoxin reductase inhibitor ethaselen" [Free Radic. Biol. Med. 131 (2019) 7-17].
Corrigendum to "The antimetastatic effect and underlying mechanisms of thioredoxin reductase inhibitor ethaselen" [Free Radic. Biol. Med. 131 (2019) 7-17]. Free Radic Biol Med. 2020 May 11;: Authors: Zheng X, Chen Y, Bai M, Liu Y, Xu B, Sun R, Zeng H PMID: 32409003 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Free Radical Biology and Medicine)
Source: Free Radical Biology and Medicine - May 11, 2020 Category: Biology Authors: Zheng X, Chen Y, Bai M, Liu Y, Xu B, Sun R, Zeng H Tags: Free Radic Biol Med Source Type: research

UVA irradiation increases ferrous iron release from human skin fibroblast and endothelial cell ferritin: Consequences for cell senescence and aging.
Abstract UVA irradiation of human dermal fibroblasts and endothelial cells induces an immediate transient increase in cytosolic Fe(II), as monitored by the fluorescence Fe(II) reporters, FeRhonox1 in cytosol and MitoFerroGreen in mitochondria. Both superoxide dismutase (SOD) inhibition by tetrathiomolybdate (ATM) and catalase inhibition by 3-amino-1, 2, 4-triazole (ATZ) increase and prolong the cytosolic Fe(II) signal after UVA irradiation. SOD inhibition with ATM also increases mitochondrial Fe(II). Thus, mitochondria do not source the UV-dependent increase in cytosolic Fe(II), but instead reflect and amplify rai...
Source: Free Radical Biology and Medicine - May 6, 2020 Category: Biology Authors: Smith MJ, Fowler M, Naftalin RJ, Siow RCM Tags: Free Radic Biol Med Source Type: research

Genes and lipids that impact uptake and assimilation of exogenous coenzyme Q in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.
In this study, we investigated the mechanism of CoQ uptake and distribution using the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a model organism. The addition of exogenous CoQ was tested for the ability to restore growth on non-fermentable medium in several strains that lack CoQ synthesis (coq mutants). Surprisingly, we discovered that the presence of CoQ biosynthetic intermediates impairs assimilation of CoQ into a functional respiratory chain in yeast cells. Moreover, a screen of 40 gene deletions considered to be candidates to prevent exogenous CoQ from rescuing growth of the CoQ-less coq2Δ mutant, identified six novel ge...
Source: Free Radical Biology and Medicine - May 5, 2020 Category: Biology Authors: Fernández-Del-Río L, Kelly M, Contreras J, Bradley MC, James AM, Murphy MP, Payne GS, Clarke CF Tags: Free Radic Biol Med Source Type: research

Quantitation of spin probe-detectable oxidants in cells using Electron Paramagnetic Resonance spectroscopy: To probe or to trap?
Abstract Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) spectroscopy coupled with spin traps/probes enables quantitative determination of reactive nitrogen and oxygen species (RNOS). Even with numerous studies using spin probes, the methodology has not been rigorously investigated. The autoxidation of spin probes has been commonly overlooked. Using the spin probe 1-hydroxy-3-methoxycarbonyl-2,2,5,5-tetramethylpyrrolidine hydrochloride (CMH), the present study has tested the effects of metal chelators, temperature, and oxygen content on the autoxidation of spin probes, where an optimized condition is refined for cell studie...
Source: Free Radical Biology and Medicine - May 3, 2020 Category: Biology Authors: Gotham JP, Li R, Tipple TE, Lancaster JR, Liu T, Li Q Tags: Free Radic Biol Med Source Type: research

Protection against renal ischemia and reperfusion injury by short-term time-restricted feeding involves the mitochondrial unfolded protein response.
J, Tapia E Abstract Food restriction improves metabolic health and increases resistance to stress in experimental animals. However, most studies have focused on long-term dietary restriction protocols consisting of several weeks or months of limited food ingestion. Here it was investigated the impact of 2-h time-restricted feeding (TRF) for one week on stress resistance in a rat model of kidney injury induced by ischemia and reperfusion. At baseline, TRF reduced blood glucose, increased β-hydroxybutyrate and improved body composition in male Wistar rats. Importantly, implementing the one-week TRF schedule be...
Source: Free Radical Biology and Medicine - May 3, 2020 Category: Biology Authors: Rojas-Morales P, León-Contreras JC, Granados-Pineda J, Hernandez-Pando R, Gonzaga G, Sánchez-Lozada LG, Osorio-Alonso H, Pedraza-Chaverri J, Tapia E Tags: Free Radic Biol Med Source Type: research

The role of NADPH oxidases in neuronal development.
Abstract Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are critical for maintaining cellular homeostasis and function when produced in physiological ranges. Important sources of cellular ROS include NADPH oxidases (Nox), which are evolutionary conserved multi-subunit transmembrane proteins. Nox-mediated ROS regulate variety of biological processes including hormone synthesis, calcium signaling, cell migration, and immunity. ROS participate in intracellular signaling by introducing post-translational modifications to proteins and thereby altering their functions. The central nervous system (CNS) expresses different Nox isoforms du...
Source: Free Radical Biology and Medicine - May 1, 2020 Category: Biology Authors: Terzi A, Suter DM Tags: Free Radic Biol Med Source Type: research

Characterization of disulfide (cystine) oxidation by HOCl in a model peptide: Evidence for oxygen addition, disulfide bond cleavage and adduct formation with thiols.
Abstract Disulfide bonds play a key role in stabilizing proteins by cross-linking secondary structures. Whilst many disulfides are effectively unreactive, it is increasingly clear that some disulfides are redox active, participate in enzymatic reactions and/or regulate protein function by allosteric mechanisms. Previously (Karimi et al., Sci. Rep. 2016, 6, 38752) we have shown that some disulfides react rapidly with biological oxidants due to favourable interactions with available lone-pairs of electrons. Here we present data from kinetic, mechanistic and product studies for HOCl-mediated oxidation of a protected ...
Source: Free Radical Biology and Medicine - May 1, 2020 Category: Biology Authors: Karimi M, Crossett B, Cordwell SJ, Pattison DI, Davies MJ Tags: Free Radic Biol Med Source Type: research

A combined γ-H2AX and 53BP1 approach to determine the DNA damage-repair response to exercise in hypoxia.
This study examines the interplay between exercise and hypoxia in relation to the DNA damage-repair response; with specific interest to DNA double strand damage. Following two V̇O2max tests, 14 healthy, male participants completed two exercise trials (hypoxia; 12% FiO2, normoxia; 20.9% FiO2) consisting of cycling for 30-min at 80-85% of V̇O2max relative to the environmental condition. Blood was sampled pre-, immediately post-, 2-, and 4-h post-exercise with additional blood cultured in vitro for 24-, 48-, and 72-h following the experimental trial. Samples were analysed for single- and double-strand DNA damage, FPG-sensit...
Source: Free Radical Biology and Medicine - April 30, 2020 Category: Biology Authors: Williamson J, Hughes CM, Burke G, Davison GW Tags: Free Radic Biol Med Source Type: research

First unequivocal identification of the critical acyl radicals from the anti-tuberculosis drug isoniazid and its hydrazide analogs by complementary applications of ESR spin-trapping and HPLC/MS methods.
This study represents the first unequivocal identification of the carbon-centered acyl radicals of INH and other hydrazide analogs by both ESR spin-trapping and HPLC/MS methods, which may have broad biomedical and toxicological significance for future research for more efficient hydrazide anti-tuberculosis drugs. PMID: 32360612 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Free Radical Biology and Medicine)
Source: Free Radical Biology and Medicine - April 30, 2020 Category: Biology Authors: Qin L, Huang CH, Mao L, Shao B, Zhu BZ Tags: Free Radic Biol Med Source Type: research

Oxidative stress in air pollution research.
PMID: 32360613 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Free Radical Biology and Medicine)
Source: Free Radical Biology and Medicine - April 30, 2020 Category: Biology Authors: Mudway IS, Kelly FJ, Holgate ST Tags: Free Radic Biol Med Source Type: research

Editorial.
PMID: 32360614 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Free Radical Biology and Medicine)
Source: Free Radical Biology and Medicine - April 30, 2020 Category: Biology Authors: Mudway IS, Holgate S, Forman HJ, Kelly F Tags: Free Radic Biol Med Source Type: research

Chronic impairment of mitochondrial bioenergetics and β-oxidation promotes experimental AKI-to-CKD transition induced by folic acid.
Chronic impairment of mitochondrial bioenergetics and β-oxidation promotes experimental AKI-to-CKD transition induced by folic acid. Free Radic Biol Med. 2020 Apr 30;: Authors: Aparicio-Trejo OE, Avila-Rojas SH, Tapia E, Rojas-Morales P, León-Contreras JC, Martínez-Klimova E, Hernández-Pando R, Sánchez-Lozada LG, Pedraza-Chaverri J Abstract Recent studies suggest that mitochondrial bioenergetics and oxidative stress alterations may be common mechanisms involved in the progression of renal damage. However, the evolution of the mitochondrial alterations over time and the...
Source: Free Radical Biology and Medicine - April 30, 2020 Category: Biology Authors: Aparicio-Trejo OE, Avila-Rojas SH, Tapia E, Rojas-Morales P, León-Contreras JC, Martínez-Klimova E, Hernández-Pando R, Sánchez-Lozada LG, Pedraza-Chaverri J Tags: Free Radic Biol Med Source Type: research

Interactions between bioactive components determine antioxidant, cytotoxic and nutrigenomic activity of cocoa powder extract.
In conclusion, the experiments presented here showed that the growing complexity of a mixture of phytochemicals seems to create a new redox bioactive substance rather than enrich the mixture with new activities, characteristic of the compound added. It follows that no simple, predictable relationship can be expected between the chemopreventive potential and the composition of real food items containing a complicated set of non-toxic redox active ingredients. Our observations suggest that the interactions between different bioactive compounds and food matrix components are cooperating factors determining the final bioactivi...
Source: Free Radical Biology and Medicine - April 29, 2020 Category: Biology Authors: Baranowska M, Suliborska K, Todorovic V, Kusznierewicz B, Chrzanowski W, Sobajic S, Bartoszek A Tags: Free Radic Biol Med Source Type: research

Dual role of oxidative stress-JNK activation in autophagy and apoptosis induced by nickel oxide nanoparticles in human cancer cells.
In this study, we aimed to study the role of autophagy in the cytotoxicity of NiO-NPs and the underlying regulatory mechanisms. First, we provided evidence that NiO-NPs induce autophagy in human cancer cells. Second, we found that the enhanced autophagic flux by NiO-NPs via the generation of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) from mitochondria and the subsequent activation of the JNK pathway. Third, we demonstrated that the activation of JNK is a main force in mediating NiO-NPs-induced apoptosis. Finally, we demonstrated that the autophagic response plays an important protective role against the cytotoxic effect o...
Source: Free Radical Biology and Medicine - April 27, 2020 Category: Biology Authors: Cho YL, Siong Tan HW, Saquib Q, Ren Y, Ahmad J, Wahab R, He W, Bay BH, Shen HM Tags: Free Radic Biol Med Source Type: research

MicroRNA-based regulatory mechanisms underlying the synergistic antioxidant action of quercetin and catechin in H2O2-stimulated HepG2 cells: Roles of BACH1 in Nrf2-dependent pathways.
This study aimed to extend the existing knowledge and provide insights into the potential regulatory network in response to oxidative stress and the co-presence of quercetin and catechin antioxidants, via a preclinical approach using H2O2-stimulated HepG2 cells. It was confirmed that BACH1 serves as an essential and direct negative regulator of the Keap1-Nrf2 signaling pathway and the antioxidant synergism between quercetin and catechin. BACH1 promoted reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation while inhibiting cell growth, which could be reversed by the synergistic action of let-7a-5p and miR-25-3p in the co-presence of q...
Source: Free Radical Biology and Medicine - April 25, 2020 Category: Biology Authors: Wang D, Jiang Y, Sun-Waterhouse DX, Zhai H, Guan H, Rong X, Li F, Yu JC, Li DP Tags: Free Radic Biol Med Source Type: research

Supplementation with a putative calorie restriction mimetic micronutrient blend increases glutathione concentrations and improves neuroenergetics in brain of healthy middle-aged men and women.
CONCLUSIONS: The present study reveals that 6-weeks daily supplementation with a micronutrient blend elicits positive changes in brain neurochemistry. This is the first study to demonstrate that a putative CR mimetic increases brain GSH concentrations and improves neuroprotection and neuroenergetics in the brain of healthy humans. This study was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02439983. PMID: 32335159 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Free Radical Biology and Medicine)
Source: Free Radical Biology and Medicine - April 23, 2020 Category: Biology Authors: Mastaloudis A, Sheth C, Hester SN, Wood SM, Prescot A, McGlade E, Renshaw PF, Yurgelun-Todd DA Tags: Free Radic Biol Med Source Type: research

A procedure to extract functional isolated mitochondria from small-sized human atrial samples. Application to obesity with a partial characterisation of the organelles.
In conclusion, the described method is simple, reliable and sensitive. It allows for the description of the impact of obesity on the function of atrial mitochondria while using only a small patient sampling (n = 5 in both the lean and the obese groups). PMID: 32330586 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Free Radical Biology and Medicine)
Source: Free Radical Biology and Medicine - April 21, 2020 Category: Biology Authors: Leger T, Jouve C, Patrac V, Batel V, Bouvier D, Sapin V, Miguel B, Demaison L, Azarnoush K Tags: Free Radic Biol Med Source Type: research

Reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation as an underlying mechanism of inorganic phosphate (Pi)-induced mineralization of osteogenic cells.
In this study, we investigated a molecular mechanistic link between elevated Pi and ROS production in the context of the mineralization function of committed osteogenic cells. Using committed osteogenic cells, 17IIA11 odontoblast-like cell and MLO-A5 osteoblast cell lines, we have unveil that Pi enhances intracellular ROS production. Furthermore, using a combination of mineralization assays and gene expression analyses, we determined that Pi-induced intracellular ROS supports the physiological mineralization process. In contrast, the exogenous ROS, provided in a form of H2O2, was detrimental for osteogenic cells. By compar...
Source: Free Radical Biology and Medicine - April 21, 2020 Category: Biology Authors: Khalid S, Yamazaki H, Socorro M, Monier D, Beniash E, Napierala D Tags: Free Radic Biol Med Source Type: research

Dry eye induced by exposure to cigarette smoke pollution: An in vivo and in vitro study.
In this study, we established a novel animal model to study dry eye, with the experimental data and elucidation of mechanism facilitating further research. PMID: 32320747 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Free Radical Biology and Medicine)
Source: Free Radical Biology and Medicine - April 19, 2020 Category: Biology Authors: Li J, Nian S, Shao Y, Zhang G, Liang R, Huang L, Luo A Tags: Free Radic Biol Med Source Type: research

The photodynamic and direct actions of methylene blue on mitochondrial energy metabolism: A balance of the useful and harmful effects of this photosensitizer.
RS, Constantin J, Ishii-Iwamoto EL, Constantin RP Abstract According to the literature, methylene blue (MB) is a photosensitizer (PS) with a high affinity for mitochondria. Therefore, several studies have explored this feature to evaluate its photodynamic effects on the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway under normoxic conditions. We are aware only of limited reports regarding MB's photodynamic effects on mitochondrial energy metabolism, especially under hypoxic conditions. Thus, the purposes of this study were to determine the direct and photodynamic acute effects of MB on the energy metabolism of rat liver mitocho...
Source: Free Radical Biology and Medicine - April 18, 2020 Category: Biology Authors: Klosowski EM, Lima de Souza BT, Mito MS, Constantin RP, Mantovanelli GC, Mewes JM, Veiga Bizerra PF, Moreira da Costa Menezes PV, Gilglioni EH, Utsunomiya KS, Marchiosi R, Dantas Dos Santos W, Filho OF, Caetano W, Cesar de Souza Pereira P, Gonçalves RS, Tags: Free Radic Biol Med Source Type: research

Altered proximal tubule fatty acid utilization, mitophagy, fission and supercomplexes arrangement in experimental Fanconi syndrome are ameliorated by sulforaphane-induced mitochondrial biogenesis.
rri J Abstract The kidney proximal tubule function relies on oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS), thus mitochondrial dysfunction is characteristic of acute kidney injury (AKI). Maleic acid (MA) can induce an experimental model of Fanconi syndrome that is associated to oxidative stress and decreased oxygen consumption. Sulforaphane (SF) is an antioxidant known to protect against MA-induced AKI. The molecular basis by which SF maintains the bioenergetics in MA-induced AKI is not fully understood. To achieve it, rats were submitted to a protective scheme: SF (1 mg/kg/day i.p.) for four days and, at the fourth day, t...
Source: Free Radical Biology and Medicine - April 18, 2020 Category: Biology Authors: Briones-Herrera A, Ramírez-Camacho I, Zazueta C, Tapia E, Pedraza-Chaverri J Tags: Free Radic Biol Med Source Type: research

Targeting DUSP7 signaling alleviates hepatic steatosis, inflammation and oxidative stress in high fat diet (HFD)-fed mice via suppression of TAK1.
Abstract The non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), as a critical liver disease, is still lack of effective treatments because the molecular mechanism revealing the NAFLD pathogenesis remains unclear. Dual specific phosphatase 6 (DUSP7) shows effects on inflammatory response and is a negative feedback mechanism of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) superfamily, which are critical factors in regulating NAFLD progression. However, the effects of DUSP7 on hepatic steatosis are still not fully understood. Here, we found that DUSP7 functioned as a negative regulator of NAFLD and in various metabolic disord...
Source: Free Radical Biology and Medicine - April 17, 2020 Category: Biology Authors: Wu L, Liu Y, Zhao Y, Li M, Guo L Tags: Free Radic Biol Med Source Type: research

A novel target TAX1BP1 and P38/Nrf2 pathway independently involved in the anti-neuroinflammatory effect of isobavachalcone.
Abstract Isobavachalcone (IBC) is a natural compound isolated from Fructus psoraleae. In recent years, IBC has been reported to exert anti-neuroinflammatory effect, but precise mechanisms of action remain unclear. The current study is focused on elucidating the underlying molecular mechanisms. Toward this goal, we conducted experiments to examine the inhibitory effect of IBC on microglia activation in vitro and in vivo, the results showed that IBC can inhibit microglia activation compared to the LPS only treatment group. Further studies on the mechanisms showed IBC can increase TAX1BP1 expression which further ind...
Source: Free Radical Biology and Medicine - April 17, 2020 Category: Biology Authors: Li Z, Wang Q, Luan H, Yang M, Li Y, Tian G, Hen W Tags: Free Radic Biol Med Source Type: research

Imine stilbene analog ameliorate isoproterenol-induced cardiac hypertrophy and hydrogen peroxide-induced apoptosis.
Abstract Cardiac hypertrophy is an adaptive response to stress, in order to maintain proper cardiac function. However, sustained stress leads to pathological hypertrophy accompanied by maladaptive responses and ultimately heart failure. At the cellular level, cardiomyocyte hypertrophy is characterized by an increase in myocyte size, reactivation of the fetal gene markers, disassembly of the sarcomere and transcriptional remodeling which are regulated by heart-specific transcription factors like MEF2, GATA4 and immediate early genes like c-jun and c-fos.2. It has been explored and established that the hypertrophic ...
Source: Free Radical Biology and Medicine - April 17, 2020 Category: Biology Authors: Raut GK, Manchineela S, Chakrabarti M, Bhukya CK, Nanai R, Venkateshwari A, Reddy VD, Mendonza JJ, Suresh Y, Nallari P, Bhadra MP Tags: Free Radic Biol Med Source Type: research