Colo-Pro: a pilot randomised controlled trial to compare standard bolus-dosed cefuroxime prophylaxis to bolus-continuous infusion –dosed cefuroxime prophylaxis for the prevention of infections after colorectal surgery
This study is a pilot comparing bolus-continuous infusion with bolus-dosed cefuroxime prophylaxis in colorectal surgery. This is a pilot randomised controlled trial in which participants received cefuroxime bolus-infusion (intervention arm) targeting free serum cefuroxime concentrations of 64  mg/L, or 1.5 g cefuroxime as a bolus dose four-hourly (standard arm). Patients in both arms received metronidazole (500 mg intravenously). Eligible participants were adults undergoing colorectal surgery expected to last for over 2 h. Results were analysed on an intention-to-treat basis. The stu dy was successfully...
Source: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases - December 5, 2018 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

No global increase in resistance to antibiotics: a snapshot of resistance from 2001 to 2016 in Marseille, France
AbstractSince effective empirical antibiotic therapy is a key factor for survival, local antibiotic resistance epidemiology is critical. We aimed to identify current trends in antibiotic resistance for key antibiotics obtained over 16  years (2001–2016) for invasive infections corresponding to empirical treatment in a large hospital centre in Marseille, France.From January 2014 to December 2016, we have collected all data on antibiotic susceptibility from public laboratory hospitals, and a retrospective analysis was performed on key antibiotics in blood cultures since 2001. A total of 99,932 antibiotic susceptib...
Source: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases - December 4, 2018 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Vaginal Ureaplasma species increase chorioamnionitis in very preterm infants with preterm premature rupture of the membranes at & lt; 28  weeks of gestation
AbstractOur aim was to investigate the association between vaginalUreaplasma species (spp.) and the subsequent occurrence of chorioamnionitis (CAM), perinatal death, neonatal morbidity, and long-term neurodevelopmental impairments (NDIs) at 3  years of age. We analyzed 55 pregnant women with singleton pregnancy who had preterm premature rupture of the membranes (pPROM) at
Source: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases - November 10, 2018 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Implications of stx loss for clinical diagnostics of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli
AbstractThe dynamics related to the loss ofstx genes from Shiga toxin-producingEscherichia coli remain unclear. Current diagnostic procedures have shortcomings in the detection and identification of STEC. This is partly owing to the fact thatstx genes may be lost during an infection or in the laboratory. The aim of the present study was to provide new insight into in vivo and in vitrostx loss in order to improve diagnostic procedures. Results from the study support the theory that loss ofstx is a strain-related phenomenon and not induced by patient factors. It was observed that one strain could losestx both in vivo and in ...
Source: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases - November 10, 2018 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) proteomic profiling of cerebrospinal fluid in the diagnosis of enteroviral meningitis: a proof-of-principle study
AbstractThe use of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) for diagnosing viral infections by directly testing clinical specimens has not previously been explored. In this proof-of-principle study, we tested the hypothesis that proteomic profiling of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) by mass spectrometry may be useful in the diagnosis of enteroviral (EV) meningitis. A total of 114 cryopreserved CSF samples were analyzed, of which 47 were positive for EV and 67 were negative. Total CSF proteins were precipitated and subjected to MALDI-TOF-MS analysis in a low (2 –20 kDa...
Source: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases - November 10, 2018 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Fecal calprotectin concentrations in cancer patients with Clostridium difficile infection
AbstractFecal calprotectin (fCPT) has been used as a surrogate marker for assessment of intestinal inflammation. We explore the utility of fCPT values as a diagnostic aid in cancer patients with suspectedClostridium difficile infection (CDI). A total of 232 stool specimens submitted for GeneXpertC. difficile PCR testing were included in the study. All specimens were tested for fCPT and toxin/GDH antigens. Clinical severity of CDI cases was determined by the IDSA/SHEA criteria. Significant differences of median fCPT values between CDI (n = 117, Median 183.6 μg/g) and non-CDI (n = 115, 145...
Source: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases - November 10, 2018 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

How are trainees in clinical microbiology and infectious diseases supervised in Europe? An international cross-sectional questionnaire survey by the Trainee Association of ESCMID
AbstractThe purpose of this study was to map the supervision of European trainees in clinical microbiology and infectious diseases during their training. An international cross-sectional questionnaire survey of 38 questions was distributed among trainees and recently graduated medical specialists from European countries. Descriptive analyses were performed on both the total group of respondents and regionally. In total, 393 respondents from 37 different countries were included. The median of overall satisfaction with the supervisor was 4 (interquartile range 3 –4) on a Likert scale (range 1, not satisfied at all&ndas...
Source: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases - November 10, 2018 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Respiratory syncytial virus-associated hospitalization rates in high-risk populations: an observational comparative cohort analysis
(Source: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases)
Source: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases - November 10, 2018 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Multiplex real-time PCR for diagnosing malaria in a non-endemic setting: a prospective comparison to conventional methods
In conclusion, within our routine diagnostic setting, malaria real-time PCR not only showed a high level of agreement with the conventional methods used, but also showed higher sensitivity and better specificity. Still, for complete replacement of the conventional procedures in a non-endemic setting, the time-to-results of the real-time PCR is currently too long. (Source: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases)
Source: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases - November 10, 2018 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Real-time quantitative PCR analysis of endoscopic biopsies for diagnosing CMV gastrointestinal disease in non-HIV immunocompromised patients: a diagnostic accuracy study
AbstractCytomegalovirus gastrointestinal diseases (CMV-GIDs) are end-organ diseases of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract caused by CMV in immunocompromised patients. We aimed to evaluate the performance of quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) on endoscopic biopsies. We retrospectively reviewed the qPCR data on endoscopic biopsies in nonhuman immunodeficiency virus (HIV) immunocompromised patients between January 2009 and May 2015. The performance of the qPCR for CMV-GID was evaluated with the sensitivity, specificity, and area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC). A total of 195 patients were in...
Source: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases - November 10, 2018 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Impact of total laboratory automation on workflow and specimen processing time for culture of urine specimens
The objective of this study was to perform a detailed interrogation of the impact of TLA implementation in all aspects of the workflow for routine culture of urine specimens. Using a detailed motion capture study, the time required for major steps of processing and result reporting were prospectively assessed for urine samples prior to (n = 215) and after (n = 203) implementation of the BD Kiestra TLA system. Specimens were plated on all shifts, but cultures were read only during the day shift for both time periods. Significant increases were noted in the time from receipt to inoculation (23.0&n...
Source: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases - November 10, 2018 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Diagnostic methods for Helicobacter pylori infection: ideals, options, and limitations
AbstractHelicobacter pylori (H. pylori) resides in the stomach, colonizes gastric epithelium, and causes several digestive system diseases. Several diagnostic methods utilizing invasive or non-invasive techniques with varying levels of sensitivity and specificity are developed to detectH. pylori infection. Selection of one or more diagnostic tests will depend on the clinical conditions, the experience of the clinician, cost, sensitivity, and specificity. Invasive methods require endoscopy with biopsies of gastric tissues for the histology, culture, and rapid urease test. Among non-invasive tests, urea breath test and fecal...
Source: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases - November 9, 2018 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Comparison of three multiplex real-time PCR assays for detection of enteric viruses in patients with diarrhea
In this study, the usability and performance of three commercially available multiplex real-time RT-PCR assays for the detection of major enteric viruses were investigated. In total, 481 fecal specimens were analyzed using the Allplex ™ GI Virus Assay, the Rida®Gene Viral Stool Panel I, and the FTD Viral Gastroenteritis. The overall agreement between the assays was 99.9%. Despite convergent analytical performance, differences between the multiplex RT-PCR assays were apparent when considering their suitability for routine diagn ostics. (Source: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases)
Source: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases - November 9, 2018 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Rapid detection of carbapenemases directly from positive blood cultures by the β-CARBA test
AbstractThe rapid detection of blood stream infections (BSI) by carbapenemase-producing Enterobacterales (CPE) is indispensable to early optimize antibiotic treatment and to improve survival. While phenotypic tests are time-consuming and PCR is expensive and not available in many routine laboratories, colorimetric tests (e.g., Carba NP test) can provide rapid results at moderate cost. However, up to now, the detection of CPE-BSI requires a further 3-h incubation in broth supplemented with zinc sulfate and imipenem after a blood culture has become positive, thereby causing delay and additional hands-on time. The purpose of ...
Source: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases - November 8, 2018 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Interpretation of very low avidity indices acquired with the Liaison XL Toxo IgG avidity assay in dating toxoplasmosis infection
In this study, we investigated the ability of the Liaison XL Toxo IgG avidity (DiaSorin, Saluggia, Italy) assay to confirm recent infection when IgG avidity index is very low ( ≤ 0.1). Four thousand two hundred ninety-seven sera exhibiting both IgG and IgM were included and avidity was performed on the Liaison device according to the manufacturer’s recommendations. One hundred twenty-six sera on the 297 sera which exhibited very low IgG avidity indices (≤ 0.1) co uld be exploited: 97% of sera with IgG avidity indices
Source: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases - November 8, 2018 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Correction to: Fidaxomicin for the treatment of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) in at-risk patients with inflammatory bowel disease, fulminant CDI, renal impairment or hepatic impairment: a retrospective study of routine clinical use (ANEMONE)
The article “Fidaxomicin for the treatment of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) in at-risk patients with inflammatory bowel disease, fulminant CDI, renal impairment or hepatic impairment: a retrospective study of routine clinical use (ANEMONE)”, written by M.J.G.T. Vehreschild et al., was originally pub lished at Springerlink on 11 August 2018 without open access. (Source: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases)
Source: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases - November 8, 2018 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Performance of rapid antimicrobial susceptibility testing by disk diffusion on MHR-SIR agar directly on urine specimens
AbstractThe standard method for the diagnosis of urinary tract infections is urine culture that requires 18 –48 h for the identification of the bacteria and an additional 24 h until the results of antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) are available. We evaluated here a rapid AST method by disc diffusion performed directly on urine samples with a delay of 8 h. A total of 245 urine samples with mo nobacterial Gram negative observed on microscopy were tested in parallel by two AST methods. Rapid AST method was performed directly on urine samples using Rapid Mueller-Hinton (MHR-SIR) with 8-h incubatio...
Source: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases - November 1, 2018 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Molecular characterization of fluoroquinolones, macrolides, and imipenem resistance in Haemophilus influenzae : analysis of the mutations in QRDRs and assessment of the extent of the AcrAB-TolC-mediated resistance
AbstractThe aims of the present study were to characterize the mechanisms of resistance to fluoroquinolones, macrolides, and imipenem inHaemophilus influenzae, to assess the extent of the AcrAB-TolC-mediated resistance, and to define a core genome multilocus sequence typing (cgMLST) scheme forH.influenzae by using whole-genome sequencing. Four amino acid substitutions in GyrA (at Ser84 and Asp88), ParC (at Ser84), and ParE (at Asp420) were found to be closely associated to the MICs. We did not find any amino acid substitution surrounding the three highly conserved amino acid motifs in PBP3 related to imipenem resistance. A...
Source: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases - October 25, 2018 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

New clinical and seasonal evidence of infections by Human Parainfluenzavirus
AbstractHuman Parainfluenzaviruses (PIVs) account for a significant proportion of viral acute respiratory infections (ARIs) in children, and are also associated with morbidity and mortality in adults, including nosocomial infections. This work aims to describe PIV genotypes and their clinical and epidemiological distribution. Between December 2016 and December 2017, 6121 samples were collected, and submitted to viral culture and genomic quantification, specifically Parainfluenza 1 –4 (PIV1–4), Influenza A and B, Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) A and B, Adenovirus, Metapneumovirus, Coronavirus, Rhinovirus, and...
Source: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases - October 25, 2018 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Chromogenic media for the detection of Salmonella enterica serovar Paratyphi A in human stool samples: evaluation in a reference setting
This study evaluated the detection ofSalmonella Paratyphi A in stool samples usingSalmonella chromogenic media compared to a conventional medium. Four chromogenic media, COMPASSSalmonella agar (Biokar Diagnostics, Beauvais, France), BBL ™ CHROMagar™Salmonella (BD Diagnostics, Erembodegem-Aalst, Belgium),Brilliance ™ Salmonella agar (Oxoid Ltd., Basingstoke, UK) andSalmonella PLUS CHROMagar ™ (CHROMagar, Paris, France), were compared to conventionalSalmonella-Shigella agar (Oxoid Ltd.). The colony morphology of 29 freshly grown stock isolates (Salmonella and competing organisms) was assessed. The lim...
Source: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases - October 25, 2018 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Correction to: Implementing a hospital-wide protocol for Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia
The article “Implementing a hospital-wide protocol forStaphylococcus aureus bacteremia ”, written by K. Bolhuis, L. J. Bakker, J. T. Keijer, and P. J. de Vries was originally published electronically on 31 May 2018 with incorrect copyright line in the publisher’s internet portal. (Source: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases)
Source: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases - October 25, 2018 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Comparison of different human tissue processing methods for maximization of bacterial recovery
This study aimed to compare different mechanical and chemical methods of tissue processing in terms of efficacy and retaining the viability of the bacteria in the tissues. Standard suspensions ofStaphylococcus aureus andEscherichia coli were prepared and treated differently to test the effect of that treatment on bacterial viability. Artificially inoculated pork tissue and known infected human tissue samples were then processed by different methods prior to culture, and results were compared. Percentages of reduction in the number of viable bacteria compared to the control by homogenization was similar to 5-min dithiothrei...
Source: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases - October 24, 2018 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Single-center analysis of infectious complications in older adults during the first year after kidney transplantation
AbstractInfections are among the top three causes of death of older adults in the first year after kidney transplantation (KT). Our aim was to describe infectious complications among KT recipients aged ≥ 65 during the first 12 months post-transplant. Single-center retrospective cohort study. Ninety-one KTs had been performed in patients ≥ 65 years of age between 2011 and 2015. 92.3% of the patients developed at least one infection. Infectious episodes increased the risk of future infecti on by 10% (p = 0.0018) with each infection portending a greater risk. At a patient level, vir...
Source: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases - October 23, 2018 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

High prevalence of methicillin resistant and enterotoxin gene-positive Staphylococcus aureus among nasally colonized food handlers in central Iran
This study defined the prevalence of enterotoxin gene-positiveStaphylococcus aureus strains among food handlers and non-food processing healthy nasalS.aureus carriers in central Iran. Meticillin-resistantS.aureus (MRSA) strains were diagnosed by cefoxitin disk diffusion. PCR was used to detect themecA,Sa442, and enterotoxin genes. Out of the 1113 food handlers, 224 (20.1%) were nasal carriers ofS.aureus and 157 (70.1%) of these isolates were positive for one or more enterotoxin genes. The most prevalent enterotoxin gene wassei (40.2%), followed byseg (35.3%),sea (23.5%),seb (15.2%),sec (5.5%), andseh (2.7%).See andsed gene...
Source: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases - October 23, 2018 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Microorganisms associated with respiratory syncytial virus pneumonia in the adult population
AbstractRespiratory syncytial virus (RSV) has been recognized as responsible for severe respiratory illness in adults, especially in the elderly. While pneumonia is commonly observed during RSV infection, the burden and epidemiology of bacterial superinfection is poorly understood. The aim of this study was to identify microorganisms associated with RSV-positive pneumonia in adults. A retrospective study was conducted during three consecutive winters (October to April 2013 –2016) in the University Hospital of Lyon, France. During RSV circulation periods, a systematic RSV screening was performed by reverse-transcripti...
Source: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases - October 23, 2018 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Large variation in ESBL-producing Escherichia coli carriers in six European countries including Russia
AbstractWe investigated the faecal carriage prevalence of extended-spectrum β-lactamase production inEscherichia coli (EP-EC) and/orKlebsiella pneumoniae (EP-KP) and risk factors associated with carriage among adult study subjects in Finland, Germany, Latvia, Poland, Russia and Sweden (partner countries). The aim was to get indicative data on the prevalence of ESBL-carriage in specific populations in the region. Faecal samples were collected from four study populations and screened on ChromID-ESBL and ChromID-OXA-48 plates. Positive isolates were further characterised phenotypically. Our results show a large variation...
Source: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases - October 18, 2018 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Human polyomavirus KI, WU, BK, and JC in healthy volunteers
The objective of this work was to evaluate the excretion and distribution of HPyV (HPyV1-HPyV4 [former BKPyV, JCPyV, KIPyV, and WUPyV, respectively]) among asymptomatic individuals from different geographic regions in Brazil, in order to verify the existence of distinct epidemiologic patterns among the Brazilian population. Saliva samples from 889 healthy volunteers living in nine locations in Brazil were analyzed by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to detect HPyV1 –4. Among 889 participants, 346 (39%) had evidence of infection with one or more HPyV species: 127 (14.3%) had HPyV1 only; 70 (7.9%) had HPyV3 on...
Source: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases - October 18, 2018 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Activity of anti-CR3-RP polyclonal antibody against biofilms formed by Candida auris , a multidrug-resistant emerging fungal pathogen
AbstractFungal biofilm has remained a serious medical problem that complicates treatment of mycoses. In particular, once biofilms are formed, they display high levels of resistance against most common antifungals.Candida auris is currently considered as a serious emerging fungal pathogen frequently exhibiting high levels of resistance to antifungals. Recent studies have confirmed thatC. auris shares similarity withCandida albicans in regards to virulence-associated proteins involved in adherence and biofilm development. Complement receptor 3-related protein (CR3-RP) is one of the key surface antigens expressed byCandida sp...
Source: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases - October 16, 2018 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

STI with Mycoplasma genitalium —more common than Chlamydia trachomatis in patients attending youth clinics in Sweden
AbstractThe prevalence ofChlamydia trachomatis in Sweden is well known, whereas the prevalence ofMycoplasma genitalium is less well documented. Youth clinics offer free contraception advice, sexually transmitted infection (STI) testing and/or contact tracing for the age group 15 –25 years. The main objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of STIs, the presence of symptoms and the role of contact tracing. From July 2013 to March 2014, 1001 persons, 509 women and 492 men, were included in this study of six youth clinics in the Region of Västra Götaland. Sy mptoms were registered and whethe...
Source: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases - October 16, 2018 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Factors associated with unfavorable outcome in a multicenter audit of 100 infective endocarditis
AbstractWe aimed to identify factors associated with unfavorable outcome in patients treated for infective endocarditis (IE), with a focus on departure from European guidelines. We conducted a retrospective audit of all adult patients treated for endocarditis during a 1-year period across a regional network of nine care centers in the south-east of France. Medical records were reviewed regarding patient and infection characteristics, antibiotic therapy, outcome, and compliance to the European Society of Cardiology guidelines. Antibiotic treatment appropriateness was evaluated regarding molecule, dosage, and duration, accor...
Source: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases - October 15, 2018 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Herpes zoster infection and statins: which implications in clinical practice?
AbstractHerpes zoster (HZ), which is caused by reactivation of latent varicella zoster virus (VZV), constitutes a major public health concern in both short- and long-term periods. Over the last years, several epidemiological studies have demonstrated that statin use is associated with increased risk of HZ at cerebral level. Because statins are among the most popular and best-selling drugs in western countries, this potential negative pleiotropic effect could have important implications in the daily clinical practice. In the present manuscript, we reviewed the available data on the statin use and the relative risk of HZ inf...
Source: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases - October 8, 2018 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Role of prolonged blood culture incubation in infective endocarditis diagnosis
(Source: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases)
Source: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases - October 6, 2018 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

The downside of antimicrobial agents for wound healing
AbstractThe use of topical antimicrobials is beneficial for infection control in wound care because wound infection is the major cause of delayed healing. The advantages of topical over systemic antimicrobials include a higher concentration at the target site, fewer systemic adverse effects, and a lower incidence of antimicrobial resistance. Nowadays, topical antimicrobials are divided into three groups: disinfectants, antiseptics, and antibiotics. Only antiseptics and antibiotics can be applied to living skin; therefore, this review will focus only on these groups. The advantages of each topical antimicrobial are well est...
Source: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases - October 5, 2018 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

The association between treatment appropriateness according to EUCAST and CLSI breakpoints and mortality among patients with candidemia: a retrospective observational study
AbstractTo evaluate the association between appropriate antifungal treatment and mortality among patients with candidemia using different breakpoint definitions. In a retrospective study, we included all adults with candidemia in a tertiary center between 2009 and 2015. We defined three versions of appropriate (covering) antifungal treatment, according to Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) 2008, CLSI 2012, and European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST) (2017 update) breakpoints. For empiric treatment, we evaluated the association with 30-day mortality. For definitive treatment, we e...
Source: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases - October 3, 2018 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Intestinal microbiome as a risk factor for urinary tract infections in children
AbstractAs urinary tract infection (UTI) pathogens originate from the gut, we hypothesized that the gut environment reflected by intestinal microbiome influences the risk of UTI. Our prospective case-control study compared the intestinal microbiomes of 37 children with a febrile UTI with those of 69 healthy children. We sequenced the regions of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene and used the LefSe algorithm to calculate the size of the linear discriminant analysis (LDA) effect. We measured fecal lactoferrin and iron concentrations and quantitative PCR forEscherichia coli. At the phylum level, there were no significant differences...
Source: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases - October 1, 2018 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

The chemokine CXCL13 in cerebrospinal fluid in children with Lyme neuroborreliosis
AbstractAnti-Borrelia antibodies in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) are required for definite diagnosis of Lyme neuroborreliosis (LNB). However, children often present with early LNB, and antibody production in the CSF may not be demonstrated. Recent studies have suggested the chemokine CXCL13 to be an early marker for LNB. The aim of the study was to evaluate CXCL13 for laboratory diagnosis in pediatric LNB patients and to evaluate the association with pleocytosis in CSF, clinical features, and recovery. CSF samples were collected from LNB patients, classified as definite LNB (n = 44) or possible LNB (n&thinsp...
Source: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases - October 1, 2018 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Molecular epidemiology of virulence and antimicrobial resistance determinants in Klebsiella pneumoniae from hospitalised patients in Kilimanjaro, Tanzania
This study aimed to use whole-genome sequencing to determine virulence and antimicrobial resistance genes inK. pneumoniae isolated from patients in a tertiary care hospital in Kilimanjaro.K. pneumoniae isolates from patients attending Kilimanjaro Christian Medical Centre between August 2013 and August 2015 were fully genome-sequenced and analysed locally. Sequence analysis was done for identification of virulence and AMR genes. Plasmid and multi-locus sequence typing and capsular or capsular (K) typing were performed and phylogeny was done to ascertainK. pneumoniae relatedness. Stata 13 (College Station, TX, 77845, USA) wa...
Source: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases - October 1, 2018 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Antifungal drug susceptibility profile of clinically important dermatophytes and determination of point mutations in terbinafine-resistant isolates
This study aimed to determine antifungal susceptibility profile of clinically important dermatophytes and determination of point mutations in terbinafine-resistant isolates. Based on our results, dermatophytosis was confirmed in 97 cases by direct microscopic examination, culture, and sequencing of ITS region. Antifungal susceptibility of 97 dermatophyte isolates distributed in four species includingTrichophyton interdigitale (26 isolates),T. rubrum (19 isolates),T. tonsurans (29 isolates), andEpidermophyton floccosum (21 isolates) was assessed to nine antifungal agents using CLSI M38-A2 guidelines. Minimum inhibitory conc...
Source: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases - October 1, 2018 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Acute hepatitis A is the chief etiology of acute hepatitis in Egyptian children: a single-center study
AbstractAcute hepatic illness is an important health issue in children. Our work aimed to determine the prevalence of viral hepatitis in symptomatic children. It is a prospective cohort study of 268 children presented with acute hepatitis. Complete blood count, liver panel, and anti-hepatitis A virus (HAV) IgM were done initially. Cases negative for HAV were tested for anti-hepatitis E (HEV) IgM, anti-Epstein-Barr virus viral capsid antigen (EBV VCA) IgM, anti-cytomegalovirus virus IgM, hepatitis B surface antigen, anti-hepatitis B core IgM antibody, and anti-HCV antibody. Anti-HCV was repeated after 12  weeks to excl...
Source: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases - October 1, 2018 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Ceftibuten plus amoxicillin-clavulanic acid for oral treatment of urinary tract infections with ESBL producing E. coli and K. pneumoniae : a retrospective observational case-series
This study aimed to evaluate the clinical and bacteriological effect of oral treatment with ceftibuten plus amoxicillin-clavulanic acid in patients with a urinary tract infection (UTI) caused by an extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing micro-organism. In this retrospective observational case-series, oral treatment with ceftibuten 400 mg QD plus amoxicillin-clavulanic acid 625 mg TID for 14 days was evaluated in ten patients with pyelonephritis caused by an ESBL-positive micro-organism resistant to ciprofloxacin and co-trimoxazole. Presence of ESBL genes was confirmed using PCR and micro-array. ...
Source: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases - October 1, 2018 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Evaluation of IVD 3.0 Vitek MS matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry for identification of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and nontuberculous mycobacteria and its use in routine diagnostics
(Source: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases)
Source: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases - October 1, 2018 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Should we expand the indications for the DAIR (debridement, antibiotic therapy, and implant retention) procedure for Staphylococcus aureus prosthetic joint infections? A multicenter retrospective study
AbstractTo evaluate factors associated with failure in patients treated with DAIR (debridement, antibiotic therapy, and implant retention) forStaphylococcus aureus prosthetic joint infections (PJIs). We retrospectively analyzed consecutive patients with stable PJI due toS.aureus treated with DAIR at six hospitals between 2010 and 2014. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to study factors associated with treatment failure at 2  years. Of 154 eligible patients, 137 were included (mean age 73 ± 13 years; male 56%). The estimated success rate according to the Kaplan–Meier method was 76....
Source: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases - October 1, 2018 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Efficient processing of MRSA screening specimens by a modified inoculation protocol
This study aims to evaluate the impact of this inoculation protocol on technicians’ workload and the downstream workflow in our laboratory. Batches of 50 specimens were processed by different technicians and the hands-on time was compared between the standard and modified inoculation protocol. To assess the impact on downstream processing, a retrospective analysis of the rate of subcultures and turnaround time (TAT) of specimens yielding putative MRSA colonies from 9 months before (n = 1548) and after (n = 1267) the protocol change was carried out based on laboratory information syste...
Source: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases - October 1, 2018 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Strain variation and antigenic divergence among Bordetella pertussis circulating strains isolated from patients in Iran
In this study, clonal spread and variation ofB.pertussis virulence factor in isolated strains from Iranian patients have been analyzed. A total of 100B.pertussis isolates were obtained from Pertussis Reference Laboratory of Pasteur Institute of Iran. Real-time PCR were performed to confirm theB.pertussis strains. The genomic patterns ofB.pertussis strains were analyzed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Predominant alleles of local strains wereptxP3,ptxA1,prn2,fim 2-1,fim3-2, andcya2. PFGE results showed 25 patterns clustered into 18 PFGE groups. A few similarities between the circulating isolates, vaccine, and st...
Source: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases - October 1, 2018 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Repeated antifungal use audits are essential for selecting the targets for intervention in antifungal stewardship
AbstractA previous audit to assess the quality of antifungal use was performed in our hospital in 2011. After 5  years of antifungal stewardship program (AFS), we performed a follow-up audit in order to describe the long-term effect of such program. Using a predefined score, we evaluated the antifungal use in 100 consecutive adult inpatients receiving systemic antifungals. Results of the present audit were c ompared with those of a previous one, performed in 2011, before the implementation of our AFS. After 5 years, AFS program has induced a change in the population who received antifungal drugs in our hospital w...
Source: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases - October 1, 2018 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Correction to: Antimicrobial-coated sutures to decrease surgical site infections: a systematic review and meta-analysis
In the original version of this article, reference citations found in Tables  2, 3, and 4 contain errors in linking. The correct tables are reproduced below. (Source: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases)
Source: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases - October 1, 2018 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

De-escalation and discontinuation strategies in high-risk neutropenic patients: an interrupted time series analyses of antimicrobial consumption and impact on outcome
The objectives of the present study were to evaluate (1) the impact of an AS intervention on antibiotic consumption and (2) the applicability and acceptance rate of the intervention and its clinical impact. A persuasive AS intervention based on European Conference on Infection in Leukaemia (ECIL) guidelines for FN was implemented in a high-risk hematology ward in a tertiary referral public university hospital. This included the creation and diffusion of flow charts on de-escalation and discontinuation of antibiotics for FN, and the introduction in the team of a doctor dedicated to the implementation of flow charts and to a...
Source: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases - October 1, 2018 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Early detection of M. leprae by qPCR in untreated patients and their contacts: results for nasal swab and palate mucosa scraping
AbstractTo verify if the hard palate mucosa can be a site of relevance in the early molecular detection ofMycobacterium leprae in leprosy cases and their household contacts and if there is a correlation of results in nasal swab with those of the scraping of the palate mucosa. The quantitative polymerase chain reaction technique was used. Sample included 78 patients with untreated leprosy (G1), their 54 household contacts (G2), and 80 healthy individuals for the negative control (G3). The presence ofM. leprae in both G1 and G2 was observed with the nasal swab and the palate mucosa scrapings methods, and it was shown that th...
Source: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases - October 1, 2018 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Incidence and predictors of intravenous acyclovir-induced nephrotoxicity
AbstractTo assess the incidence, predictive factors, and prognosis of acyclovir-induced nephrotoxicity. We conducted a historical prospective cohort study of patients treated with intravenous acyclovir in North Denmark Region from 2009 to 2016. Information on baseline demographics, co-morbidities, plasma creatinine, and treatment was obtained from the medical records. The primary outcome was an increase of ≥ 40 μmol/L in plasma creatinine level from baseline. We included 276 patients treated with intravenous acyclovir of which 29 (10.5%) met the primary outcome. In 14 cases, the treating physician conside...
Source: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases - October 1, 2018 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research