The road to success of coagulase-negative staphylococci: clinical significance of small colony variants and their pathogenic role in persistent infections
AbstractBacterial small colony variants represent an important aspect of bacterial variability. They are naturally occurring microbial subpopulations with distinctive phenotypic and pathogenic traits, reported for many clinically important bacteria. In clinical terms, SCVs tend to be associated with persistence in host cells and tissues and are less susceptible to antibiotics than their wild-type (WT) counterparts. The increased tendency of SCVs to reside intracellularly where they are protected against the host immune responses and antimicrobial drugs is one of the crucial aspects linking SCVs to recurrent or chronic infe...
Source: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases - October 17, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

The impact of varicella vaccination on paediatric herpes zoster epidemiology: a Canadian population-based retrospective cohort study
AbstractThe impact of universal varicella vaccination on herpes zoster (HZ) risk in unvaccinated and vaccinated children, and its long-term influence on HZ epidemiology, remains unknown. We conducted a retrospective cohort study using population-based administrative health data for children born between 1993 and 2018 (n  = 924,124). We calculated age-specific cumulative HZ incidence rates by vaccination status for cohorts born before (1993–1999) and after (2000–2018) programme implementation; results were used to calculate relative risk of HZ by age group, vaccination status and vaccine availabili...
Source: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases - October 17, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Epidemiology of the Staphylococcus aureus CA-MRSA USA300 in Belgium
We examined here the epidemiology of the USA300 clone in Belgium from 2006 to 2019. A total of 399 clonal complex 8 PVL-positive MRSA isolates received between 2006 and 2019 by the Belgian National Reference Laboratory forS. aureus were investigated for the presence of ACME. Selected ACME-positive (n=102) and ACME-negative (n=16) isolates were sequenced, characterized for the presence of several resistance and virulence molecular markers and subjected to phylogenetic analysis. A total of 300 isolates were USA300-NA (ACME-positive), while only 99 were ACME-negative. Most USA300-NA interspersed in the phylogeny analysis with...
Source: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases - October 17, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Invasive Streptococcus pyogenes disease in Spain: a microbiological and epidemiological study covering the period 2007 –2019
AbstractThe aim of this study is to present the first nationwide microbiological and epidemiological study of invasive group AStreptococcus (iGAS) disease in Spain. One thousand eight hundred ninety-three iGAS isolates were analyzed over 2007 –2019.emm typing was performed by sequencing the gene ’s variable 5’ end, exotoxin genes were identified by PCR, and antimicrobial susceptibility explored via theE test and disk diffusion. Five hundred twenty-three isolates were associated with sepsis, 292 with cellulitis, 232 with scarlet fever, 153 with pneumonia, 141 with streptococcal toxic shock syndrome, and 94...
Source: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases - October 17, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Characteristics and risk factors for Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia in patients with idiopathic membranous nephropathy
AbstractPneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PCP) is a life-threatening opportunistic infection in idiopathic membranous nephropathy (IMN) patients, who are treated with immunosuppressive drugs. However, the risk factors of infection and their prognosis are rarely investigated. We aimed to characterize the clinical manifestations of PCP in patients with IMN, and to understand their risk factors, so that we can provide early warnings to patients with high risk and potential poor prognosis. We conducted a retrospective observational study of IMN patients in a referral center in China, from Jan 2012 to Dec 2018. Clinical and lab...
Source: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases - October 17, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Profiles of multidrug-resistant organisms among patients with bacteremia in intensive care units: an international ID-IRI survey
AbstractEvaluating trends in antibiotic resistance is a requisite. The study aimed to analyze the profile of multidrug-resistant organisms (MDROs) among hospitalized patients with bacteremia in intensive care units (ICUs) in a large geographical area. This is a 1-month cross-sectional survey for blood-borne pathogens in 57 ICUs from 24 countries with different income levels: lower-middle-income (LMI), upper-middle-income (UMI), and high-income (HI) countries. Multidrug-resistant (MDR), extensively drug-resistant (XDR), or pan-drug-resistant isolates were searched. Logistic regression analysis determined resistance predicto...
Source: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases - October 17, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Chlorhexidine leads to the evolution of antibiotic-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa
AbstractAntimicrobial resistance is a major public-health concern. We evaluate chlorhexidine role in selection of resistantPseudomonas aeruginosa mutants and their antibiotic cross-resistance. Mutation frequency and mutation rate after short-term exposure to sub-inhibitory concentrations of chlorhexidine were compared to those after spontaneous chlorhexidine-exposure, inP. aeruginosa PAO1 strain. Chlorhexidine-resistant mutants were generated, either by serial passage in increasing chlorhexidine concentrations or by single exposure to lethal chlorhexidine concentration. The generated mutants were tested for cross-resistanc...
Source: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases - October 17, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Impact of the introduction of EUCAST ’s concept of “area of technical uncertainty”
AbstractOn the first of January 2019, the European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing, EUCAST, introduced the concept of “area of technical uncertainty” (ATU). The aim was to report on the incidence of ATU test results in a selection of common bacterial species and the subsequent impact on antimicrobial resistance categorization and workload. A retrospective analysis of clinical samples collected from February 201 9 until November 2019 was performed. Susceptibility to amoxicillin-clavulanic acid and piperacillin-tazobactam inEnterobacterales (Escherichia spp.,Klebsiella spp.,Proteus spp.), pipera...
Source: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases - October 15, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Clinical outcome from hematopoietic cell transplant patients with bloodstream infection caused by carbapenem-resistant P. aeruginosa and the impact of antimicrobial combination in vitro
AbstractBloodstream infection (BSI) caused by carbapenem-resistantP. aeruginosa (CRPA) has high mortality in hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) recipients. We performed MIC, checkerboard, time-kill assay, PFGE, PCR, and whole genome sequence and described the clinical outcome through Epi Info comparing the antimicrobial combination in vitro. Mortality was higher in BSI caused by CRPA carrying the lasB virulence gene. The isolates were 97% resistant to meropenem displaying synergistic effect to 57% in combination with colistin. Seventy-three percent of the isolates harboredblaSPM-1 and Tn4371 and belonged to ST277. T...
Source: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases - October 15, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Simplified therapeutic guidelines: the main tool of antimicrobial stewardship programs associated with optimal antibiotic therapy V3
AbstractHospitals regularly seek to upgrade their antimicrobial stewardship program (ASP). Our aim was to evaluate the impact of simplified therapeutic guidelines (STGs) compared to various established tools for ASP on the rate of optimal antibiotic therapy (OAT) and antibiotic consumption. Audits of antibiotic prescriptions were carried out over a 24-month period. Feedback information led to STGs (e.g.,  ≤ 15 drugs). The impact of STGs was based on the rate of OAT, defined as a diagnosis of the infectious disease in the patient’s medical records associated with the corresponding therapy indicated in...
Source: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases - October 13, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

CXCL13 in laboratory diagnosis of Lyme neuroborreliosis —the performance of the recomBead and ReaScan CXCL13 assays in human cerebrospinal fluid samples
AbstractThe chemokine CXCL13 is used as complement to serology in the diagnostics of Lyme neuroborreliosis (LNB). We evaluated and compared the semi-quantitative, cassette-based ReaScan CXCL13 assay with the quantitative recomBead CXCL13 assay using a collection of 209 cerebrospinal fluid samples. The categorical agreement between results interpreted as negative, grey zone, and positive by the two methods was 87%. The diagnostic sensitivity was higher using the recomBead assay, whereas specificity was higher using ReaScan. Few manual steps, and a short turn-around time with no batching of samples makes the ReaScan CXCL13 a...
Source: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases - October 9, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Clinical and immunological characteristics in COVID-19 convalescent patients
In this study, through CoV-psV neutralization assay and IFN- γ ELISpot testing in 30 cases of COVID-19 patients after 9 months post-SARS-CoV-2 infection, it found that the ratio of memory/naive CD4+ T lymphocytes cells and levels of anti-SARS-CoV-2-IgM and RBD-IgM were slightly but significantly higher in COVID-19 severe convalescent patients than that in non-severe patients. The specific cellular and humoral immunity against SARS-CoV-2 were detectable, regardless of the severity of the disease in the acute phase. This information may help understanding the immune status after SARS-CoV-2 infection. (Source: Euro...
Source: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases - October 9, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Impact of prior antibiotic therapy on severe necrotizing soft-tissue infections in ICU patients: results from a French retrospective and observational study
In conclusion, in a population of severe ICU NSTI patients, antibiotic exposure before sampling did not impact either culture sample positivity or microbiological findings. (Source: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases)
Source: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases - October 9, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Use of antibiotics and factors associated with treatment failure among 152,245 patients with pneumonia treated in the community — a retrospective cohort study
This study aims to evaluate risk factors associated with treatment failure and the antibiotics prescribed by primary care physicians in a large patient cohort treated for pneumonia in the community. A retrospective cohort study based on the databases of Maccabi Healthcare Services that provide healthcare to a quarter of the Israeli population. Included patients were  >  12 years and diagnosed with pneumonia in the outpatient setting. Cohort 1 included patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), whereas cohort 2 included patients with a documented pneumonia diagnosis following hospital discharge....
Source: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases - October 8, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Heterogeneity of Staphylococcus epidermidis in prosthetic joint infections: time to reevaluate microbiological criteria?
AbstractProsthetic joint infection (PJI) is a feared and challenging to diagnose complication after arthroplasty, withStaphylococcus epidermidis as the major pathogen. One important criteria to define PJI is the detection of phenotypically indistinguishable microorganisms with identical antibiotic susceptibility pattern in at least two different samples. However, owing to phenotypical variation within genetic clones and clonal variation within a phenotype, the criteria may be ambiguous. We investigated the extent of diversity among coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) in PJI and characterisedS. epidermidis isolates from...
Source: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases - October 2, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Performance of 30 commercial SARS-CoV-2 serology assays in testing symptomatic COVID-19 patients
We report evaluation of 30 assays ’ (17 rapid tests (RDTs) and 13 automated/manual ELISA/CLIA assay (IAs)) clinical performances with 2594 sera collected from symptomatic patients with positive SARS-CoV-2 rRT-PCR on a respiratory sample, and 1996 pre-epidemic serum samples expected to be negative. Only 4 RDT and 3 IAs fitted both specificity (> 98%) and sensitivity (> 90%) criteria according to French recommendations. Serology may offer valuable information during COVID-19 pandemic, but inconsistent performances observed among the 30 commercial assays evaluated, which underlines the importance of independent ev...
Source: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases - September 18, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Treatment for carbapenem-resistant Enterobacterales infections: recent advances and future directions
AbstractCarbapenem-resistant Enterobacterales (CRE) are a growing threat to human health worldwide. CRE often carry multiple resistance genes that limit treatment options and require longer durations of therapy, are more costly to treat, and necessitate therapies with increased toxicities when compared with carbapenem-susceptible strains. Here, we provide an overview of the mechanisms of resistance in CRE, the epidemiology of CRE infections worldwide, and available treatment options for CRE. We review recentlyapproved agents for the treatment of CRE, including ceftazidime-avibactam, meropenem-vaborbactam, imipenem-relebact...
Source: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases - September 18, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Possible misinterpretation of penicillin susceptibility in Staphylococcus aureus blood isolate due to in vitro loss of the blaZ gene
We describe a case of recurrent catheter-related blood stream infections (BSI) withStaphylococcusaureus, in which the first isolate tested susceptible to penicillin, while subsequent isolates were resistant. Phenotypic susceptibility correlated with the absence/presence of theblaZ gene. The in vitro stability of penicillin resistance was investigated by subculturing single colonies. In two out of five colonies, phenotypical resistance was lost after a single subculture, which correlated with loss of theblaZ gene. This in vitro phenomenon probably resulted in a very major error in the microbiology report of the first BSI, w...
Source: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases - September 16, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Comparison of the Euroimmun Borrelia ‘antibody index’ with Virotech immunoblot-based detection of intrathecal Borrelia antibody production for the diagnosis of Lyme neuroborreliosis
AbstractFor diagnosis of neuroborreliosis, calculation of the antibody index, based on Euroimmun Anti-Borrelia plus VlsE ELISA was compared to Virotech Borrelia Europe plus TpN17 immunoblot-based detection ofBorrelia-specific intrathecal antibody production. CXCL13 results in cerebrospinal fluid were used to evaluate discordant results. A total of 64 serum/CSF pairs were analysed. Patients were classified according to European Federation of Neurological Societies criteria incorporating Virotech results. For the Euroimmun assay, a sensitivity of 100% and specificity of 94% was found. Agreement between the both tests was alm...
Source: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases - September 13, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Correction to: The Unyvero Hospital-Acquired pneumonia panel for diagnosis of secondary bacterial pneumonia in COVID-19 patients
(Source: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases)
Source: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases - September 13, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Descending necrotizing mediastinitis from Ludwig ’s angina: a life-threatening condition
(Source: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases)
Source: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases - September 11, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Broad-spectrum azoles and flucloxacillin: a dangerous match
AbstractBoth invasive fungal infection withAspergillus fumigatus and blood stream infection with methicillin-susceptibleStaphylococcus aureus (MSSA) have a significant incidence in the critically ill. Voriconazole and, more recently, isavuconazole and high dose flucloxacillin are the standard first line treatments for these respective serious infections. However, an underestimated risk of a significant interaction needs to be taken into consideration, when both co-occur. We wish to highlight this important issue in the management of these patients through two case reports and to point to the inconsistency between different...
Source: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases - September 7, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Clinical evaluation of rapid point-of-care antigen tests for diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection
AbstractThe RT-qPCR in respiratory specimens is the gold standard for diagnosing acute COVID-19 infections. However, this test takes considerable time before test results become available, thereby delaying patients from being diagnosed, treated, and isolated immediately. Rapid antigen tests could overcome this problem. In the first study, clinical performances of five rapid antigen tests were compared to RT-qPCR in upper respiratory specimens from 40 patients with positive and 40 with negative RTq-PCR results. In the second study, the rapid antigen test with one of the best test characteristics (Romed) was evaluated in a l...
Source: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases - August 9, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Predictive factors, outcomes, and molecular epidemiology of Clostridioides difficile diarrhea in Brazilian hospitals
AbstractLittle is known about the role of lineage of strains ofClostridioides difficile (CD) on the clinical presentation of CD infection (CDI) in Latin America, especially regarding the treatment response. We conducted a multicenter, prospective study to investigate the predictive factors and treatment outcomes of CDI in hospitalized patients and to performed phenotypical and molecular characterization of CD strains. A total of 361 diarrheic patients at 5 hospitals from different regions of the country were enrolled. All stool samples were tested for glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH), toxins A and B, and toxin genes using a n...
Source: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases - August 9, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Empirical treatment with doxycycline of fever of intermediate duration
(Source: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases)
Source: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases - August 9, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Correction to: Bacterial etiology of community-acquired pneumonia in immunocompetent hospitalized patients and appropriateness of empirical treatment recommendations: an international point-prevalence study
(Source: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases)
Source: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases - August 9, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Effectiveness of favipiravir in COVID-19: a live systematic review
AbstractWe performed a systematic review and meta-analysis for the effectiveness of Favipiravir on  the fatality and the requirement of mechanical ventilation for the treatment of moderate to severe COVID-19 patients. We searched available literature and reported it by using PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) guidelines. Until June 1, 2021, we search ed PubMed, bioRxiv, medRxiv, ClinicalTrials.gov, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), and Google Scholar by using the keywords “Favipiravir” and terms sy...
Source: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases - August 4, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Impact of public health measures on the post-COVID-19 respiratory syncytial virus epidemics in France
This study described the consequences of public health measures on respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) severe infections in France, where an interseasonal resurgence of RSV occurred recently. All patients admitted to Necker Hospital (Paris) between August 2018 and April 2021 with a diagnosis of RSV-associated acute lung respiratory infection (ALRI) were enrolled. Characteristics of subjects with RSV-associated ALRI in 2020/2021 were compared to those infected during the two previous outbreaks. Overall, 664 inpatients were diagnosed with RSV-associated ALRI: 229, 183, and 252 during the 2018/2019, 2019/2020, and 2020/2021 out...
Source: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases - August 4, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Accuracy of saliva and nasopharyngeal sampling for detection of SARS-CoV-2 in community screening: a multicentric cohort study
AbstractNasopharyngeal sampling for nucleic acid amplification testing (NAAT) is the standard diagnostic test of coronavirus disease 2019. Our objectives were to assess, in real-life conditions, the diagnostic accuracy of a nasopharyngeal point-of-care antigen (Ag) test and of saliva NAAT for detection of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) in ambulatory care. This was a prospective cohort study from 19 October through 18 December 2020 in two community COVID-19 screening centers in Paris, France. Two nasopharyngeal swabs and one saliva sample were simultaneously collected. Diagnostic accuracies of ...
Source: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases - August 3, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

The role of mouthwash sampling in SARS-CoV-2 diagnosis
ConclusionsMW with normal saline, especially when tested by N gene, can effectively detect COVID-19 patients. Furthermore, this method was not inferior when compared to R and E genes of ONP swabs, which are common targets in many laboratories around the world. (Source: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases)
Source: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases - August 3, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Molecular testing for H. pylori clarithromycin and quinolone resistance: a prospective Chinese study
AbstractIn China, there is a high prevalence of antibiotic-resistantHelicobacter pylori infections in the population. The aim of the study was to assess a new ARMS-PCR test for detection ofH. pylori clarithromycin resistance (CR) and quinolone resistance (QR) mutations and evaluate the spectrum of antibiotic resistance in patients from three Chinese provinces. Sanger sequencing and multiplex ARMS-PCR were used to detectH. pylori CR and QR bacteria in gastric biopsy samples. Among the 1,182 patients enrolled with gastritis, 643 (54.4%) were positive forH. pylori. Of these, 371 (57.7%) had antibiotic-resistant strains, compr...
Source: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases - July 21, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Molecular characterization of clinical carbapenem-resistant Enterobacterales from Qatar
AbstractOne hundred forty-nine carbapenem-resistantEnterobacterales from clinical samples obtained between April 2014 and November 2017 were subjected to whole genome sequencing and multi-locus sequence typing.Klebsiella pneumoniae (81, 54.4%) andEscherichia coli (38, 25.5%) were the most common species. Genes encoding metallo- β-lactamases were detected in 68 (45.8%) isolates, and OXA-48-like enzymes in 60 (40.3%).blaNDM-1 (45; 30.2%) andblaOXA-48 (29; 19.5%) were the most frequent. KPC-encoding genes were identified in 5 (3.6%) isolates. Most common sequence types wereE. coli ST410 (8; 21.1%) and ST38 (7; 18.4%), an...
Source: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases - July 21, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Antimicrobial stewardship experience in paediatrics: first-year activity report
AbstractAntimicrobial resistance is one of the most relevant threats in public health worldwide. Strategies as antimicrobial stewardship programs, aiming to preserve our antibiotic armamentarium, have been implemented since 2007 in adult and paediatric patients. We aim to describe the first experience of a paediatric antimicrobial stewardship program. We conducted a retrospective observational study in a tertiary care children ’s hospital. A team composed of a microbiologist, an infectious diseases physician, and a paediatrician led the project. All positive blood and cerebrospinal fluid cultures and other biological...
Source: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases - July 21, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Stepwise selection of mutation conferring fluroquinolone resistance: multisite MDR-TB cohort study
In this study, we demonstrate that fluroquinolone (FQ) is at risk of acquired drug resistance after continuous exposure. The reduced susceptibility is observed in subsequentMycobacterium tuberculosis isolates from patients without FQ exposure. The stepwise selection of mutation of increasing FQ resistance highlights the urgent need for monitoring FQ resistance in multidrug-resistant tuberculosis patients throughout the entire treatment course. (Source: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases)
Source: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases - July 21, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Annual variations of Haemophilus influenzae carriage among Hajj pilgrims
(Source: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases)
Source: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases - July 21, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Correction to: An evaluation of risk factors to predict target concentration non-attainment in critically ill patients prior to empiric β-lactam therapy
(Source: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases)
Source: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases - July 21, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Global molecular epidemiology of carbapenem-resistant Escherichia coli (2002 –2017)
AbstractThe emergence of carbapenem-resistant (CR)Escherichia coli obliges an assessment of such strains ’ molecular epidemiology. Accordingly, we characterized in detail a globally distributed collection of CRE. coli isolates, then explored for associations between geographical origin and bacterial traits, and between different bacterial traits. We used established PCR-based assays and broth microdilution MIC determinations to characterize 343 global CR (i.e., non-susceptible to  ≥ 1 carbapenem) extraintestinalE. coli isolates (2002 –2017) for diverse molecular traits—including phylogrou...
Source: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases - July 19, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Correction to: Diagnostic performance of four SARS-CoV-2 antibody assays in patients with COVID-19 or with bacterial and non-SARS-CoV-2 viral respiratory infections
(Source: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases)
Source: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases - July 16, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Development of a loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay for the rapid detection of six common respiratory viruses
AbstractDue to the highly contagious and spreads quickly of respiratory infectious diseases (ADR), the availability of rapid, sensitive, and reliable diagnostic methods is essential for disease control. Here, we develop an approach based on loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) for the detection of influenza A virus (Flu A), Flu A subtypes H1N1and H3N2, influenza B virus (Flu B), respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) subtypes A and B, human adenovirus (HAdV), parainfluenza virus (PIV) subtypes 1 and 3, and human rhinovirus (HRV) simultaneously. We designed primers specific to detect respiratory viruses above, optimized...
Source: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases - July 15, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Impact of a 4-year antimicrobial stewardship program implemented in a Greek tertiary hospital
This study aimed to investigate the effects of a 4-year antibiotic stewardship program (ASP) in a tertiary hospital. We monitored data for 2015 (pre-intervention) and 2016 –2019 (post-intervention) about antibiotic consumption (DDD/100 bed days),Clostridioides difficile infections (CDIs), resistance rates, length of stay (LOS), and annual antibiotic costs. Significant reductions were observed for total antibiotics/colistin/carbapenems/quinolones/tigecycline consumption and resistance rates ofPseudomonas aeruginosa,Klebsiella pneumoniae, and vancomycin-resistant enterococci. Considerable reductions occurred for LOS (4...
Source: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases - July 15, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

The prevalence and mortality of cryptococcal meningitis in patients with autoimmune diseases: a systematic review and meta-analysis
AbstractGrowing evidence suggests that autoimmune diseases (AIDs) are risk factors for cryptococcal meningitis (CM). Therefore, understanding the epidemiological and clinical profile of CM in patients with AIDs is important. This meta-analysis assessed the prevalence, clinical profiles, and clinical outcomes of CM in AIDs.  Studies on CM in patients with AIDs were searched for in PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, and China National Knowledge Infrastructure, and meta-analyses were performed using the statistical program of R. Nineteen studies with 36,631 patients with AIDs were analyzed. The overall pooled CM preval...
Source: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases - July 14, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Population-based surveillance of Enterobacter cloacae complex causing blood stream infections in a centralized Canadian region
This study provided novel information aboutEnterobacter genomics in a well-defined human population. (Source: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases)
Source: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases - July 14, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

The MOBILISE study: utilisation of ambulatory pumps in the inpatient setting to administer continuous antibiotic infusions —a randomised controlled trial
AbstractIn the inpatient setting, antibiotics are generally administered via bedside pumps with multiple daily dosing. Utilisation of a continuous antibiotic infusion (CAI) instead might have patient and nursing satisfaction, workflow efficiencies and infection control benefits. We aimed to study the utilisation of CAI in the inpatient setting for routine antibiotic administration. Patients receiving a peripherally inserted central venous catheter (PICC) for antibiotic administration were screened for the study. The patients were randomised to either (1) standard pump and intermittent antibiotic administration (IAA) or (2)...
Source: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases - July 13, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Prognosis of rash and chilblain-like lesions among outpatients with COVID-19: a large cohort study
AbstractIn a large regional observational cohort study of adult ( ≥ 18 years), outpatients with COVID-19, prevalence, characteristics, and outcome of patients with rash and/or chilblain-like lesions (CLL), compared with population without cutaneous features, were studied. In total, 28,957 outpatients were included; the prevalence of rash and CCL were 9.5% and 3.7%, respectively. Presence of rash was significantly associated with presence of asthenia, shivers or myalgia, respiratory and gastro-intestinal symptoms, and anosmia/ageusia. The presence of CCL was associated with chest pain, chest oppression, nause...
Source: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases - July 13, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

C-reactive protein predicts persistent bacteremia caused by community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strain
AbstractThere is limited data on persistent bacteremia (PB) caused by community-acquired methicillin-resistantStaphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA). Here, we aimed to investigate the clinical and microbiological characteristics of PB caused by the major CA-MRSA strain in Korea (ST72-SCCmecIV). All adult patients withS.aureus bacteremia were prospectively investigated from August 2008 to December 2018. Patients with ST72 MRSA bacteremia were included in the study. Patients were stratified into the PB group (defined as positive blood cultures for  ≥ 3 days) and short bacteremia (SB) group. A total of 291 pati...
Source: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases - July 10, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Lack of evidence for infectious SARS-CoV-2 in feces and sewage
AbstractThe SARS-CoV-2 can be excreted in feces and can reach sewage systems. Determining the presence of infective viral particles in feces and sewage is necessary to take adequate control measures and to elucidate new routes of transmission. Here, we have developed a sample concentration methodology that allows us to maintain viral infectivity. Feces of COVID-19 patients and wastewater samples have been analyzed both by molecular methods and cell culture. Our results show no evidence of infective viral particles, suggesting that fecal –oral transmission is not a primary route. However, larger-scale efforts are need...
Source: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases - July 9, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Feasibility and utility of facemask sampling in the detection of SARS-CoV-2 during an ongoing pandemic
AbstractsEasy access to screening for timely identification and isolation of infectious COVID-19 patients remains crucial in sustaining the international efforts to control COVID-19 spread. A major barrier limiting broad-based screening is the lack of a simple, rapid, and cost-effective COVID-19 testing method. We evaluated the feasibility and utility of facemask sampling in a cohort of 42 COVID-19-positive and 36 COVID-19-negative patients. We used a prototype of Steri-Strips ™ (3 M) applied to the inner surface of looped surgical facemasks (Assure), which was worn by patients for a minimum wear time of 3 ...
Source: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases - July 5, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Protective role of IL-18 in host defenses against group B Streptococcus
AbstractThe aim of this study was to investigate the role of IL-18, a member of the IL-1 family, in group BStreptococcus (GBS) infection. Both in a neonatal and adult model of GBS infection, IL-18-deficient animals were significantly more susceptible to infection than WT animals. The lack of IL18 was associated with a marked reduction in IFN- γ-levels after bacterial stimulation but did not play a significant role in the recruitment of PMN to sites of GBS infection. Collectively, our data document a fundamental function of IL-18 signaling in boosting the host immune responses against GBS infection. (Source: European ...
Source: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases - July 4, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Current fluconazole treatment regimens result in under-dosing of critically ill adults during early therapy
ConclusionCurrent fluconazole dosing regimens do not achieve adequate early target attainment in critically ill adults, particularly in those who are overweight, have higher creatinine clearance, or are undergoing CRRT. Current fluconazole dosing strategies are generally inadequate to treat organisms with an MIC of ≥4 mg/L. (Source: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases)
Source: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases - June 16, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Comparison of time-to-positivity between two blood culture systems: a detailed analysis down to the genus-level
AbstractA recently developed, automated blood culture system and medium improve the time-to-positivity (TTP) for bacteremia. However, there have thus far been no genus-level analyses using this novel system. We evaluated and compared the changes in blood culture TTP between two systems: BacT/Alert 3D with a blood culture medium containing activated charcoal versus the more recent BacT/Alert Virtuo with a blood culture medium containing polymeric beads. This before-and-after study included blood cultures collected between July 2010 and April 2014 (3D, activated charcoal) and between July 2015 and April 2018 (Virtuo, polymer...
Source: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases - June 16, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research