Viruses and atypical bacteria in the respiratory tract of immunocompromised and immunocompetent patients with airway infection
AbstractRespiratory tract infections (RTI) can take a serious course under immunosuppression. Data on the impact of the underlying pathogens are still controversial. Samples from the upper (n = 322) and lower RT (n = 169) were collected from 136 children and 355 adults; 225 among them have been immunocompromised patients. Exclusion criteria were presence of relevant cultivable microorganisms, C-reactive protein>  20 mg/dl, or procalcitonin>  2.0 ng/ml. Samples were tested by PCR for the presence of herpesviruses (HSV-1/-2; VZV; CMV; HHV6; EBV), adenoviruses, bocavir...
Source: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases - July 8, 2020 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Significant shifts in the distribution of vaccine capsular polysaccharide types and rates of antimicrobial resistance of perinatal group B streptococci within the last decade in St. Petersburg, Russia
This study aimed at estimating the distributions of capsular polysaccharide (CPS) types and pilus profiles, and the rates of antimicrobial resistance among GBS strains isolated from colonized pregnant women and newborns in 2010 –2011 and 2017–2018 in St. Petersburg, Russia. A total of 261 GBS isolates have been investigated. Antibiotic susceptibility testing was performed using the disc-diffusion method. CPS types and pilus profiles were determined by using PCR. Over the 9-year period, the resistance of GBS to both ery thromycin and clindamycin has significantly increased, exceeding 30% in 2017–2018. The ...
Source: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases - July 8, 2020 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

HIV antibodies level as a marker of HIV persistence: the role of hepatitis C virus coinfection
AbstractHuman immunodeficiency virus (HIV) antibodies have been proposed as a measure of the size of the HIV reservoir. The aim of our study is to quantify the anti-HIV antibodies level in a cohort of people living with HIV (PLWH), stratified based on the presence of continuous undetectable HIV viral load and the co-existence of hepatitis C virus infection. A sample of 229 HIV-monoinfected (n = 114) or HIV/HCV-coinfected [either with resolved HCV infection (n = 75) or active HCV coinfection (n = 40)] patients, followed up a median of 34 (IQR 20–44) months, was studied. Anti-H...
Source: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases - July 8, 2020 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

The use of 3 selected lactobacillary strains in vaginal probiotic gel for the treatment of acute Candida vaginitis: a proof-of-concept study
AbstractIn vitro studies suggest that certain probiotic bacterial strains have potential activity against opportunistic infections such asCandida. There are few in vivo trials using probiotics as a single treatment for acuteCandida vulvovaginitis (CV). In this open-label, proof-of-concept study, selectedLactobacillus strains were tested in women with acuteCandida vaginitis. Twenty women diagnosed with proven, symptomatic CV were instructed to administer a vaginal probiotic gel withL. plantarum YUN-V2.0,L. pentosus YUN-V1.0 andL. rhamnosus YUN-S1.0 for 10 consecutive days. Vaginal rinsing fluid, vaginal culture swab and vag...
Source: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases - July 8, 2020 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Association between the rate of third generation cephalosporin-resistant Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae and antibiotic consumption based on 143 Chinese tertiary hospitals data in 2014
This study sought to discuss the correlation between the third-generation cephalosporins (3GC)-resistantEscherichia coli andKlebsiella pneumoniae and antibiotic consumption intensity from 143 Chinese tertiary hospitals in 2014. With a retrospective design, the correlation between antibiotic consumption and 3GC-resistantE. coli andK. pneumoniae were performed. 3GC-resistantE. coli was significantly correlated with the consumption of all antibiotics (r = 0.252,p 
Source: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases - July 8, 2020 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

In vitro activity of omadacycline against pathogens isolated from Mainland China during 2017 –2018
This study was conducted to determine the in vitro activity of omadacycline against a large collection of patient isolate medical centers across Mainland China. A total of 1041 recent clinical isolates are obtained from patients hospitalized in 29 provinces and municipalities across China. The in vitro activity of omadacycline and comparator agents was assessed using the microbroth dilution methodology. Omadacycline was active against methicillin-susceptible and -resistantStaphylococcus aureus with MIC90 values of 0.25 and 1  mg/L, respectively. All isolates ofEnterococcus faecalis andEnterococcus faecium, including v...
Source: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases - July 8, 2020 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Brief report of the first cured 2019-nCoV pneumonia patient in West China Hospital
(Source: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases)
Source: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases - July 8, 2020 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Evaluation of Xpert MTB/RIF Ultra assay for rapid diagnosis of pulmonary and extra-pulmonary tuberculosis in an Italian center
(Source: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases)
Source: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases - July 8, 2020 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Protozoan infections are under-recognized in Swedish patients with gastrointestinal symptoms
AbstractIn acute gastroenteritis (GE), identification of the infectious agent is important for patient management and surveillance. The prevalence of GE caused by protozoa may be underestimated in Swedish patients. The purpose was to compare the prevalence ofE. histolytica,Cryptosporidium spp.,G. intestinalis, andC. cayetanensis in samples from patients where the clinician had requested testing for gastrointestinal parasites only (n = 758) to where testing for bacterial GE only (n = 803) or where both parasite and bacterial testing (n = 1259) was requested and a healthy control gro...
Source: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases - July 7, 2020 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Transmission of SARS-CoV-2: an update of current literature
AbstractSevere acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the etiologic agent for the 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic, has caused a public health emergency. The need for additional research in viral pathogenesis is essential as the number of cases and deaths rise. Understanding the virus and its ability to cause disease has been the main focus of current literature; however, there is much unknown. Studies have revealed new findings related to the full transmission potential of SARS-CoV-2 and its subsequent ability to cause infection by different means. The virus is hypothesized to be of increased v...
Source: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases - July 7, 2020 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Clinical characteristics and prognostic factors of extraintestinal infection caused by Clostridioides difficile : analysis of 60 consecutive cases
AbstractData regarding extraintestinalClostridioides difficile infections (ECDIs) remain scarce and anecdotal. We conducted a retrospective cohort study to investigate characteristics and prognostic factors in patients with ECDI. From January 1997 through December 2018, 60 patients were enrolled and divided into three groups as follows: group A (gastrointestinal [GI] disruption caused by malignancy,n = 13); group B (GI disruption from causes other than malignancy,n = 25); group C (no GI disruption,n = 22). GI disruption was defined as compromised integrity of the GI tract caused by...
Source: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases - July 6, 2020 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Diagnostic parameters of modified two-tier testing in European patients with early Lyme disease
AbstractModified two-tier testing (MTTT) for Lyme borreliosis (i.e. confirmation with an EIA instead of an immunoblot) has been shown to have improved sensitivity compared with standard two-tier testing (STTT) in samples from American patients, without losing specificity. The current study assesses the sensitivity and specificity of various algorithms of MTTT in European patients with erythema migrans (EM) as a model disease for early Lyme borreliosis, and in appropriate controls. Four different immunoassays were used in the first tier, followed by either an immunoblot or the C6-EIA, or were  used as standalone single...
Source: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases - July 6, 2020 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Complement levels in patients with bloodstream infection due to Staphylococcus aureus or Gram-negative bacteria
We present complement levels inStaphylococcus aureus bacteremia (SAB) and Gram-negative bacteremia (GNB) and describe observed associations of complement levels with clinical outcomes. Complement and cytokine levels were measured in serum samples from 20 hospitalized patients with SAB, 20 hospitalized patients with GNB, 10 non-infected hospitalized patients, and 10 community controls. C5a levels were significantly higher in patients with SAB as compared to patients with GNB. Low C4 and C3 levels were associated with septic shock and 30-day mortality in patients with GNB, and elevated C3 was associated with a desirable outc...
Source: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases - July 4, 2020 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

First report of meningococcal ciprofloxacin resistance in Greece due to invasive isolates of the sequence type ST-3129
AbstractA local outbreak caused byNeisseria meningitidis occurred in the migration camp in the Greek island of Lesbos during January –February 2020 (4 of 5 cases). In total, 5 samples positive forN. meningitidis were further investigated for sero-/genogroup, PorA, and WGS analysis. MenB was found among 3 cases, while in two cases, MenY was identified. WGS analysis and antibiotic susceptibility testing on the 2 culture positive MenB samples showed the new ST-3129, ciprofloxacin-resistant clone was circulating among the immigrants in the aforementioned camp. This is the first report of ciprofloxacin resistance in Greec...
Source: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases - July 3, 2020 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Decreased duration of intravenous cephalosporins in intensive care unit patients with selective digestive decontamination: a retrospective before-and-after study
AbstractSelective digestive decontamination (SDD) reduces the rate of infection and improves the outcomes of patients admitted to an intensive care unit (ICU). A risk associated with its use is the development of multi-drug-resistant organisms. We hypothesized that a 1-day reduction in systemic antimicrobial exposure in the SDD regimen would not affect the outcomes of our patients. In this before-and-after study design, 199 patients and 248 patients were included in a 3-day SDD group and a 2-day SDD group, respectively. The rates of hospital-acquired pneumonia and ICU infections were similar in both groups. The rates of bl...
Source: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases - July 2, 2020 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Characteristics of laboratory indexes in COVID-19 patients with non-severe symptoms in Hefei City, China: diagnostic value in organ injuries
This study compared the laboratory indexes in 40 non-severe COVID-19 patients with those in 57 healthy controls. In the peripheral blood system of non-severe symptom COVID-19 patients, lymphocytes, eosinophils, basophils, total procollagen type 1 amino-terminal propeptide, osteocalcin N-terminal, thyroid-stimulating hormone, growth hormone, and insulin-like growth factor –binding protein 3 significantly decreased, and total protein, albumin, alanine transaminase, alkaline phosphatase, γ-glutamyl transferase, activated partial thromboplastin time, prothrombin time, fibrinogen, D-dimer, fibrinogen degradation pro...
Source: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases - July 1, 2020 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Classification of COVID-19 patients from chest CT images using multi-objective differential evolution –based convolutional neural networks
AbstractEarly classification of 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is essential for disease cure and control. Compared with reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), chest computed tomography (CT) imaging may be a significantly more trustworthy, useful, and rapid technique to classify and evaluate COVID-19, specifically in the epidemic region. Almost all hospitals have CT imaging machines; therefore, the chest CT images can be utilized for early classification of COVID-19 patients. However, the chest CT-based COVID-19 classification involves a radiology expert and considerable time, which is valuable...
Source: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases - June 18, 2020 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Group A streptococcal bacteremias in Southwest Finland 2007 –2018: epidemiology and role of infectious diseases consultation in antibiotic treatment selection
AbstractThe incidence of invasive group A streptococcal (GAS) infections has shown a fluctuating but increasing trend in Finland. The impact of infectious diseases specialist consultation (IDSC) on the antimicrobial therapy of GAS bacteremia has not been studied earlier. A retrospective study on adult GAS bacteremia in The Hospital District of Southwest Finland (HDSWF) was conducted from 2007 to 2018. Data on incidence of bacteremic GAS cases were gathered from the National Infectious Disease Register. Clinical data were obtained by reviewing the electronic patient records. The overall incidence of GAS bacteremia in HDSWF ...
Source: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases - June 18, 2020 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Evaluation of EUCAST rapid antimicrobial susceptibility testing (RAST) for positive blood cultures in clinical practice using a total lab automation
AbstractOur objective was to evaluate EUCAST ’s ‘rapid antimicrobial susceptibility testing’ (RAST) directly from positive blood culture that delivers antimicrobial results within 6 h forStaphylococcus aureus,Enterococcus spp.,Escherichia coli,Klebsiella pneumoniae andPseudomonas aeruginosa, using total lab automation. Zone diameters from RAST were compared with MIC results. Furthermore, its influence on time to report was investigated. RAST was performed to all positive aerobic and anaerobic blood culture bottles by subculturing them, i.e. onto Mueller-Hinton agar and adding six antibiotic discs cov...
Source: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases - June 18, 2020 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

How many pneumonias exist in nature?
(Source: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases)
Source: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases - June 18, 2020 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Virulence of Helicobacter pylori outer membrane proteins: an updated review
In conclusion, OMPs are closely related to the pathogenic processes of adhesion, colonization, persistent infection, and severe clinical consequences. They are potential targets for the prevention and treatment ofH. pylori–related diseases. (Source: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases)
Source: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases - June 17, 2020 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Bacterial spectrum and antibiotic resistance of urinary tract infections in patients treated for upper urinary tract calculi: a multicenter analysis
AbstractThe purpose of this study is to collect information on the bacterial resistance to antibiotics of bacteria isolated from urine cultures of patients treated for upper urinary tract calculi. Data of patients with urinary tract infection and urolithiasis were retrospectively reviewed to collect information on age, gender, stone size, location, hydronephrosis, procedure of stone removal and antibiotic treatment, identification and susceptibility of pathogens, symptoms, and infectious complications. A total of 912 patients from 11 centers in 7 countries (Bulgaria, Greece, Italy, North Macedonia, Spain, and Turkey) were ...
Source: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases - June 16, 2020 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Detection of anti- Pneumocystis jirovecii antibodies in human serum using a recombinant synthetic multi-epitope kexin-based antigen
AbstractInterest in the detection of specific anti-Pneumocystis jirovecii antibodies has emerged as less-invasive alternative diagnostic approaches. Here is presented the performance of an ELISA based on a recombinant synthetic multi-epitope kexin 1 (Kex1) antigen ofP. jirovecii, previously developed. Results showed that IgM anti-Kex1 levels were found significantly increased in patients withPneumocystis pneumonia (PcP) compared with non-PcP cases (p
Source: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases - June 16, 2020 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Effect of angiotensin II blockers on the prognosis of COVID-19: a toxicological view
(Source: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases)
Source: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases - June 16, 2020 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Screening and evaluation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis diagnostic antigens
AbstractIn recent years, the prevalence of tuberculosis worldwide has increased, and with it, the number of drug-resistant tuberculosis strains. This has brought new challenges towards prevention and control of the disease. Therefore, it is urgent to find reliable and rapid diagnostic methods for tuberculosis in general, and for the drug-resistant forms of the disease. To this aim, we assessed 17 tuberculosis-specific protein candidates for the detection of tuberculosis-specific antibodies. First, we established an indirect ELISA method to detect anti-Mycobacterium tuberculosis IgM and IgG. We tested 453 sera and analyzed ...
Source: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases - June 16, 2020 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Clinical characteristics and outcomes of Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia from a biliary source
This study aimed to analyze the clinical characteristics and outcomes ofS. aureus bacteremia (SAB) originating from the biliary tract by comparing them with those of catheter-related SAB and biliaryKlebsiella pneumoniae bacteremia. A matched case-control study within a prospective observational cohort of patients with SAB was conducted. Biliary SAB was defined as the isolation ofS. aureus from blood cultures with symptoms and signs of biliary infection. Biliary SAB patients were matched (1:3) with the control groups: patients with catheter-related SAB and biliaryKlebsiella pneumoniae bacteremia. Out of 1818 patients with S...
Source: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases - June 15, 2020 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

A comparison of daptomycin alone and in combination with ceftaroline fosamil for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia complicated by septic pulmonary emboli
AbstractThe use of daptomycin (DAP) in septic pulmonary emboli (SPE) remains controversial. We analyzed 29 cases of MRSA bacteremia complicated by SPE treated with DAP (n = 14) or DAP-ceftaroline fosamil (CPT;n = 15). Initial treatment with DAP monotherapy was found to have a success rate comparable with DAP-CPT (71% vs. 80%;p = 0.68). (Source: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases)
Source: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases - June 13, 2020 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

A comparison of GenomEra ® GBS PCR and GeneXpert ® GBS PCR assays with culture of GBS performed with and without broth pre-enrichment
This study was designed to compare the performance of GeneXpert ® and GenomEra® group B streptococcus (GBS) PCR assays, held up against standard culture of GBS performed with and without broth pre-enrichment. In Denmark, the strategy for preventing early onset GBS infection (EOGBS) is risk factor based. Three hundred and sixty six women fulfilling one or more of the criteria for presence of risk factors for EOGBS were prospectively included. Rectovaginal swab samples were taken intrapartum and tested bed-site by the GenomEra® and the GeneXpert® GBS PCR assays and cultured at the microbiology laboratory usin...
Source: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases - June 13, 2020 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Rate of polymyxin resistance among Acinetobacter baumannii recovered from hospitalized patients: a systematic review and meta-analysis
AbstractWe conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to determine the rate of polymyxin resistance amongAcinetobacter baumannii isolates causing infection in hospitalized patients around the world during the period of 2010 –2019. The systematic review was performed on September 1, 2019, using PubMed/MEDLINE, Scopus, and Web of Science; studies published after January 1, 2010, were selected. The data were summarized in tables, critically analyzed, and treated statistically using the RStudio® Software with Meta packa ge and Metaprop Command. After applying exclusion factors, 41 relevant studies were selected ...
Source: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases - June 12, 2020 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Evaluation of rapid polymyxin Nordmann Poirel test for detection of polymyxin resistance in clinical isolates of Enterobacteriaceae
AbstractPolymyxins play a significant role against carbapenem-resistantEnterobacteriaceae (CRE). A total of 121 clinical samples yielded growth of CRE that were included in the study. Rapid Polymyxin NP test was performed on all the isolates as described by Nordmann P et al. and results were compared with broth microdilution method. Majority of the isolates wereKlebsiella pneumoniae (70.2%) followed byEscherichia coli (17.4%). A total of 71 isolates were found resistant and 50 as susceptible by broth microdilution. Sensitivity and specificity of rapid polymyxin NP test were found to be 97.2% and 100%, respectively. Our stu...
Source: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases - June 12, 2020 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Evaluation of RIDASCREEN ® and RIDA®QUICK Helicobacter kits for Helicobacter pylori detection in stools
The objective of this study was to evaluate retrospectively the performances of the commercially available RIDA ®QUICK Helicobacter and RIDASCREEN® Helicobacter (R-Biopharm) kits in detectingH. pylori antigens in stool samples. A collection of 132 stools was used in this study: 94 stools obtained fromH. pylori-negative patients and 38 stools fromH. pylori-positive patients. The performances (sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV)) were evaluated for the RIDA ®QUICK Helicobacter and RIDASCREEN® Helicobacter kits in comparison with real-time PCR results perf...
Source: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases - June 10, 2020 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Staphylococcus capitis isolated from bloodstream infections: a nationwide 3-month survey in 38 neonatal intensive care units
AbstractTo increase the knowledge aboutS. capitis in the neonatal setting, we conducted a nationwide 3-month survey in 38 neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) covering 56.6% of French NICU beds. We demonstrated 14.2% ofS. capitis BSI (S.capBSI) among nosocomial BSIs.S.capBSI incidence rate was 0.59 per 1000 patient-days. A total of 55.0% of theS.capBSIs were late onset catheter-related BSIs. TheS. capitis strains infected preterm babies (median gestational age 26 weeks, median birth weight 855 g). They were resistant to methicillin and aminoglycosides and belonged to the NRCS-A clone. Evolution was favorable in all but on...
Source: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases - June 9, 2020 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Analysis of C. difficile infection –related outcomes in European participants in the bezlotoxumab MODIFY I and II trials
AbstractThe MODIFY I/II trials demonstrated that bezlotoxumab, a human monoclonal antibody againstClostridioides difficile toxin B, given during antibiotic treatment forClostridioides difficile infection (CDI) significantly reducedC. difficile recurrence (rCDI) in adults at high risk for rCDI. Efficacy of CDI-directed intervention may depend on ribotype regional epidemiology, and patient characteristics. This post hoc analysis assessed the efficacy of bezlotoxumab in the subgroup of MODIFY I/II trial participants enrolled in Europe. Data from the bezlotoxumab (10 mg/kg single intravenous infusion) and placebo (0.9% saline)...
Source: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases - June 6, 2020 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Standardization of ELISA for anti-chikungunya-IgG antibodies and age-stratified prevalence of anti-chikungunya-IgG antibodies in Pune, India
AbstractChikungunya (CHIKV) reemerged in India after a gap of 32 years, in 2005 –2006 and has established endemicity in Pune. To assess the degree of CHIKV exposure, we estimated age-stratified prevalence of IgG antibodies to CHIKV in Pune population. This retrospective study utilized age-stratified serum samples collected from 15 wards of Pune in 2017 for dengue (DENV) virus study. Indirect anti-CHIKV-IgG ELISA was developed and used to test 1904 samples. Exposure to CHIKV and DENV was compared in the same population. CHIKV-specific plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT) was employed to evaluate ELISA positivit...
Source: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases - June 5, 2020 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Influenza-associated aspergillosis in critically-ill patients —a retrospective bicentric cohort study
AbstractInfluenza was recently reported as a risk factor for invasive aspergillosis (IA). We aimed to describe prognostic factors for influenza-associated IA (IAA) and poor outcome and mortality in critically ill patients in Switzerland. All adults with confirmed influenza admitted to the ICU at two Swiss tertiary care centres during the 2017/2018 influenza season were retrospectively evaluated. IAA was defined by clinical, mycological and radiological criteria: a positive galactomannan in bronchoalveolar lavage or histopathological or cultural evidence in respiratory specimens ofAspergillus spp., any radiological infiltra...
Source: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases - June 3, 2020 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Fifteen years of a nationwide culture collection of Neisseria gonorrhoeae antimicrobial resistance in Portugal
This study evidences the advantages of a nationwide collection of isolates and of centralized AMR testing to respond to supranational (EURO-GASP) requirements while providing unprecedented data on AMR in the context of 15  years of surveillance. (Source: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases)
Source: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases - June 3, 2020 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Evaluation of ultra-rapid susceptibility testing of ceftolozane-tazobactam by a flow cytometry assay directly from positive blood cultures
AbstractThe urgent need for rapid antimicrobial susceptibility is broadly apparent from government reports to the lay press. Accordingly, we developed a flow-cytometry assay (FCM) for evaluating ceftolozane-tazobactam (C/T) susceptibility directly on blood cultures (BC) requiring
Source: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases - June 2, 2020 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Clinical factors influencing the performance of bacterial multiplex polymerase chain reaction in patients with community-onset pneumonia
This study assessed the clinical factors influencing bacterial mPCR results in patients with COP. Patients with COP admitted to a tertiary care hospital between November 2015 and April 2016 were retrospectively assessed. Conventional methods included culture-based methods and serology forMycoplasma pneumoniae. Bacterial mPCR that could identifyStreptococcus pneumoniae,Haemophilus influenzae,Mycoplasma pneumoniae, andLegionella pneumophilia was performed. Bacterial mPCR was performed in a total of 342 patients with COP in the study. Bacterial mPCR alone provided etiology in 99 patients. The total etiologic diagnosis rates i...
Source: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases - May 14, 2020 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Activity of temocillin against ESBL-, AmpC-, and/or KPC-producing Enterobacterales isolated in Poland
AbstractWe evaluated the in vitro effectiveness of temocillin and several commonly used antimicrobials againstEnterobacterales bacteria in isolates from Polish patients. We tested 400 isolates: 260 extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)- and/or ampC β-lactamase (AmpC)-producing isolates; 40Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC)-producing isolates; and 100 ESBL-, AmpC-, and KPC-negative isolates. The minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of temocillin and 16 other antimicrobials were determined by reference microdilution. We also determined the activities of fosfomycin and ceftazidime/avibactam in KPC-producin...
Source: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases - May 14, 2020 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Viral RNA load as determined by cell culture as a management tool for discharge of SARS-CoV-2 patients from infectious disease wards
AbstractIn a preliminary clinical study, we observed that the combination of hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin was effective against SARS-CoV-2 by shortening the duration of viral load in Covid-19 patients. It is of paramount importance to define when a treated patient can be considered as no longer contagious. Correlation between successful isolation of virus in cell culture and Ct value of quantitative RT-PCR targeting E gene suggests that patients with Ct above 33 –34 using our RT-PCR system are not contagious and thus can be discharged from hospital care or strict confinement for non-hospitalized patients. (Sou...
Source: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases - May 14, 2020 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Reactive oxygen species and uspA overexpession: an alternative bacterial response toward selection and maintenance of multidrug resistance in clinical isolates of uropathogenic E. coli
AbstractEmergence of multidrug resistance (MDR) in uropathogenicE. coli (UPEC) demands alternative therapeutic interventions. Bactericidal antibiotics at their sub-inhibitory concentration stimulate production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that results in oxidative stress, generates mutations, and alters transcription of different genes. Sub-inhibitory concentration of antibiotics facilitates selection of highly resistant population. Universal stress protein A (uspA) overexpression in MDR-UPEC at sub-inhibitory bactericidal antibiotics concentration was investigated to explore alternative survival strategy against them....
Source: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases - May 12, 2020 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Rapid identification of uropathogens by combining Alfred 60 system with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization –time-of-flight mass spectrometry technology
This study evaluated performance of the Alfred 60 system combined with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization –time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) technology for rapid identification of uropathogens. The Alfred 60 system was used to screen urine cultures, followed by identifying the microbial pathogen in positive cultures using MALDI-TOF MS. The Alfred 60 detected positive cultures by measurin g the turbidity of urine samples, which were transferred automatically to vials containing liquid medium and incubated for 3.5 h at 35 °C in the Alfred 60 system. Vials that showed growth were rem...
Source: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases - May 9, 2020 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Misidentification of Cutibacterium namnetense as Cutibacterium acnes among clinical isolates by MALDI-TOF VitekMS: usefulness of gyrB sequencing and new player in bone infections
AbstractThe taxonomy modification ofPropionibacterium sp. with the description of new species, especiallyCutibacterium namnetense, raises the question of species distribution in routine clinical samples. We performed a retrospective study during 3  years before the implementation of MALDI-TOF. Two hundred sixty-nine isolates were included in the study. MALDI-TOF identification, 16S rRNA, and new developedgyrB partial sequencings were performed. The most representative species wasC. acnes in 88% of the cases, regardless of the origin of the clinical sample. Eventually, we identified threeC. namnetense strains, represen...
Source: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases - May 7, 2020 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Implementation of the eazyplex ® CSF direct panel assay for rapid laboratory diagnosis of bacterial meningitis: 32-month experience at a tertiary care university hospital
AbstractWe aimed to report a 32-month laboratory experience with the eazyplex® CSF direct panel assay for the rapid diagnosis of meningitis due to six most common bacterial species (Escherichia coli,Haemophilus influenzae,Listeria monocytogenes,Neisseria meningitidis,Streptococcus agalactiae, andStreptococcus pneumoniae). We included all cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples from patients admitted with a clinical suspicion of meningitis/encephalitis between May 2016 and December 2018 at our hospital. In addition to the eazyplex® assay, both Gram stain microscopy and culture were performed, and results were confirmed wi...
Source: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases - May 6, 2020 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Nosocomial outbreak linked to a flexible gastrointestinal endoscope contaminated with an amikacin-resistant ST17 clone of Pseudomonas aeruginosa
AbstractEndoscope contamination is infrequent but can be the source of nosocomial infections and outbreaks. In August 2016, an unexpected increase in the incidence of amikacin-resistantP. aeruginosa isolates (AK-Pae) was observed at a tertiary care center in the south of Spain. An epidemiological and microbiological investigation (August-October 2016) was performed to explain this finding. Isolates from clinical and environmental samples (2 endoscopes used for retrograde cholangiopancreatography; ERCP) were identified by MALDI-TOF. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed using the MicroScan system. Whole-Genome-...
Source: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases - May 6, 2020 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Mechanism of Candida pathogenesis: revisiting the vital drivers
AbstractCandida is the most implicated fungal pathogen in the clinical setting. Several factors play important roles in the pathogenesis ofCandida spp. Multiple transcriptional circuits, morphological and phenotypic switching, biofilm formation, tissue damaging extracellular hydrolytic enzymes, metabolic flexibility, genome plasticity, adaptation to environmental pH fluctuation, robust nutrient acquisition system, adherence and invasions (mediated by adhesins and invasins), heat shock proteins (HSPs), cytolytic proteins, escape from phagocytosis, evasion from host immune system, synergistic coaggregation with resident micr...
Source: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases - May 6, 2020 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Infection and colonization by Corynebacterium pseudodiphtheriticum : a 9-year observational study in a university central hospital
This study ’s purpose was to assess clinical significance, risk factors for infection and antimicrobial susceptibility ofC. pseudodiphtheriticum isolates. A retrospective observational study was conducted. Relevance of isolation was determined by clinical, laboratory, and imaging criteria. Forty-nine isolates occurred in 47 episodes. Colonization was assumed in 12% and infection in 78%, of which 51% were nosocomial. Patients with infection were older, with male predominance; both age and gender were statistically significant (p 
Source: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases - May 4, 2020 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

First report of Tsukamurella endocarditis in an immunocompromised patient receiving chemotherapy
We present the first reported case ofTsukamurella endocarditis in an immunocompromised patient who was successfully treated with a 6-week course of imipenem and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. (Source: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases)
Source: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases - May 2, 2020 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Point-of-care multiplexed diagnosis of meningitis using the FilmArray ® ME panel technology
AbstractInfectious meningitis is a medical urgency and rapid detection of the causative pathogen into the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is mandatory to guide the management of patients. We compared the performances of the multiplexed PCR FilmArray ® ME panel with standard microbiological analyses, for rapid diagnosis of infectious meningitis. All the CSF samples received in our routine laboratory for the diagnosis of infectious meningitis were prospectively analyzed by the FilmArray® ME panel for the detection of fourteen targets in paralle l to standard routine real-time PCR assays and bacterial culture. We reviewed c...
Source: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases - May 1, 2020 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Analysis of the susceptibility to COVID-19 in pregnancy and recommendations on potential drug screening
AbstractTo analyze the susceptibility of SARS-CoV-2 in pregnancy and the drugs that can be used to treat pregnancy with COVID-19, so as to provide evidence for drug selection in clinic. By reviewing the existing literature, this paper analyzes the susceptibility of pregnant women to virus, especially to SARS-CoV-2, from the aspects of anatomical, reproductive endocrine and immune changes during pregnancy and screens effective and fetal-safe treatments from the existing drugs. The anatomical structure of the respiratory system is changed during pregnancy, and the virus transmitted by droplets and aerosols is more easily inh...
Source: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases - April 23, 2020 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research