Changes in Sleep Architecture under Sustained Pain in Adult Mae lRats Subjected to Neonatal Short-Lasting Local Inflammatory Insult
In conclusion, pain in early life has a long-term effect on the cardiovascular-autonomic-electroencephalographic responses to pain later in life. The physiological relevance of these results remains undetermined.Dev Neurosci (Source: Developmental Neuroscience)
Source: Developmental Neuroscience - June 8, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Changes in Sleep Architecture under Sustained Pain in Adult Male Rats Subjected to Neonatal Short-Lasting Local Inflammatory Insult
In conclusion, pain in early life has a long-term effect on the cardiovascular-autonomic-electroencephalographic responses to pain later in life. The physiological relevance of these results remains undetermined.Dev Neurosci (Source: Developmental Neuroscience)
Source: Developmental Neuroscience - June 7, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Special Issue Dedicated to Susan J. Vannucci and Robert C. Vannucci
Dev Neurosci (Source: Developmental Neuroscience)
Source: Developmental Neuroscience - June 7, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Contents Vol. 38, 2017
Dev Neurosci 2016;38:I-IV (Source: Developmental Neuroscience)
Source: Developmental Neuroscience - June 6, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

The Differential Effects of Erythropoietin Exposure to Oxidative Stress on Microglia and Astrocytes in vitro
The neonatal brain is especially susceptible to oxidative stress owing to its reduced antioxidant capacity. Following hypoxic-ischemic (HI) injury, for example, there is a prolonged elevation in levels of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in the immature brain compared to the adult brain, resulting in lasting injury that can lead to life-long disability or morbidity. Erythropoietin (Epo) is one of few multifaceted treatment options that have been promising enough to trial in the clinic for both term and preterm brain injury. Despite this, there is a lack of clear understanding of how Epo modulates glial cell activity following oxid...
Source: Developmental Neuroscience - May 16, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Persistently Altered Metabolic Phenotype following Perinatal Excitotoxic Brain Injury
This study demonstrates that metabolic profiling is a useful approach to identify acute and tertiary effects in an excitotoxic lesion model, and generating a short list of targets with future potential in the hunt for identification, stratification, and possibly therapy.Dev Neurosci (Source: Developmental Neuroscience)
Source: Developmental Neuroscience - May 11, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Maternal Inflammation Results in Altered Tryptophan Metabolism in Rabbit Placenta and Fetal Brain
In this study, we hypothesized that maternal inflammation results in alterations in tryptophan pathway enzymes and metabolites in the placenta and fetal brain. We found that intrauterine endotoxin administration at gestational day 28 (G28) resulted in a significant upregulation of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) in both the placenta and fetal brain at G29 (24 h after treatment). This endotoxin-mediated IDO induction was also associated with intense microglial activation, an increase in interferon gamma expression, and increases in kynurenine and the kynurenine pathway metabolites kynurenine acid and quinolinic acid, as w...
Source: Developmental Neuroscience - May 10, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Cord Blood IL-16 Is Associated with 3-Year Neurodevelopmental Outcomes in Perinatal Asphyxia and Hypoxic-Ischaemic Encephalopathy
Activation of the inflammatory pathway is increasingly recognized as an important mechanism of injury following neonatal asphyxia and encephalopathy. This process may contribute to the poor prognosis seen in some cases, despite therapeutic hypothermia. Our group has previously identified raised interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-16, measured in umbilical cord blood at birth, to be predictive of grade of hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy (HIE). Our aim in this study was to examine the ability of these cytokines to predict the 3-year neurodevelopmental outcome in the same cohort. As part of a prospective, longitudinal cohort study set...
Source: Developmental Neuroscience - May 10, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Sulfatase 2 Modulates Fate Change from Motor Neurons to Oligodendrocyte Precursor Cells through Coordinated Regulation of Shh Signaling with Sulfatase 1
In this study, we found that Sulf2 also modulates the cell fate change from motor neurons (MNs) to oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) by regulating Shh signaling in the mouse ventral spinal cord in coordination with Sulf1. In the mouse, Sulf mRNAs colocalize with Shh mRNA and gradually expand dorsally from embryonic day (E) 10.5 to E12.5, following strong Patched1 signals (a target gene of Shh signaling). This coordinated expression pattern led us to hypothesize that in the mouse, strong Shh signaling is induced when Shh is released by Sulf1/2, and this strong Shh signaling subsequently induces the dorsal expansion of ...
Source: Developmental Neuroscience - May 10, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Long-Term Neuropathological Changes Associated with Cerebral Palsy in a Nonhuman Primate Model of Hypoxic-Ischemic Encephalopathy
Conclusions/Significance: In this nonhuman primate HIE model, animals treated with TH + Epo had less brain pathology noted on TBSS and IHC staining, which supports the long-term safety of TH + Epo in the setting of HIE. Animals that developed CP showed white-matter changes noted on TBSS, subtle histopathological changes in both the white and gray matter, and brainstem injury that correlated with CP severity. This HIE model may lend itself to further study of the relationship between brainstem injury and CP.Dev Neurosci (Source: Developmental Neuroscience)
Source: Developmental Neuroscience - May 10, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Developmental Changes in Expression of GABAA Receptor Subunits α1, α2, and α3 in the Pig Brain
We examined the expression of 3 predominant GABAAα-subunit proteins in the pig brain at various pre- and postnatal ages. Brain tissue was collected from piglets born via caesarean section at preterm ages 91, 97, 100, and 104 days' gestational age (GA), at term equivalent (114 days' GA, caesarean section) and at term, postnatal day 0 (P0) (spontan eous delivery, term = 115 days). Tissue was obtained from piglets at P4 and P7. Adult tissue from sows was collected postmortem after caesarean section. In all cortical regions and basal ganglia (1) α3 exhibited a significant increase in protein expression at 100 days' GA, (2) ...
Source: Developmental Neuroscience - May 5, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Developmental Changes in Expression of GABA < sub > A < /sub > Receptor Subunits α < sub > 1 < /sub > , α < sub > 2 < /sub > , and α < sub > 3 < /sub > in the Pig Brain
We examined the expression of 3 predominant GABAAα-subunit proteins in the pig brain at various pre- and postnatal ages. Brain tissue was collected from piglets born via caesarean section at preterm ages 91, 97, 100, and 104 days' gestational age (GA), at term equivalent (114 days' GA, caesarean section) and at term, postnatal day 0 (P0) (spontan eous delivery, term = 115 days). Tissue was obtained from piglets at P4 and P7. Adult tissue from sows was collected postmortem after caesarean section. In all cortical regions and basal ganglia (1) α3 exhibited a significant increase in protein expression at 100 days' GA, (2) ...
Source: Developmental Neuroscience - May 4, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Effects of Antenatal Melatonin Treatment on the Cerebral Vasculature in an Ovine Model of Fetal Growth Restriction
Chronic moderate hypoxia, such as occurs in fetal growth restriction (FGR) during gestation, compromises the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and results in structural abnormalities of the cerebral vasculature. We have previously determined the neuroprotective and antioxidant effects of maternal administration of melatonin (MLT) on growth-restricted newborn lambs. The potential of maternal MLT therapy for the treatment of cerebrovascular dysfunction-associated developmental hypoxia has also been demonstrated in newborn lambs. We assessed whether MLT had an effect on the previously reported structural and cerebral vascular abnorma...
Source: Developmental Neuroscience - May 3, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Neuroprotective Treatments after Perinatal Hypoxic-Ischemic Brain Injury Evaluated with Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy
Perinatal hypoxic-ischemic brain injury is a major health problem. Adjuvant treatments that improve the neuroprotective effect of the current treatment, therapeutic hypothermia, are urgently needed. The growing knowledge about the complex pathophysiology of hypoxia-ischemia (HI) has led to the discovery of several important targets for neuroprotection. Early interventions should focus on the preservation of energy metabolism, the reduction of glutamate excitotoxicity and oxidative stress, the maintenance of calcium homeostasis, and the prevention of apoptosis. Delayed interventions should promote injury repair. The multipl...
Source: Developmental Neuroscience - April 27, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Intrauterine Growth Restriction Alters the Postnatal Development of the Rat Cerebellum
Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is a major cause of antenatal brain injury. We aimed to characterize cerebellar deficits following IUGR and to investigate the potential underlying cellular and molecular mechanisms. At embryonic day 18, pregnant rats underwent either sham surgery (controls;n = 23) or bilateral uterine vessel ligation to restrict blood flow to fetuses (IUGR;n = 20). Offspring were collected at postnatal day 2 (P2), P7, and P35. Body weights were reduced at P2, P7, and P35 in IUGR offspring (p (Source: Developmental Neuroscience)
Source: Developmental Neuroscience - April 27, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research