What is the risk of missing legionellosis relying on urinary antigen testing solely? A retrospective Belgian multicenter study
AbstractCurrently, diagnosis of legionellosis relies mainly on urinary antigen testing (UAT) forLegionella pneumophila serogroup 1 (Lp1). However, this test has several limitations, particularly missing non-Lp1 infections. The purpose of this large multicenter study was to investigate the risk of missing legionellosis relying on UAT solely. Molecular results ofLegionella detection as part of a first-line (syndromic) testing algorithm for severe respiratory tract infections were investigated retrospectively and compared with UAT results in 14 Belgian laboratories. Overall, 44.4% (20/45) UAT results appeared false negative a...
Source: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases - December 14, 2019 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Physician perceptions of a multidisciplinary endocarditis team
AbstractInfectious endocarditis is a highly morbid infection that requires coordination of care across medical and surgical specialties, often through the use of a multidisciplinary team model. Multiple studies have demonstrated that such conferences can improve clinical outcomes. However, little is known about physicians ’ impressions of these groups. We surveyed 126 (response rate of 30%) internal medicine, infectious diseases, cardiology, and cardiac surgery providers 1 year after the implementation of an endocarditis team at the University of Michigan. Ninety-eight percent of physicians felt that the endocar...
Source: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases - December 14, 2019 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Antimicrobial therapy with aminoglycoside or meropenem in the intensive care unit for hospital associated infections and risk factors for acute kidney injury
AbstractThere have historically been concerns of acute kidney injury (AKI) with the use of aminoglycosides. The present study aimed to compare the AKI incidence and mortality rate between critically ill patients treated with aminoglycoside or meropenem in the intensive care unit setting using a propensity score matching approach. This cross-sectional study was conducted at two university hospitals from January 2011 to October 2017. Clinical and laboratorial data were evaluated to exclude potential confounders and to calculate the Charlson index. AKI was classified according to the Acute Kidney Injury Network criteria. All ...
Source: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases - December 12, 2019 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Prevalence of urogenital mycoplasmas in women with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE): preliminary study
AbstractThe aim of this study was to determine the occurrence of urogenital mycoplasmas in urogenital tract of women with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). The study group included 36 women diagnosed with SLE and 100 healthy controls. Mycoplasmas were detected with microculture and PCR in 13/36 (36.1%) women with SLE and in 25/100 (25%) controls. In both groups,U. parvum occurred significantly more frequently.M. genitalium was detected in 3/36 (8.3%) SLE patients and in 3/100 (3%) controls. FVU as a material decreased the number of positive results from 33.3% to 30.6% compared with swabs.Although the incidence of mycopla...
Source: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases - December 12, 2019 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Emergence of multidrug resistance among Haemophilus parainfluenzae from respiratory and urogenital samples in Barcelona, Spain
AbstractHaemophilus parainfluenzae (HPAR) is a Gram-negative bacterium that can become an opportunistic urogenital pathogen. Recently, multidrug resistant (MDR) strains have emerged. We aim to analyse the epidemiology of HPAR at Hospital Universitari de Bellvitge between 2013 and 2017 to determine its putative role in sexually transmitted infections (STI). Strains were classified by sample origin, and antimicrobial susceptibility was performed by disk-diffusion tested on Mueller-Hinton Fastidious. MDR was defined as the resistance of the antimicrobial to three or more antibiotic class. Molecular typing was performed by pul...
Source: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases - December 11, 2019 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Diagnostic and medical needs for therapeutic drug monitoring of antibiotics
AbstractTherapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) of antibiotics has been practiced for more than half a century, but it is still not widely applied for infected patients. It has a traditional focus on limiting toxicity of specific classes of antibiotics such as aminoglycosides and vancomycin. With more patients in critical care with higher levels of sickness severity and immunosuppression as well as an increasingly obese and ageing population, an increasing risk of suboptimal antibiotic exposure continues to escalate. As such, the value of TDM continues to expand, especially for beta-lactams which constitute the most frequently u...
Source: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases - December 11, 2019 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Predictors of nasal bacterial culture rates in patients with chronic rhinosinusitis
AbstractAll nontechnical factors were analyzed to predict nasal bacterial culture results in patients with chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS). Four hundred and ninety-six CRS patients, who underwent functional endoscopic sinus surgery (FESS), were enrolled. Prior to FESS, the severity of each patient ’s CRS was evaluated using a questionnaire, endoscopic examination, acoustic rhinometry, smell test, saccharine transit test, and CT scan. Nasal bacterial cultures were collected from both middle meati using a cotton-tipped stick. Our results showed that the symptom severity complained of by patie nts and their loss of smell f...
Source: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases - December 11, 2019 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Non-alcoholic fatty liver diseases: from role of gut microbiota to microbial-based therapies
AbstractNon-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the well-known disease of the liver in adults and children throughout the world. The main manifestations related to NAFLD are an unusual storage of lipid in hepatocytes (hepatic steatosis) and progression of inflammation for non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). NAFLD is described as a multifactorial complication due to the genetic predisposition, metabolic functions, inflammatory, gut microbiota (GM), and environmental factors. The GM dysregulation among these factors is correlated to NAFLD development. In recent decades, advanced microbial profiling methods are continu...
Source: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases - December 11, 2019 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Evidence supporting recommendations from international guidelines on treatment, diagnosis, and prevention of HAP and VAP in adults
In conclusion, among HAP/VAP international guidelines, most recommendations, particularly in therapy, remain supported by observational studies, case reports, and expert opinion. Well-designed RCTs are urgently needed. (Source: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases)
Source: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases - December 10, 2019 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Pathogenic characteristics of Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacteraemia isolates in a high-endemicity setting for ST175 and ST235 high-risk clones
AbstractMultidrug-resistant (MDR)Pseudomonas aeruginosa represents a major clinical concern. The interplay between antimicrobial resistance and virulence ofP. aeruginosa was investigated in in vitro and in vivo studies. Thirty-eight well-characterized (21 MDR and 17 non-MDR)P. aeruginosa strains from patients with bacteraemia were analysed. Resistance phenotype, carbapenemase production, clonal relatedness, type III secretion system genotype, O-antigen serotype, cytotoxicity (ability to lyse cells) on A549 cells, and virulence (lethality in nematodes) in aCaenorhabditis elegans model were investigated. MDR strains showed l...
Source: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases - December 10, 2019 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

A novel id-iri score: development and internal validation of the multivariable community acquired sepsis clinical risk prediction model
AbstractWe aimed to develop a scoring system for predicting in-hospital mortality of community-acquired (CA) sepsis patients. This was a prospective, observational multicenter study performed to analyze CA sepsis among adult patients through ID-IRI (Infectious Diseases International Research Initiative) at 32 centers in 10 countries between December 1, 2015, and May 15, 2016. After baseline evaluation, we used univariate analysis at the second and logistic regression analysis at the third phase. In this prospective observational study, data of 373 cases with CA sepsis or septic shock were submitted from 32 referral centers...
Source: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases - December 10, 2019 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Diagnostic accuracy and clinical impact of loop-mediated isothermal amplification for rapid detection of Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia: a retrospective observational study
AbstractThe aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy and the clinical impact of isothermal loop-mediated amplification (LAMP; eazyplex ® MRSA kits) for rapid diagnosis ofStaphylococcus aureus bacteremia (SAB) in comparison with conventional blood culture diagnostics. We performed a retrospective, single-center observational study over the period between November 2016 and December 2018 on patients (and blood cultures) with growth of Gram-positive cocci in clusters in their blood cultures. We quantified diagnostic accuracy with sensitivity and specificity for detection ofS. aureus, methicillin-resistantS...
Source: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases - December 10, 2019 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Determination of pentraxin 3 levels in cerebrospinal fluid during central nervous system infections
AbstractPentraxin 3 (PTX3) is an acute phase protein; its plasmatic levels significantly rise during severe infections. Data on PTX3 levels in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of patients with central nervous system (CNS) infections are lacking. We aimed (a) to assess the diagnostic potential of measuring CSF PTX3 levels in patients with CNS infections and (b) to establish CSF PTX3 cutoffs to distinguish between bacterial and aseptic meningoencephalitis (ROC curve). PTX3 levels were measured in CSF from 19 patients admitted to Trieste Hospital, Italy, with CNS infection. A diagnosis of bacterial infection and aseptic meningoencep...
Source: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases - December 8, 2019 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Application of metagenomic next-generation sequencing for bronchoalveolar lavage diagnostics in critically ill patients
AbstractThe purpose of this study was to assess the value of metagenomic next-generation sequencing (mNGS) of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) for the diagnosis of severe respiratory diseases based on interpretation of sequencing results. BALF samples were harvested and used for mNGS as well as microbiological detection. Infectious bacteria or fungi were defined according to relative abundance and number of unique reads. We performed mNGS on 35 BALF samples from 32 patients. The positive rate reached 100% in the mNGS analysis of nine immunocompromised patients. Compared with the culture method, mNGS had a diagnostic sen...
Source: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases - December 7, 2019 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Five-year Pan-European, longitudinal surveillance of Clostridium difficile ribotype prevalence and antimicrobial resistance: the extended Clos ER study
AbstractClostridium difficile infection (CDI) has been primarily treated with metronidazole or vancomycin. High recurrence rates, the emergence of epidemic PCR ribotypes (RTs) and the introduction of fidaxomicin in Europe in 2011 necessitate surveillance of antimicrobial resistance and CDI epidemiology. TheClosER study monitored antimicrobial susceptibility and geographical distribution ofC. difficile RTs pre- and post-fidaxomicin introduction. From 2011 to 2016, 28 European countries submitted isolates or faecal samples for determination of PCR ribotype, toxin status and minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of metroni...
Source: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases - December 7, 2019 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Algorithm-aided diagnosis of chronic pulmonary aspergillosis in low- and middle-income countries by use of a lateral flow device
(Source: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases)
Source: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases - December 6, 2019 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Treatment and recurrence on re-treatment tuberculosis patients: a randomized clinical trial and 7-year perspective cohort study in China
This study aimed to examine the therapeutic effects of new re-treatment regimens, and explore risk factors associated with recurrence after successful treatment. We conducted a cohort study in nine regions of China and enrolled previously treated TB patients from October, 2008 to December, 2010. Patients were randomly divided into four treatment regimen groups including standard, high-dose, long-course, and individualized treatment. After treatment, those with successful treatment outcomes were followed up to 7  years. The effects of different regimens and the information of recurrence were recorded. Risk factors to p...
Source: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases - December 5, 2019 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Incidence of coagulase-negative staphylococcal bacteremia among ICU patients: decontamination studies as a natural experiment
AbstractThe epidemiology of coagulase-negative staphylococcal (CNS) bacteremia among adult ICU patients remains unclear. Decontamination studies among ICU patients provide a unique opportunity to study the impacts of different diagnostic criteria, exposure to various decontamination interventions, and various other factors, on its incidence over three decades. Decontamination studies among ICU patients reporting CNS bacteremia incidence data were obtained mostly from recent systematic reviews. The CNS bacteremia incidence within component (control and intervention) groups of decontamination studies was benchmarked versus s...
Source: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases - December 4, 2019 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Factors affecting the discharge of patients from hospital with seasonal influenza —the role of the Rapid Influenza testing in hospital discharges
AbstractInfluenza is a major cause of presentations to the emergency departments. Introduction of the Rapid Influenza tests has assisted with diagnosis and facilitated patient discharges. We designed this study to identify factors affecting hospital discharge and to understand the role of Rapid Influenza testing. A retrospective observational study of patients was done during influenza season in 2017. Clinical data was obtained from electronic medical records. Rapid Influenza testing was performed using Xpert Flu/RSV (Cepheid, USA). Univariate and multivariate analysis was done using SPSS Version 26 (IBM, NY). A total of 6...
Source: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases - December 3, 2019 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Failure to complete treatment for latent tuberculosis infection in Portugal, 2013 –2017: geographic-, sociodemographic-, and medical-associated factors
This study reinforces that shorter course treatment for LTBI might reduce FCT. (Source: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases)
Source: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases - December 3, 2019 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Abundance of the nasopharyngeal microbiome effects pertussis diagnosis and explains the sensitivity difference between bacterial culture and real-time PCR
Abstract Quantitative real time PCR (qPCR)is used for pertussis diagnosis. The positive rate of qPCR is generally much higher than that of bacterial culture, which may cause confusion. The current study utilized the 16S ribosomal RNA (16S rRNA) sequencing to assess the correlation between conventional culture and qPCR and to explore the value of 16S rRNA in diagnosing pertussis. Nasopharyngeal swabs, collected from 102 children meeting clinical diagnostic criteria for pertussis, were subjected toBordetella pertussis culture and qPCR. Bioinformatic microbiota analysis was based on 16S rRNA V3-V4 gene sequencing. Among 102 s...
Source: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases - December 3, 2019 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Impact of thrombocytes, on bacterial growth and antimicrobial activity of selected antibiotics
AbstractIn vitro pharmacodynamic models are used to optimize in vivo dosing regimens in antimicrobial drug development. One limiting factor of such models is the lack of host factors such as corpuscular blood components as erythrocytes which have already been shown to impact activity of antibiotics and/or growth of the pathogen. However, the impact of thrombocytes has not previously been investigated. We set out to investigate if the addition of thrombocytes (set to physiological concentrations in blood of healthy human, i.e., 5 × 105 thrombocytes/ μL standard growth media Mueller Hinton Broth, MHB) has an influen...
Source: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases - December 1, 2019 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Predicting factors for chronic colonization of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in bronchiectasis
AbstractAbout 25% of the patients with bronchiectasis are likely to develop a chronic colonization withPseudomonas aeruginosa. A better understanding of predictors of acquiringPseudomonas within the patient population may facilitate future focused research. The aim of this retrospective observational study was to investigate predicting factors forP. aeruginosa colonization in patients with bronchiectasis. This was a single-center retrospective cohort study using a bronchiectasis database which consisted of 211 patients with bronchiectasis. Data were collected for demographic details, etiology, spirometry, microbiology data...
Source: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases - November 15, 2019 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Effect of conjugated bilirubin on clinical outcomes in infective endocarditis
AbstractLiver dysfunction is associated with adverse events in infective endocarditis (IE). However, few studies have explored the predictive value of conjugated bilirubin (CB) in IE. We aimed to investigate the nature of the link between CB and adverse prognosis in patients with IE. Consecutive patients with IE between January 2009 and July 2015 were enrolled. Multivariate analysis was performed to confirm whether CB was an independent risk factor for adverse outcomes. In all, 1010 patients were included and divided into two groups according to admission CB level ( μmol/L): normal (≤ 7.0,n = 820...
Source: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases - November 15, 2019 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Statins and outcomes of hospitalized patients with laboratory-confirmed 2017 –2018 influenza
AbstractNo studies evaluating the association between statins and outcomes of patients with seasonal influenza have been performed since the 2007 –2008 and the 2009 pandemic H1N1 influenza seasons. All consecutive hospitalized patients between October 2017 and April 2018, diagnosed with laboratory-confirmed influenza A and B virus, were included. Patients were divided into two groups: statin and non-statin users. Outcomes were 30- and 90-da y mortality, complications (pneumonia, myocarditis, encephalitis, intensive care unit (ICU) transfer, mechanical ventilation, vasopressor support), length of hospital stay, and re...
Source: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases - November 15, 2019 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Evaluation of telavancin susceptibility in isolates of Staphylococcus aureus with reduced susceptibility to vancomycin
AbstractHistorically, vancomycin has been considered a primary therapeutic option for treating infections withStaphylococcus aureus, but isolates with reduced vancomycin susceptibility (SA-RVS) (MIC  ≥ 4 μg/mL) have emerged. Telavancin, a semisynthetic lipoglycopeptide, is an alternative treatment option forS. aureus, but data examining telavancin activity against SA-RVS are limited. In the present study, we characterize 300 isolates ofS. aureus isolates (50 vancomycin-susceptible (VSSA) isolates and 250 SA-RVS isolates) from a large tertiary care, academic medical center, 51.8% of which were methi...
Source: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases - November 15, 2019 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

A multidrug-resistant microorganism infection risk prediction model: development and validation in an emergency medicine population
AbstractThe aim was to develop a predictive model of infection by multidrug-resistant microorganisms (MDRO). A national, retrospective cohort study was carried out including all patients attended for an infectious disease in 54 Spanish Emergency Departments (ED), in whom a microbiological isolation was available from a culture obtained during their attention in the ED. A MDRO infection prediction model was created in a derivation cohort using backward logistic regression. Those variables significant atp 21 points). Findings were similar in the validation cohort. Several patient-specific factors were independently associate...
Source: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases - November 13, 2019 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Evaluation of Bio-Rad ® discs for antimicrobial susceptibility testing by disc diffusion and the ADAGIO™ system for the automatic reading and interpretation of results
In this study, the performance of both Bio-Rad ® antibiotic discs (as compared with Oxoid® discs) and the ADAGIO™ automated system for the reading of disc diffusion test results was evaluated with American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) quality control (QC) and wild strains of bacteria. Inhibition zones of both disc brands were read manually and through use of the ADAGIO™ system. Categorized interpretation of the results for each strain and antibiotic combination was summarized according to the Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute MS-100 (2017 update) manual and ADAGIO™ readings. Eight ATCC QC ...
Source: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases - November 12, 2019 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Impact of a multiplex PCR assay (FilmArray ®) on the management of patients with suspected central nervous system infections
AbstractMicrobiological diagnosis of central nervous system (CNS) infections is challenging due to limited access to CNS samples, overlap between meningitis and encephalitis, and the multiplicity of pathogens potentially involved. We aimed to estimate the impact of a commercial multiplex PCR assay (FilmArray ® meningitis/encephalitis) on the management of patients with suspicion of meningitis or encephalitis, in terms of time to diagnosis, antimicrobial agents use, duration of hospitalization, and costs. This prospective observational study was conducted at Saint Joseph Hospital (Paris, France) from De cember 2016 to D...
Source: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases - November 12, 2019 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Elimination of Staphylococcus aureus nasal carriage in intensive care patients lowers infection rates
This study surveys the clinical relevance of the nasalStaphylococcus aureus colonization status on intensive care unit (ICU) –acquiredS.aureus infections and compares molecular characteristics of isolates from the nose and infectious sites. The 390 patients included comprised 278 non-carriers and 112 carriers. Among the carriers, 56 were decolonized with mupirocin. Decolonization was verified through a second (negative) culture. Spa typing and virulence gene profiling were performed for all isolates. Twenty sixS.aureus infections were detected in the carriage group and 20 in the non-carriage group. Eighteen of these ...
Source: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases - November 12, 2019 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Recurrent community-acquired Clostridium ( Clostridioides)difficile infection in Serbianchildren
This study was designed to identify risk factors for rCA-CDI in Serbian pediatric population. The study group included 71 children (aged from 1 to 14  years) with a first episode of CDI. Data were collected from 56 (78.87%) children with only one episode of CA-CDI and from 15 (21.13%) children with rCA-CDI were mutually compared. The following parameters were found to be statistically significantly more frequent in the children with rCA-CDI grou p (p 
Source: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases - November 12, 2019 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Antimicrobial Stewardship in Hematological Patients at the intensive care unit: a global cross-sectional survey from the Nine-i Investigators Network
AbstractA global cross-sectional survey was performed to gather data on the current treatment of infections caused by multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria among hematological patients admitted to ICUs worldwide. The survey was performed in April 2019 using an electronic platform (SurveyMonkey ®) being distributed among 83 physicians and completed by 48 (57.8%) responders. ESBL Enterobacteriaceae, carbapenem-resistantK. pneumoniae and carbapenem-resistantP. aeruginosa were the main concerns. Previous MDR infection (34% of responders), MDR colonization (20%) and previous antibiotic exposure within the last 3  months (...
Source: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases - November 9, 2019 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

The effects of inulin on gut microbial composition: a systematic review of evidence from human studies
ConclusionsOur systematic review assessed the evidence for the effects of inulin supplementation on the human gut microbiome. However, these in vivo studies did not confirm in vitro experiments as the taxonomic alterations were not associated with increase in short-chain fatty acids levels. (Source: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases)
Source: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases - November 9, 2019 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

A new point-of-care test for the rapid detection of urinary tract infections
AbstractUrinary tract infections (UTIs) are among the most common infections in all age groups. Fast and accurate diagnosis is essential to ensure a timely and effective therapy. Alongside with reference culture-based methods, several point-of-care tests (POCTs) for early detection of UTIs have been developed, but they have not been significantly implemented in current clinical practice. The Micro Biological Survey (MBS) POCT is a simple test developed by MBS Diagnostics Ltd. (London, UK) for the detection and management of UTIs. The present study has been undertaken to investigate the potentials and limits of the MBS POCT...
Source: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases - November 9, 2019 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Accurate identification of S. pneumoniae using MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry, still a challenge for clinical laboratories?
(Source: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases)
Source: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases - November 9, 2019 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Hospital-wide antifungal prescription in Greek hospitals: a multicenter repeated point-prevalence study
AbstractThe aim of the study was to evaluate antifungal prescriptions among hospitalized adult patients in Greek hospitals. This multicenter two-times, 1-day, point-prevalence study was carried out in 2015 and 2017 in five and six hospitals, respectively. Among the 5812 patients screened in both periods, antifungals were prescribed in 129 patients (73 in 2015 and 56 in 2017); antifungals were used as prophylaxis in 31 patients (24%), pre-emptively in 32 (25%), empirically in 38 (30%), and as targeted therapy in 28 (22%). Triazoles were the class most commonly used (65 patients; 50%), followed by echinocandins (59; 46%) and...
Source: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases - November 8, 2019 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Probiotics in addition to metronidazole for treatment Trichomonas vaginalis in the presence of BV: a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study
AbstractThe purpose was to evaluate whether probiotics can increase the effectiveness of antimicrobial therapy. Ninety women withTrichomonas vaginalis (TV) in the presence BV were included in the study of regimens for therapy combination with metronidazole and vaginal probiotics. For 7 days, the probiotics group patients received metronidazole at 500 mg twice a day and 1 capsule of probiotic Gynophilus ® vaginally twice a day; the placebo group patients in addition to metronidazole received a placebo instead of a probiotic. For the next 7 days, patients in both groups in order restore normal microflora were given the p...
Source: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases - November 8, 2019 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Out-of-hours calls in clinical microbiology: the when, the why and from whom
AbstractMicrobiology services provided to hospitals must be delivered 24 h a day. In addition to during routine so-called ‘office hours’, clinical microbiologists have to provide an on-call service 7 days a week. However, there are few data on what that involves and how the service is delivered. I reviewed the source, reason for, grade of staff from whom the call came and the need for any follow-up, over an 11-year period using a pro-forma, that had been used to review data before this time period. Details were available for 90% of calls received, and data from 809 calls were analysed. The sources of calls were...
Source: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases - November 7, 2019 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

The added value of the selective SuperPolymyxin ™ medium in detecting rectal carriage of Gram-negative bacteria with acquired colistin resistance in intensive care unit patients receiving selective digestive decontamination
The objective of this study was to determine the value of using SuperPolymyxin ™ selective medium (ELITech Group, Puteaux, France) in addition to conventional non-selective inoculation methods in the detection of acquired colistin resistance in a Dutch intensive care unit (ICU) that routinely uses selective decontamination of the digestive tract (SDD). We performed a cross-s ectional study with prospective data collection in a tertiary-care ICU. All consecutive surveillance rectal swabs of ICU-patients receiving SDD were included and cultured in an observer-blinded approach using (1) a conventional culture method usi...
Source: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases - November 6, 2019 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Breakpoint beware: reliance on historical breakpoints for Enterobacteriaceae leads to discrepancies in interpretation of susceptibility testing for carbapenems and cephalosporins and gaps in detection of carbapenem-resistant organisms
AbstractCarbapenem-resistantEnterobacteriaceae (CRE) are an important public health and infection prevention threat. CRE are typically detected via phenotypic antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST), for which interpretive standards were modified in recent years. Our objective was to measure the impact of breakpoint changes on AST interpretation for CRE. Zone sizes from disk diffusion AST forEnterobacteriaceae isolates recovered from clinical cultures over a 1-year period (n = 10,183) and CRE from clinical and environmental sources from the USA and Pakistan (n = 342) were evaluated. Results were interpreted according to...
Source: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases - November 2, 2019 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Connection between gut microbiome and the development of obesity
AbstractThe potential role of the gut microbiota in various human diseases has attracted considerable attention worldwide. Here, we discuss the vital role of the intestinal microbiota in the development of obesity. First, we describe how the gut microbiota promotes fat accumulation. Additionally, a high-fat diet leads to structural instability among in the gut microbiota, further leading to an increase in endotoxins, which aggravates obesity. We then discuss how gut microbiota metabolites, including short-chain fatty acids and lipopolysaccharides, affect the host. Finally, we review several strategies for regulating the in...
Source: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases - October 20, 2019 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Multicenter evaluation of the new QIAstat Gastrointestinal Panel for the rapid syndromic testing of acute gastroenteritis
AbstractIn acute gastroenteritis (AGE), identification of the infectious agent is important for patient management. Since symptoms do not reliably identify the agent, microbiological diagnostics are important. Conventional methods lack sensitivity and often take days. Multiplex PCR panels offer fast and sensitive alternatives. Our aim was to assess the performance of the new QIAstat Gastrointestinal Panel (GIP) detecting 24 different gastroenteric pathogens from stool in Cary-Blair transport medium (Adenovirus F 40/41, Astrovirus, Norovirus GI/GII, Rotavirus A, Sapovirus,Campylobacter spp.,Clostridium difficile,Plesiomonas...
Source: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases - October 20, 2019 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

In vitro activities of imipenem, vancomycin, and rifampicin against clinical Elizabethkingia species producing BlaB and GOB metallo-beta-lactamases
This study was aimed to investigate the in vitro activity of imipenem, vancomycin, and rifampicin in clinicalElizabethkingia species. The distribution and heterogeneity of MBLs responsible for imipenem resistance were also evaluated. A total of 167Elizabethkingia isolates from different patients were collected, includingE. anophelis (142),E. meningoseptica (11), andE. miricola (14). All isolates were evaluated by the broth microdilution assay, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) combination disk test, and EDTA-based microdilution test. The characteristics of BlaB and GOB were evaluated in phylogenetic analysis and heter...
Source: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases - October 20, 2019 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Risk factors for gentamicin-resistant E. coli in children with community-acquired urinary tract infection
AbstractAccording to many guidelines, gentamicin is the empirical parenteral treatment for children with community-acquired urinary tract infection (CA-UTI). However, increasing resistance rates are reported. The purpose of this study is to analyze risk factors for presenting with a UTI caused by a community-acquired gentamicin-resistantEscherichia coli in children in our hospital and to describe their clinical outcome. A retrospective case-control local study was performed in a tertiary care hospital from January 2014 to December 2016. Cases and controls were children below 14  years old diagnosed in the Emergency De...
Source: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases - October 20, 2019 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Antibiotic resistance of Escherichia coli isolated from uncomplicated UTI in general practice patients over a 10-year period
AbstractRecommendations of first choice antibiotic therapy need to be based on actual antibiotic susceptibility data. We determined the antibiotic susceptibility ofE. coli in uncomplicated UTI among women and compared the results with 2004 and 2009. In 30 sentinel general practitioner practices of Nivel Primary Care database, urine samples were collected from women with symptoms of uncomplicated UTI. Patient characteristics,E. coli susceptibility, and ESBL production were analyzed. Six hundred eighty-nine urine samples were collected;E. coli was the most isolated uropathogen (83%). Antibiotic susceptibility was stable over...
Source: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases - October 20, 2019 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Could aflatoxin B1 production by Aspergillus flavus affect the severity of keratitis: an experience in two tertiary health care centers, Egypt
AbstractTo investigate the expression of AFB1 gene in isolates obtained from corneal scrapping samples from keratitis patients and to correlate the quantity of AFB1 to the severity of keratitis. An observational study was undertaken in Medical Microbiology and Immunology department, Mansoura University, Egypt, over corneal scrapping samples that were cultured aiming to isolate fungal causes of infective keratitis followed by AFB1 gene detection inAspergillus flavus isolates by nested PCR then quantitation of the toxin by TLC. Out of 843 corneal scrapping samples collected from patients with infective keratitis, positive fu...
Source: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases - October 20, 2019 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Epidemiology, pathogenetic mechanism, clinical characteristics, and treatment of Vibrio vulnificus infection: a case report and literature review
AbstractVibrio vulnificus is a Gram-negative bacterium that belongs to the Vibrionaceae family. It represents a deadly opportunistic human pathogen which grows in water with the proper temperature and salinity, and is mostly acquired from seafood eating or direct contact. In susceptible individuals, a traumatic infection could be fatal, causing severe wound infection and even septic shock, and may require amputation. Global warming plays an important role in the geographical area expanding of Vibrio disease. The pathogenesis ofVibrio vulnificus–associated sepsis is very complex, including iron intake, cell injury, an...
Source: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases - October 20, 2019 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Respiratory protective equipment at work: good practices for filtering facepiece (FFP) mask
(Source: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases)
Source: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases - October 20, 2019 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Performance and potential clinical impact of Alfred60 AST (Alifax ®) for direct antimicrobial susceptibility testing on positive blood culture bottles
In this study, we evaluated the performance of Alfred60AST (Alifax) which provides AST directly on positive blood culture (BC) bottles by light scattering. In a selected group of patients with a clinical suspicion of severe sepsis or at risk for infections with multiresistant organisms, we compared Alfred60AST AST results with traditional AST results (Vitek2 (bioM érieux) or disk diffusion). Discrepancy analysis was performed by Etest (bioMérieux) or broth microdilution. In total, 222 samples were evaluated. On 595 susceptibility determinations, 93.4% showed categorical agreement (CA) with the standard method...
Source: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases - October 17, 2019 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Cinnamaldehyde: a compound with antimicrobial and synergistic activity against ESBL-producing quinolone-resistant pathogenic Enterobacteriaceae
AbstractUsage of cephalosporin and quinolone antibiotics has aggravated the development of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) –producing quinolone-resistant (QR) pathogenicEnterobacteriaceae. The present study aims to determine antimicrobial activity of cinnamaldehyde alone or in combination with cefotaxime/ciprofloxacin to reverse the drug resistance and evaluations of efficacy, and possible molecular mechanism of action of the combination was also evaluated using in vitro assays. Broth microdilution assay was used to determine minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of cinnamaldehyde and antibiotics against E...
Source: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases - October 17, 2019 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research