Neuroprotective Effects of Intranasal IGF-1 against Neonatal Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Neurobehavioral Deficits and Neuronal Inflammation in the Substantia Nigra and Locus Coeruleus of Juvenile Rats
Neonatal lipopolysaccharide (LPS) exposure-induced brain inflammation resulted in motor dysfunction and brain dopaminergic neuronal injury, and increased the risks of neurodegenerative disorders in adult rats. Our previous studies showed that intranasal administration of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) protects against LPS-induced white matter injury in the developing rat brain. To further examine whether IGF-1 protects against LPS-induced brain neuronal injury and neurobehavioral dysfunction, recombinant human IGF-1 (rhIGF-1) at a dose of 50 µg/pup was administered intranasally 1 h following intracerebral injection ...
Source: Developmental Neuroscience - October 25, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

The Paradoxical Effects of Chronic Intra-Amniotic Ureaplasma parvum Exposure on Ovine Fetal Brain Development
This study demonstrates that microbial interactions and the timing and duration of the inflammatory insults determine the effects on the fetal brain. Therefore, this study helps to understand the complex and diverse postnatal neurological outcomes following UP driven chorioamnionitis.Dev Neurosci (Source: Developmental Neuroscience)
Source: Developmental Neuroscience - October 25, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Impaired Cerebellar Maturation, Growth Restriction, and Circulating Insulin-Like Growth Factor 1 in Preterm Rabbit Pups
Cerebellar growth is impeded following very preterm birth in human infants and the observed reduction in cerebellar volume is associated with neurodevelopmental impairment. Decreased levels of circulating insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) are associated with decreased cerebellar volume. The relationship between preterm birth, circulating IGF-1, and key cell populations supporting cerebellar proliferation is unknown. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of preterm birth on postnatal growth, circulating IGF-1, and cerebellar maturation in a preterm rabbit pup model. Preterm rabbit pups (PT) were delivered by c...
Source: Developmental Neuroscience - October 25, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

The Paradoxical Effects of Chronic Intra-Amniotic Ureaplasma parvum Exposure on Ovine Fetal Brain Development
This study demonstrates that microbial interactions and the timing and duration of the inflammatory insults determine the effects on the fetal brain. Therefore, this study helps to understand the complex and diverse postnatal neurological outcomes following UP driven chorioamnionitis.Dev Neurosci (Source: Developmental Neuroscience)
Source: Developmental Neuroscience - August 29, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

The Paradoxical Effects of Chronic Intra-Amniotic < b > < i > Ureaplasma parvum < /i > < /b > Exposure on Ovine Fetal Brain Development
This study demonstrates that microbial interactions and the timing and duration of the inflammatory insults determine the effects on the fetal brain. Therefore, this study helps to understand the complex and diverse postnatal neurological outcomes following UP driven chorioamnionitis.Dev Neurosci (Source: Developmental Neuroscience)
Source: Developmental Neuroscience - August 28, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Neuroprotective Effects of Intranasal IGF-1 against Neonatal Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Neurobehavioral Deficits and Neuronal Inflammation in the Substantia Nigra and Locus Coeruleus of Juvenile Rats
Neonatal lipopolysaccharide (LPS) exposure-induced brain inflammation resulted in motor dysfunction and brain dopaminergic neuronal injury, and increased the risks of neurodegenerative disorders in adult rats. Our previous studies showed that intranasal administration of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) protects against LPS-induced white matter injury in the developing rat brain. To further examine whether IGF-1 protects against LPS-induced brain neuronal injury and neurobehavioral dysfunction, recombinant human IGF-1 (rhIGF-1) at a dose of 50 µg/pup was administered intranasally 1 h following intracerebral injection ...
Source: Developmental Neuroscience - August 4, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Development of Auditory Evoked Responses in Normally Developing Preschool Children and Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder
This study used the topography of the auditory evoked magnetic field (AEF) to identify the auditory components in ND children between 6 and 68 months (n = 48). The latencies of the peaks in the AEF produced by a tone burst (ISI 2 ± 0.2 s) during sleep decreased with age, consistent with previous reports in awake children. The peak latencies of the AEFs in ND children and children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) were compared. Previous studies indicate that the latencies of the initial components of the auditory evoked p otential (AEP) and the AEF are delayed in children with ASD when compared to age-matched ND childre...
Source: Developmental Neuroscience - August 3, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Changes in White Matter Integrity following Intensive Voice Treatment (LSVT LOUD ®) in Children with Cerebral Palsy and Motor Speech Disorders
Preliminary evidence suggests that intensive voice and speech treatment based on activity-dependent neuroplasticity principles holds promise for affecting positive change in children with cerebral palsy (CP) and motor speech disorders. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) allows researchers to make inferences about the integrity of white matter tracks and provides a sensitive measure of neuroplasticity. Previous treatment studies looking at the effects of training on white matter integrity have shown positive results, but these studies have been limited to gross motor function. Eight children with motor speech disorders and CP (...
Source: Developmental Neuroscience - July 27, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

A Dopamine Hypothesis of Autism Spectrum Disorder
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) comprises a group of neurodevelopmental disorders characterized by social deficits and stereotyped behaviors. While several theories have emerged, the pathogenesis of ASD remains unknown. Although studies report dopamine signaling abnormalities in autistic patients, a coherent dopamine hypothesis which could link neurobiology to behavior in ASD is currently lacking. In this paper, we present such a hypothesis by proposing that autistic behavior arises from dysfunctions in the midbrain dopaminergic system. We hypothesize that a dysfunction of the mesocorticolimbic circuit leads to social defic...
Source: Developmental Neuroscience - July 27, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Subject Index Vol. 39, No. 1-4, 2017
Dev Neurosci 2017;39:353 (Source: Developmental Neuroscience)
Source: Developmental Neuroscience - July 20, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Author Index Vol. 39, No. 1-4, 2017
Dev Neurosci 2017;39:352 (Source: Developmental Neuroscience)
Source: Developmental Neuroscience - July 20, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Title Page / Table of Contents
Dev Neurosci 2017;39:1-4 (Source: Developmental Neuroscience)
Source: Developmental Neuroscience - July 20, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Combined Diffusion Tensor and Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopic Imaging Methodology for Automated Regional Brain Analysis: Application in a Normal Pediatric Population
We present statistical analyses of regional DTI and MRSI data in a cohort of normal pediatric subjects (n = 72; age range: 5-18 years; mean 12.7 ± 3.3 years) to establish normative data and evaluate maturational trends. Several regions showed significant maturational changes for several DTI parameters and MRSI ratios, but the percent change over the age range tended to be small. In the subcortical region (combined basal ganglia [BG], thalam i [TH], and corpus callosum [CC]), the largest combined percent change was a 10% increase in fractional anisotropy (FA) primarily due to increases in the BG (12.7%) and TH (9%). The la...
Source: Developmental Neuroscience - June 26, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Age-Dependent Effects of ALK5 Inhibition and Mechanism of Neuroprotection in Neonatal Hypoxic-Ischemic Brain Injury
Neonatal encephalopathy due to hypoxic-ischemic (HI) brain injury triggers a wave of neuroinflammatory events attributed to causing the progressive degeneration and functional deficits seen weeks after the initial insult. In a recent set of studies, we evaluated the therapeutic efficacy of a small molecule antagonist for ALK5 (activin-like kinase 5 ), TGF- β receptor in a rat model of moderate perinatal HI and found significant improvements in neurologic outcomes. Here, we have extended those studies to evaluate the efficacy of delayed TGF-β receptor antagonism on postnatal day (P) 6 and P9 HI rat pups with and without h...
Source: Developmental Neuroscience - June 19, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research