Effects of Early-Life Adversity on Hippocampal Structures and Associated HPA Axis Functions
Early-life adversity (ELA) is one of the major risk factors for serious mental and physical health risks later in life. ELA has been associated with dysfunctional neurodevelopment, especially in brain structures such as the hippocampus, and with dysfunction of the stress system, including the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Children who have experienced ELA are also more likely to suffer from mental health disorders such as depression later in life. The exact interplay of aberrant neurodevelopment and HPA axis dysfunction as risks for psychopathology is not yet clear. We investigated volume differences in the bi...
Source: Developmental Neuroscience - December 13, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Deficits in Docosahexaenoic Acid Accrual during Adolescence Reduce Rat Forebrain White Matter Microstructural Integrity: An in vivo Diffusion Tensor Imaging Study
This study determined the effects of altering brain DHA accrual during adolescence on WMI in the rat brain by diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), and investigated the potential mediating role of proinflammatory signaling. During periadolescent development, male rats were fed a diet deficient in n-3 fatty acids (DEF,n = 20), a fish oil-fortified diet containing preformed DHA (FO,n = 20), or a control diet (CON,n = 20). In adulthood, DTI scans were performed and brain WMI was determined using voxelwise tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS). Postmortem fatty acid composition, peripheral (plasma IL-1 β, IL-6, and C-reactive prote...
Source: Developmental Neuroscience - December 7, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

The Paradoxical Effects of Chronic Intra-Amniotic < b > < i > Ureaplasma parvum < /i > < /b > Exposure on Ovine Fetal Brain Development
This study demonstrates that microbial interactions and the timing and duration of the inflammatory insults determine the effects on the fetal brain. Therefore, this study helps to understand the complex and diverse postnatal neurological outcomes following UP driven chorioamnionitis.Dev Neurosci 2017;39:472-486 (Source: Developmental Neuroscience)
Source: Developmental Neuroscience - November 28, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Contents Vol. 39, 2017
Dev Neurosci 2017;39:I-IV (Source: Developmental Neuroscience)
Source: Developmental Neuroscience - November 28, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Maternal Cannabinoid Use Alters Cannabinoid (CB1) and Endothelin (ETB) Receptor Expression in the Brains of Dams but Not Their Offspring
According to the 2015 National Survey on Drug Use and Health, cannabis (marijuana) is the most commonly used recreational drug in the US. Among pregnant women aged 14-55 years, 3.4% were cannabis users. Presently, little is known about the neurodevelopmental effect of cannabis use during pregnancy and/or nursing on neonates. Endothelin (ET) is essential for normal development of the central nervous system (CNS). Decreases in ETB receptor expression correlate with a decline in nerve growth factor (NGF) and an increase in vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in postnatal brain. Activation of ETB and cannabinoid 1 (CB1) ...
Source: Developmental Neuroscience - November 6, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Maternal Cannabinoid Use Alters Cannabinoid (CB < sub > 1 < /sub > ) and Endothelin (ET < sub > B < /sub > ) Receptor Expression in the Brains of Dams but Not Their Offspring
According to the 2015 National Survey on Drug Use and Health, cannabis (marijuana) is the most commonly used recreational drug in the US. Among pregnant women aged 14-55 years, 3.4% were cannabis users. Presently, little is known about the neurodevelopmental effect of cannabis use during pregnancy and/or nursing on neonates. Endothelin (ET) is essential for normal development of the central nervous system (CNS). Decreases in ETB receptor expression correlate with a decline in nerve growth factor (NGF) and an increase in vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in postnatal brain. Activation of ETB and cannabinoid 1 (CB1) ...
Source: Developmental Neuroscience - November 3, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Prenatal Dynamics of Kynurenine Pathway Metabolism in Mice: Focus on Kynurenic Acid
The kynurenine pathway (KP), the major catabolic route of tryptophan in mammals, contains several neuroactive metabolites, including kynurenic acid (KYNA) and 3-hydroxykynurenine (3-HK). KP metabolism, and especially the fate of KYNA, during pregnancy is poorly understood, yet it may play a significant role in the development of psychiatric disorders later in life. The present study was designed to investigate the prenatal features of KP metabolism in vivo, with special focus on KYNA. To this end, pregnant CD-1 mice were treated systemically with kynurenine (100 mg/kg), KYNA (10 mg/kg), or saline on embryonic day 18. As ex...
Source: Developmental Neuroscience - October 27, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Sexually Dimorphic Epigenetic Regulation of Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor in Fetal Brain in the Valproic Acid Model of Autism Spectrum Disorder
Prenatal exposure to the antiepileptic, mood-stabilizing drug, valproic acid (VPA), increases the incidence of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs); in utero administration of VPA to pregnant rodents induces ASD-like behaviors such as repetitive, stereotyped activity, and decreased socialization. In both cases, males are more affected than females. We previously reported that VPA, administered to pregnant mice at gestational day 12.5, rapidly induces a transient, 6-fold increase in BDNF (brain-derived neurotrophic factor) protein and mRNA in the fetal brain. Here, we investigate sex differences in the induction ofBdnf expressi...
Source: Developmental Neuroscience - October 26, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Combined Diffusion Tensor and Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopic Imaging Methodology for Automated Regional Brain Analysis: Application in a Normal Pediatric Population
We present statistical analyses of regional DTI and MRSI data in a cohort of normal pediatric subjects (n = 72; age range: 5-18 years; mean 12.7 ± 3.3 years) to establish normative data and evaluate maturational trends. Several regions showed significant maturational changes for several DTI parameters and MRSI ratios, but the percent change over the age range tended to be small. In the subcortical region (combined basal ganglia [BG], thalam i [TH], and corpus callosum [CC]), the largest combined percent change was a 10% increase in fractional anisotropy (FA) primarily due to increases in the BG (12.7%) and TH (9%). The la...
Source: Developmental Neuroscience - October 25, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Subject Index Vol. 39, No. 1-4, 2017
Dev Neurosci 2017;39:353 (Source: Developmental Neuroscience)
Source: Developmental Neuroscience - October 25, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Author Index Vol. 39, No. 1-4, 2017
Dev Neurosci 2017;39:352 (Source: Developmental Neuroscience)
Source: Developmental Neuroscience - October 25, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Title Page / Table of Contents
Dev Neurosci 2017;39:1-4 (Source: Developmental Neuroscience)
Source: Developmental Neuroscience - October 25, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

A Dopamine Hypothesis of Autism Spectrum Disorder
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) comprises a group of neurodevelopmental disorders characterized by social deficits and stereotyped behaviors. While several theories have emerged, the pathogenesis of ASD remains unknown. Although studies report dopamine signaling abnormalities in autistic patients, a coherent dopamine hypothesis which could link neurobiology to behavior in ASD is currently lacking. In this paper, we present such a hypothesis by proposing that autistic behavior arises from dysfunctions in the midbrain dopaminergic system. We hypothesize that a dysfunction of the mesocorticolimbic circuit leads to social defic...
Source: Developmental Neuroscience - October 25, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Changes in White Matter Integrity following Intensive Voice Treatment (LSVT LOUD ®) in Children with Cerebral Palsy and Motor Speech Disorders
Preliminary evidence suggests that intensive voice and speech treatment based on activity-dependent neuroplasticity principles holds promise for affecting positive change in children with cerebral palsy (CP) and motor speech disorders. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) allows researchers to make inferences about the integrity of white matter tracks and provides a sensitive measure of neuroplasticity. Previous treatment studies looking at the effects of training on white matter integrity have shown positive results, but these studies have been limited to gross motor function. Eight children with motor speech disorders and CP (...
Source: Developmental Neuroscience - October 25, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Development of Auditory Evoked Responses in Normally Developing Preschool Children and Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder
This study used the topography of the auditory evoked magnetic field (AEF) to identify the auditory components in ND children between 6 and 68 months (n = 48). The latencies of the peaks in the AEF produced by a tone burst (ISI 2 ± 0.2 s) during sleep decreased with age, consistent with previous reports in awake children. The peak latencies of the AEFs in ND children and children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) were compared. Previous studies indicate that the latencies of the initial components of the auditory evoked p otential (AEP) and the AEF are delayed in children with ASD when compared to age-matched ND childre...
Source: Developmental Neuroscience - October 25, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research