Prediction of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus bloodstream infection: do we need rapid diagnostic tests?
AbstractStaphylococcus aureus (SA) is the leading cause of bloodstream infection (BSI). The incidence of methicillin-resistant SA (MRSA) has decreased in France and Europe since one decade. Early and precise prediction of methicillin susceptibility is needed to improve probabilistic antibiotic therapy of MRSA-BSI. The aim of this study was to identify MRSA-BSI risk factors at admission and evaluate which patients need costly rapid diagnostic tests. A single-center retrospective descriptive study of all diagnosed SA-BSI was conducted in a French University Hospital between January 2015 and December 2016. All medical charts ...
Source: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases - April 13, 2019 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

The impact of bacteremia on lipoprotein concentrations and patient ’s outcome: a retrospective analysis
AbstractBacteremia is a major clinical challenge requiring early treatment. Metabolic alterations occur during bacteremia, and accordingly plasma concentrations of lipoproteins LDL-C and HDL-C are substantially changed. We questioned whether bacteremia with Gram-negative versus Gram-positive bacteria causes contrasting changes of lipoprotein levels in order to differentiate between the 2-g stain types and if there is a relation with outcome parameters namely ICU-admission, 30-day mortality, duration of hospitalization. This is a retrospective dual-center cross-sectional study, including 258 patients with bacteremia. Plasma...
Source: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases - April 13, 2019 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Clinical characteristics of patients with polymicrobial septic arthritis
AbstractLittle is known about the incidence, risk factors, clinical characteristics, and outcomes of patients with polymicrobial SA (PMSA). We aimed to determine the unique characteristics of patients with PMSA by comparing them to patients with monomicrobial SA (MMSA). We conducted a retrospective cohort study of patients 18  years and older admitted to a single tertiary care medical center, between 1998 and 2015, with surgically treated culture–positive SA affecting one or more joints. Patients were separated into two groups by the presence of one (MMSA) or more organisms (PMSA). A total of 441 patients with M...
Source: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases - April 13, 2019 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Comparison of microbiological results obtained from per-wound bone biopsies versus transcutaneous bone biopsies in diabetic foot osteomyelitis: a prospective cohort study
AbstractTranscutaneous bone biopsy (TCB) is the gold standard for taking microbiological specimens in diabetic foot osteomyelitis (DFO), but this technique is not widely used in diabetic foot care centers. We aimed to evaluate the reliability of per-wound bone biopsy (PWB) cultures by comparing them with concomitant TCB cultures obtained through healthy skin. This is a prospective monocentric study including patients seen in consultation for clinical and radiological diabetic foot osteomyelitis with positive probe-bone tests between April 2015 and May 2018. Two bone biopsies were performed on each consenting patient: TCB t...
Source: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases - April 13, 2019 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Mediterranean spotted fever in the elderly: a prospective cohort study
This study was a prospective observational cohort study of all adult cases with confirmed MSF treated in a teaching hospital (1984 –2015) to compare the characteristics of elderly patients (>  65 years) with younger adults. We identified 263 adult patients with MSF, and 53 (20.2%) were elderly. Severe MSF was more frequent in the elderly (26.4% vs. 10.5%;p = 0.002). Gastrointestinal symptoms, impaired consciousness, lung infiltrate, oedema, acute hearing loss, raised alanine transaminase, hyponatremia, and thrombocytopenia occurred more frequently in elderly patients, and arthromyalgia oc...
Source: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases - April 11, 2019 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Predicting the risk of sepsis and causative organisms following urinary stones removal using urinary versus stone and stent cultures
AbstractThe association between foreign objects in the urinary system and urinary tract infections (UTI) is well established. The incidence of bacteriuria in patient with urinary catheters increases as dwelling time lengthens. The presence of ureteral stents and kidney stones is also associated with increased risk for bacteriuria and urinary tract infection. The aim of this study was to assess the bacterial characteristics of urine culture (UC) and foreign body culture (FBC), the concordance between them, and to identify risk factors for postoperative infections, in order to improve the treatment in these patients, using a...
Source: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases - April 10, 2019 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Target attainment of cefotaxime in critically ill children with meningococcal septic shock as a model for cefotaxime dosing in severe pediatric sepsis
AbstractReduced target attainment of β-lactam antibiotics is reported in critically ill patients. However, as target attainment of cefotaxime in severely ill pediatric sepsis patients may differ from adults due to age-related variation in pharmacokinetics, we aimed to assess target attainment of cefotaxime in this pilot study using me ningococcal septic shock patients as a model for severe sepsis. Secondary analysis of prospectively collected data from a randomized controlled trial. Children with meningococcal septic shock (1 month to 18 years) included in this study received cefotaxime 100–150 mg...
Source: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases - April 9, 2019 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Comparison of in vitro activity of the nitroimidazoles delamanid and pretomanid against multidrug-resistant and extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis
AbstractDelamanid exhibited greater in vitro potency than pretomanid against multidrug-resistant (MDR-) and extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB) isolates. The pretomanid minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of four MDR-TB isolates were found to be resistant to delamanid ranging from 0.031 to 0.063  mg/L. A novel nonsynonymous mutation within thefbiA gene (Glu249Lys) may be contributing to high-level resistance to delamanid and pretomanid inMycobacterium tuberculosis. (Source: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases)
Source: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases - April 5, 2019 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Rat models of colistin nephrotoxicity: previous experimental researches and future perspectives
AbstractColistin is an old antibiotic, which is abandoned decades ago because of high nephrotoxicity rates. However, it is reintroduced to clinical medicine due to lack of newly discovered antibiotics and is still widely used for the treatment of resistant gram-negative infections. Discovering mechanisms to reduce nephrotoxicity risk is of significant importance since exposed patients may have many other factors that alter kidney functions. Several agents were evaluated in animal models of colistin nephrotoxicity as a means to prevent kidney injury. Considerable heterogeneity exists in terms of reporting colistin dosing an...
Source: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases - April 4, 2019 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Culture of all sputum samples irrespective of quality adds value to the diagnosis of pneumococcal community-acquired pneumonia in the elderly
AbstractCulture of expectorated sputum in the microbiological diagnosis of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is considered valid only if high-quality (HQ) samples are obtained, but evidence regarding pneumococcal etiology specifically is lacking. We studied 323 radiologically confirmed CAP cases in patients aged ≥ 65 years. Sputum samples were assessed for quality microscopically and cultured. Two quality criteria sets were applied to delineate HQ from low-quality (LQ) sputa: leukocytes/epithelial cells ratio>  5 and ≤ 2.5 epithelial cells/400× magnification field (HQ1), or leukocy...
Source: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases - April 4, 2019 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

A review of melioidosis cases imported into Europe
This study aims to identify the main characteristics of imported and diagnosed melioidosis cases in Europe to increase clinician ’s awareness of this diagnosis. A literature review of imported and diagnosed human melioidosis cases in Europe was performed. PubMed and Web of Science search engines were used for retrieving articles from 2000 to November 2018. Seventy-seven cases of imported melioidosis into Europe described in the literature were identified. More than half of the cases were acquired in Thailand (53%) by men (73%). Patients were usually exposed toBurkholderia pseudomallei during a holiday stay (58%) of l...
Source: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases - April 4, 2019 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Clostridium difficile infection: review
AbstractClostridium difficile (C. difficile) is a Gram-positive, spore-forming, anaerobic bacillus, which is widely distributed in the intestinal tract of humans and animals and in the environment. In the last decade, the frequency and severity ofC. difficile infection has been increasing worldwide to become one of the most common hospital-acquired infections. Transmission of this pathogen occurs by the fecal-oral route and the most important risk factors include antibiotic therapy, old age, and hospital or nursing home stay. The clinical picture is diverse and ranges from asymptomatic carrier status, through various degre...
Source: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases - April 3, 2019 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Does prolonged blood culture incubation improve microbiological diagnosis of HACEK and slow-growing bacteria infective endocarditis?
(Source: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases)
Source: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases - April 2, 2019 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Predictors and burden of hospital readmission with recurrent Clostridioides difficile infection: a French nation-wide inception cohort study
AbstractTo investigate the predictors and burden of hospital readmission with recurrentClostridioides difficile infection (rCDI) in a large European healthcare system with a low prevalence of hyper-virulentC. difficile clones. We conducted an inception cohort study based on an exhaustive health insurance database and including all survivors of a first hospital stay with CDI over a one-year period (2015) in France. Readmissions with rCDI were defined as a novel hospital stay with CDI within 12  weeks following discharge of the index hospitalization. Risk factors for readmission with rCDI were investigated through multi...
Source: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases - April 2, 2019 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Challenges in diagnosing Zika —experiences from a reference laboratory in a non-endemic setting
AbstractDiagnosing a patient with Zika infection is not always straightforward. Here, we aim to describe our data collected from December 2015 to December 2017 and discuss the implemented algorithm and diagnostic challenges we encountered. At the National Reference Center for Arboviruses at the Institute of Tropical Medicine, Antwerp, Belgium (ITM), a commercial Zika virus (ZIKV) enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) detecting immunoglobulin (Ig) M and IgG, a commercial ZIKV immunofluorescence assay (IFA) detecting IgM, and an in-house Zika virus neutralization test (VNT) were implemented. For molecular detection of ZI...
Source: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases - March 19, 2019 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

The joint impact of smoking plus alcohol drinking on treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis
AbstractTuberculosis, smoking, and alcohol drinking are major public health and social issues worldwide. We investigated the joint effect of smoking plus alcohol drinking on TB treatment. Retrospective study was conducted among TB patients in 49  units from eight provinces in China. All patients enrolled were classified into four groups according to their smoking and/or alcohol status. Current smokers plus drinkers belonged to group 1; ex-smokers plus ex-drinkers were in group 2; current smokers and ex-drinkers, current smokers and never d rinkers, ex-smokers and current drinkers, ex-smokers and never drinkers, never ...
Source: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases - March 19, 2019 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Influence of viral load in the outcome of hospitalized patients with influenza virus infection
AbstractThe role of viral load in the outcome of patients requiring hospital admission due to influenza is not well established. We aim to assess if there is an association between the viral load and the outcome in hospitalized patients with a confirmed influenza virus infection. A retrospective observational study including all adult patients who were hospitalized in our center with a confirmed influenza virus infection from January to May 2016. Viral load was measured by real-time reverse-transcriptase –polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) cycle threshold (Ct) value on upper respiratory tract samples. Its value was ...
Source: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases - March 19, 2019 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Evaluation of a stepwise approach using microbiota analysis, species-specific qPCRs and culture for the diagnosis of lower respiratory tract infections
AbstractIn clinical practice, the diagnosis of lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs) is based on culture. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether a stepwise approach using microbiota analysis, species-specific quantitative real-time (q)PCRs and culture has the potential to be a more accurate and efficient diagnostic approach than culture alone. Sixty-two sputa obtained in a routine clinical setting from patients with a suspected LRTI were included. All sputa were analysed by culture, microbiota analysis based on the 16S ribosomal RNA gene and multiple species-specific qPCRs. Microbiota and culture data were comp...
Source: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases - March 19, 2019 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Current mentorship practices in the training of the next generation of clinical microbiology and infectious disease specialists: an international cross-sectional survey
AbstractThe purpose of this study was to describe the current practice of mentorship in clinical microbiology (CM) and infectious diseases (ID) training, to identify possible areas for improvement and to assess the factors that are associated with satisfactory mentorship. An international cross-sectional survey containing 35 questions was answered by 317 trainees or specialists who recently completed clinical training. Overall, 179/317 (56%) trainees were satisfied with their mentors, ranging from 7/9 (78%) in non-European countries, 39/53 (74%) in Northern Europe, 13/22 (59%) in Eastern Europe, 61/110 (56%) in Western Eur...
Source: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases - March 19, 2019 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Correction to: The relationship between ventilator-associated pneumonia and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: What is the current evidence?
Unfortunately, the Acknowledgements section was not included in the original version of the article. The said section is given here. (Source: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases)
Source: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases - March 19, 2019 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Evaluation of risk factors associated to detection of Blastocystis sp. in fecal samples in population from Barcelona, Spain: a case-control study
AbstractBlastocystis sp. is the most common intestinal parasite isolated in humans. The aim of the study was to describe the risk factors associated toBlastocystis sp. detection. A case-control retrospective study was carried out at Vall d ’Hebron University Hospital (Barcelona, Spain), which receives all fecal samples collected in Barcelona at primary care level. Eligible patients were patients older than 18 years in whom three consecutive stool samples were examined for parasitic diagnosis from January to December 2017. Positive patients forBlastocystis sp. were assigned as cases whereas negative patients were...
Source: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases - March 16, 2019 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Prevalence of fosfomycin resistance among ESBL-producing Escherichia coli isolates in the community, Switzerland
AbstractOur aim was to evaluate the prevalence of fosfomycin-resistant strains among ESBL-producingEscherichia coli isolates recovered from community patients in Switzerland. A total of 1225 ESBL-producingE. coli isolates were collected between 2012 and 2013 from a private and community laboratory. Fosfomycin resistance was assessed by using the novel rapid fosfomycin/E. coli NP test and agar dilution method. Resistant isolates were further investigated for acquired resistance genesfosA1 –7 by PCR and sequencing. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and multilocus sequence typing (MLST) were performed to evaluate ...
Source: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases - March 15, 2019 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Inappropriate empirical antibiotic therapy does not adversely affect the clinical outcomes of patients with acute pyelonephritis caused by extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriales
AbstractExtended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriales (ESBL-PE) are often associated with inappropriate empirical therapy (IAT). The aim of this study was to investigate whether IAT of acute pyelonephritis (APN) caused by ESBL-PE is related to adverse outcomes. A retrospective cohort study was performed at a ter tiary-care hospital from 2014 through 2016. Patients who had APN caused by ESBL-PE and were definitely treated with appropriate antibiotics for at least 7 days were enrolled. IAT was defined as when inappropriate empirical antibiotics were given 48 h or longer after initial diagnosis of A...
Source: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases - March 13, 2019 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Comparison of Unyvero P55 Pneumonia Cartridge, in-house PCR and culture for the identification of respiratory pathogens and antibiotic resistance in bronchoalveolar lavage fluids in the critical care setting
AbstractFaster respiratory pathogen detection and antibiotic resistance identification are important in critical care due to the severity of illness, significant prior antibiotic exposure and infection control implications. Our objective was to compare the performance of the commercial Unyvero P55 Pneumonia Cartridge (Curetis AG) with routine bacterial culture methods and in-house bacterial multiplex real-time PCR assays. Seventy-four bronchoalveolar lavage specimens from patients admitted to a Scottish intensive care unit (ICU) over a 33-month period were tested prospectively by routine culture and viral PCR and retrospec...
Source: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases - March 11, 2019 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Detection of group a Streptococcus in pharyngitis by two rapid tests: comparison of the BD Veritor ™ and the QuikRead go® Strep A
AbstractWe compared the performance of two rapid antigen tests —QuikRead go® Strep A test (Orion Diagnostica, Espoo, Finland) and BD Veritor™ system (Becton, Dickinson and Company, Sparks, MD) with throat culture. Our aim was to evaluate each assay’s performance and agreement compared to throat culture in order to choose one of the assays as a point-of-c are test in the emergency room. One hundred throat samples were collected in triplicates from patients with suspected pharyngitis admitted to the emergency room. One throat swab was seeded for a throat culture. The other two throat swabs from each pat...
Source: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases - March 9, 2019 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Barriers and facilitators and the need for a clinical guideline for microbiological diagnostic testing in the hospital: a qualitative and quantitative study
This study aimed to identify influencing factors in performing microbiological diagnostic tests and to assess the need for a clinical guideline. We performed a qualitative (focus group) and quantitative (online questionnaire survey) study among medical specialists and residents to identify physicians ’ considerations in performing microbiological diagnostic tests and to assess the need for a diagnostic guideline. The questionnaire consisted of 14 statements, divided into three categories: knowledge, influencing factors and presence of guidelines. The questionnaire was sent to physicians of the departments of internal...
Source: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases - March 7, 2019 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Intensive multidisciplinary management in critical care patients affected by severe necrotizing soft tissue infections: a cooperative method to improve the efficacy of treatment
AbstractTo illustrate the effectiveness of our intensive multidisciplinary management (IMM) in the treatment of severely ill patients with necrotizing soft tissue infections (NSTIs). A retrospective observational study was conducted in a general ICU. Thirty-two consecutive patients undergoing IMM were carefully compared with 30 consecutive patients receiving a standard management (SM). IMM combined intensive care management, early surgical debridement followed by daily inspection of surgical wounds, close microbiological surveillance, and targeted high-dose antibiotics. IMM was associated with the better decrease of daily ...
Source: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases - March 6, 2019 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Understanding and overcoming the pitfalls and biases of next-generation sequencing (NGS) methods for use in the routine clinical microbiological diagnostic laboratory
AbstractRecent advancements in next-generation sequencing (NGS) have provided the foundation for modern studies into the composition of microbial communities. The use of these NGS methods allows for the detection and identification of ( ‘difficult-to-culture’) microorganisms using a culture-independent strategy. In the field of routine clinical diagnostics however, the application of NGS is currently limited to microbial strain typing for epidemiological purposes only, even though the implementation of NGS for microbial communi ty analysis may yield clinically important information. This lack of NGS implementat...
Source: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases - March 5, 2019 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Role of Mycobacterium avium lysate INF- γ, IL-17, and IL-2 ELISPOT assays in diagnosing nontuberculous mycobacteria lymphadenitis in children
AbstractNontuberculous mycobacteria are the most frequent cause of chronic cervical lymphadenitis in childhood. The aim of the study was to evaluate the performance of IL-2, IL-17, and INF- γ in-house enzyme-linked immunospot assays using aMycobacterium avium lysate, in order to identify a noninvasive diagnostic method of nontuberculous mycobacteria infection. Children with subacute and chronic lymphadenopathies or with a previous diagnosis of nontuberculous mycobacteria lymphadenitis were prospectively enrolled in the study. Sixty children with lymphadenitis were included in our study: 16 with confirmed infection (g...
Source: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases - March 5, 2019 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Molecular epidemiology of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from infected ICU patients: a French multicenter 2012 –2013 study
AbstractAlthoughPseudomonas aeruginosa has a non-clonal epidemic population structure, recent studies have provided evidence of the existence of epidemic high-risk clones. The aim of this study was to assess the molecular epidemiology ofP. aeruginosa isolates responsible for infections in French ICUs, regardless of resistance patterns. For a 1-year period, all non-duplicateP. aeruginosa isolated from bacteremia and pulmonary infections in ten adult ICUs of six French university hospitals were characterized by antimicrobial susceptibility testing and genotyping (MLST and PFGE). We identified β-lactamases with an extend...
Source: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases - March 2, 2019 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Adoption of new technologies in laboratory workflow practices for positive blood culture bottles: a cross-sectional survey among hospitals in the Autonomous Community of Valencia, Spain
(Source: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases)
Source: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases - March 2, 2019 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

In vitro activity of imipenem-relebactam against non-MBL carbapenemase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae isolated in Greek hospitals in 2015 –2016
AbstractRelebactam is a β-lactamase inhibitor of class A and class C β-lactamases, including carbapenemases. We evaluated the ability of relebactam to restore imipenem susceptibility against a collection ofKlebsiella pneumoniae isolates from Greek hospitals. We tested 314 non-MBL carbapenemase-producingK. pneumoniae consecutive clinical strains isolated from unique patients at 18 hospitals in Greece, between November 2014 and December 2016. Susceptibility testing of imipenem, imipenem-relebactam, meropenem, doripenem, gentamicin, and colistin was performed using broth microdilution. Additionally, MICs of ceftazid...
Source: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases - March 1, 2019 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Impact of health care –associated community-onset cellulitis in Korea: a multicenter study
AbstractWe conducted a multicenter study to determine the clinical and microbiological characteristics of health care –associated (HCA) cellulitis in Korea. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of patients who had been diagnosed with community-onset cellulitis. Of the 2208 cellulitis patients, 232 (10.5%) had HCA cellulitis, 1243 (56.3%) patients were hospitalized, and 15 (0.7%) died in hospital. Compa red with community-acquired (CA) cellulitis, patients with HCA cellulitis were older and more frequently presented with comorbidity and septic shock. A total of 355 microorganisms were isolated from 314 pati...
Source: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases - February 15, 2019 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy: unlocking fundamentals and prospects for bacterial strain typing
AbstractThe need to identify highly related bacterial strains is ancient in clinical, industrial, or environmental microbiology. Strategies based on different phenotypic and genotypic principles have been used since the early 1930s with variable outcomes and performances, accompanying the evolution of bacterial features ’ knowledge as well as technologies, instruments, and data analysis tools. Today, more than ever, the implementation of bacterial typing methods that combine a high reliability and accuracy with a rapid, low-cost, and user-friendly performance is highly desirable, especially for clinical microbiol ogy...
Source: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases - February 15, 2019 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Alternative switching strategies based on regimens with a low genetic barrier: do clinicians have a choice nowadays?
AbstractClinicians sometimes use switching strategies based on regimens such as RAL + ABC/3TC or RPV + ABC/3TC in order to resolve tolerability or safety issues associated with conventional recommended first-line strategies. Despite the low genetic barrier of these regimens, high safety and efficacy rates have been reported in retrospective studies. (Source: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases)
Source: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases - February 15, 2019 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Performance of yeast-like cell counting (YLCC) using the Sysmex UF-1000i for clinical candiduria screening
In conclusion, YLCC with the Sysmax UF-1000i could serve as an auxiliary technique to exclude culture-negative specimens prior to urine culture. Positive YLCC results could imply candiduria, especially when persistent YLCC-positive results were observed. (Source: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases)
Source: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases - February 14, 2019 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Coexistence of Candida species and bacteria in patients with cystic fibrosis
AbstractCystic fibrosis (CF) patients become colonized by pathogenic bacteria as well as byCandida species. The interplay between different microorganisms may play a key role in the prognosis of CF. The aim of the study was to analyze the coexistence patterns of bacteria andCandida spp. in sputum samples of patients with CF and to compare these patterns with the results of patients with other respiratory disorders (ORD). Sputum samples from 130 patients with CF and 186 patients with ORD were cultured on six different agar plates promoting the growth of bacteria and yeasts. Bacterial andCandida species were identified with ...
Source: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases - February 9, 2019 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

A new simplified predictive model for mortality in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia
The objectives of this study were to develop a simplified MRSAB-specific scoring model to estimate the risk of 30-day all-cause mortality and to compare its performance to the APACHE II and Pitt Bacteremia scores. Retrospective, singe-center, cohort study in adults with MRSAB 2008 to 2018. Independent predictors of mortality were identified through multivariable logistic regression. A scoring model was derived using a regression coefficient-based scoring method. Discriminatory ability was assessed using thec statistic. A total of 455 patients were included. Thirty-day mortality was 16.3%. The MRSAB score consisted of six v...
Source: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases - February 8, 2019 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Helicobacter pylori infection in children: an overview of diagnostic methods
AbstractChildren differ from adults regardingHelicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection in many terms.H. pylori infection represents a key factor in the pathogenesis of duodenal ulcer and chronic gastritis in children.H. pylori infection causes some extraintestinal diseases as well as gastrointestinal diseases. Although, among these illnesses in children, symptoms like recurrent abdominal pain are not specific. Moreover, the role of the pathogen in the growth faltering, iron deficiency anemia, and asthma still remains controversial. A reliable method to detectH. pylori infection is a crucial issue, sand is still a matter of...
Source: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases - February 7, 2019 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Vancomycin MICs and risk of complicated bacteremia by glycopeptide-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus
AbstractVancomycin (VAN) minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) at the upper end of the susceptible range forStaphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), as measured by the Etest method, have been associated with poor clinical outcomes ofS. aureus bloodstream infections, as has the isolate ’s genetic background. Here, we assessed the impact of VAN MICs, as determined by a broth microdilution method (BMD) that incorporates incremental VAN concentrations between the conventional log2 dilutions, isolate susceptibility to killing by human phagocytes, acting as a surrogate marker for bacterial cell wall thickness, andS. aureus ge...
Source: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases - February 6, 2019 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Assessment of the tau protein concentration in patients with tick-borne encephalitis
AbstractThere have been suggestions that tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) may cause neurodenenerative changes in the brain. The aim of this study was the assessment of the tau protein concentration in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of patients with different clinical forms of TBE. The concentration of tau protein in CSF was determined using Fujirebio tests (Ghent, Belgium) in 35 patients with TBE: group I —patients with meningitis (n = 16); group II—patients with meningoencephalitis (n = 19). None of the patients reported any neurodegenerative disorder that could affect the results of the st...
Source: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases - February 5, 2019 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Opposite effects of Vaccinia and modified Vaccinia Ankara on trained immunity
This study assesses whetherVaccinia and MVA are able to induce trained innate immunity in monocytes. Human primary monocytes were primed in an in vitro model withVaccinia or MVA for 1  day, after which the stimulus was washed off and the cells were rechallenged with unrelated microbial ligands after 1 week. Heterologous cytokine responses were assessed and the capacity of MVA to induce epigenetic changes at the level of cytokine genes was investigated using chromatin immunoprec ipitation and pharmacological inhibitors. Monocytes trained withVaccinia showed significantly increased IL-6 and TNF- α production ...
Source: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases - February 5, 2019 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Discordant isolates in bone specimens from patients with recurrent foot osteomyelitis
AbstractWe compared paired operative bone cultures (initial operation and reoperation) for 35 patients who experienced foot osteomyelitis treatment failure at a single hospital. Concordance was poor (kappa  = 0.180).Staphylococcus aureus, gram negatives, and anaerobes were the most common discordant bacteria seen at reoperation, whileEnterococcus was the most persistent. (Source: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases)
Source: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases - February 5, 2019 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Modified interpretation criteria significantly improve performance of commercially available confirmatory assays for the serodiagnosis of Lyme borreliosis: a case-control study with clinically defined serum samples
AbstractCase-control study for the evaluation of innovative test formats for second-tier  testing for the serodiagnosis of Lyme borreliosis (LB). A head-to-head comparison was performed with the test systems ViraStripe, SeraSpot, ViraChip, and recomBead. Serum samples from 62 patients (21 erythema migrans, 33 Lyme neuroborreliosis, 8 late LB) and 91 controls (including 29 potentially c ross-reacting sera) were tested. For ViraChip and recomBead, optimised interpretation criteria were developed for both IgG and IgM. The most important modification for the proposed interpretation criteria for ViraChip is the interpretat...
Source: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases - February 4, 2019 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Multi-step optimization of the filtration method for the isolation of Campylobacter species from stool samples
This study was performed in three phases to optimize FM from a routine laboratory perspective. In July–September 2014 (part I), FM was performed on Mueller–Hinton agar containing 5% sheep blood and Columbia agar contai ning 5% sheep blood. In July 2016 (part II), FM was performed using 0.60-μm pore size polycarbonate filters (0.6-PC filter) and 0.45-μm pore size cellulose acetate filters (0.45-AC filter); in January 2018 (part III), the addition of hydrogen to incubators was studied. On 1146 stools analyzed in p art I, the positive samples that showed no growth on the Butzler medium (n = 22/...
Source: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases - February 4, 2019 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Direct antimicrobial susceptibility testing from the blood culture pellet obtained for MALDI-TOF identification of Enterobacterales and Pseudomonas aeruginosa
AbstractTo standardize the methodology for conducting direct antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) of Enterobacterales andPseudomonas aeruginosa causing bacteremia from positive blood culture pellets. Two methods for processing positive blood cultures with Enterobacterales andP. aeruginosa were compared: a conventional method for identification and AST versus a direct method obtaining a pellet for both matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization –time of flight (MALDI-TOF) identification and direct AST. A total of 157 (145 Enterobacterales, 12P. aeruginosa) positive blood cultures were included. Microorganism id...
Source: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases - February 2, 2019 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Detection of Enterobius vermicularis in greater Berlin, 2007 –2017: seasonality and increased frequency of detection
AbstractThe pinworm (Enterobius vermicularis) causes mostly mild infections characterised by nocturnal anal pruritus, mainly in children. Still, the infection is stigmatising and sleep disturbances may lead to lack of concentration. For Germany, no epidemiological data are available. Laboratory data of all patients for whom detection ofE. vermicularis by cellulose tape test had been requested between 2007 and November 2017 were analysed retrospectively.E. vermicularis was detected in 971/5578 (17.4%) samples collected from 3991 patients. The detection rate increased significantly within the period of investigation. It was ...
Source: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases - February 2, 2019 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Accuracy of CD64 expression on neutrophils and monocytes in bacterial infection diagnosis at pediatric intensive care admission
AbstractThe CD64 receptor has been described as an interesting bacterial infection biomarker. Its expression has not been studied in previously healthy children admitted to pediatric critical care unit (PICU). Our objective was firstly to describe the CD64 expression and secondly study its diagnostic accuracy to discriminate bacterial versus viral infection in this children. We made a prospective double-blind observational study (March 2016 –February 2018). A flow cytometry (FC) was done from peripheral blood at PICU admission. We studied the percentage of CD64+ neutrophils and the CD64 mean fluorescence intensity (M...
Source: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases - February 2, 2019 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

The successful uptake and sustainability of rapid infectious disease and antimicrobial resistance point-of-care testing requires a complex ‘mix-and-match’ implementation package
AbstractThe emergence and spread of antimicrobial resistance is one of the major global issues currently threatening the health and wealth of nations, with effective guidelines and intervention strategies urgently required. Such guidelines and interventions should ideally be targeted at individuals, communities, and nations, requiring international coordination for maximum effect. In this respect, the European Joint Programming Initiative on Antimicrobial Resistance Transnational Working Group ‘Antimicrobial Resistance - Rapid Diagnostic Tests’ (JPIAMR AMR-RDT) is proposing to consider a ‘mix-and-match&rs...
Source: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases - February 2, 2019 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Amoxicillin/clavulanic acid+aminoglycoside as empirical antibiotic treatment in severe community-acquired infections with diagnostic uncertainty
AbstractDiagnostic uncertainty is common in the emergency room and multidrug-resistant bacteria emerge in the community setting, implying to establish the most efficient empirical antibiotic therapy (eEAT). Our aim was to identify such eEAT, considering that in case of DU with severe clinical presentation, most prescribers would propose an empiric combination (EC). The medical dashboard of our ward records prospectively 28 characteristics of each hospitalization including hospitalization motive, final diagnosis, and all antibiotics prescribed. All patients with community-acquired bacteremia (CAB) were included. DU was defi...
Source: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases - February 1, 2019 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research