Preface
Dev Neurosci (Source: Developmental Neuroscience)
Source: Developmental Neuroscience - June 28, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Learning and Memory Effects of Neonatal Methamphetamine Exposure in Sprague-Dawley Rats: Test of the Role of Dopamine Receptors D1 in Mediating the Long-Term Effects
Methamphetamine (MA) abuse is a worldwide issue that produces health and cognitive effects in the user. MA is abused by some women who then become pregnant and expose their developing child to the drug. Preclinical rodent models demonstrate cognitive deficits following developmental MA exposure, an effect observed in children exposed to MA in utero. To determine if the dopamine receptor D1 (DRD1) is involved in the learning and memory deficits following MA exposure, male Sprague-Dawley rats were treated 4 times daily at 2 h intervals with 0 (saline) or 10 mg/kg of MA from postnatal day (P)6 –15, 30 min after 0.5, 1.0...
Source: Developmental Neuroscience - June 18, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Perinatal Ischemia Alters Global Expression of Synaptosomal Proteins Critical for Neural Plasticity in the Developing Mouse Brain
Ischemic perinatal stroke (IPS) affects 1 in 2,300 –5,000 live births. Despite a survival rate #x3e;95%, approximately 60% of IPS infants develop motor and cognitive impairments. Given the importance of axonal growth and synaptic plasticity in neurocognitive development, our objective was to identify the molecular pathways underlying IPS-associate d synaptic dysfunction using a mouse model. IPS was induced by unilateral ligation of the common carotid artery of postnatal day 10 (P10) mice. Five days after ischemia, sensorimotor and motor functions were assessed by vibrissae-evoked forepaw placement and the tail suspen...
Source: Developmental Neuroscience - June 17, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Rapid and Efficient Differentiation of Rodent Neural Stem Cells into Oligodendrocyte Progenitor Cells
Oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) may have beneficial effects in cell replacement therapy of neurodegenerative disease owing to their unique capability to differentiate into myelinogenic oligodendrocytes (OLs) in response to extrinsic signals. Therefore, it is of significance to establish an effective differentiation methodology to generate highly pure OPCs and OLs from some easily accessible stem cell sources. To achieve this goal, in this study, we present a rapid and efficient protocol for oligodendroglial lineage differentiation from mouse neural stem cells (NSCs), rat NSCs, or mouse embryonic stem cell-derived n...
Source: Developmental Neuroscience - June 5, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Preschool Language Outcomes following Perinatal Hypoxic-Ischemic Encephalopathy in the Age of Therapeutic Hypothermia
Early studies following perinatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) suggested expressive language deficits and academic difficulties, but there is only limited detailed study of language development in this population since the widespread adoption of therapeutic hypothermia (TH). Expressive and receptive language testing was performed as part of a larger battery with 45 children with a mean age of 26 months following perinatal HIE treated with TH. Overall cohort outcomes as well as the effects of gender, estimated household income, initial pH and base excess, and pattern of injury on neonatal brain MRI were assessed. T...
Source: Developmental Neuroscience - June 5, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Ascending Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Intrauterine Inflammation in Near-Term Rabbits Leading to Newborn Neurobehavioral Deficits
Conclusions: This is the first study using an ascending LPS-induced intrauterine inflammation model in rabbits, showing mostly transient hypertonia and mainly locomotor deficits in the kits. Not all proinflammatory cytokines are increased in the fetal brain following LPS administration. Changes in key tetrahydro ­biopterin biosynthetic enzymes possibly indicate different effects of the inflammatory insult.Dev Neurosci (Source: Developmental Neuroscience)
Source: Developmental Neuroscience - June 4, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Rapid Postnatal Adaptation of Neurodevelopment in Pigs Born Late Preterm
Preterm birth interrupts intrauterine brain growth and maturation and may induce a delay in postnatal neurodevelopment. Such developmental delays can result from the reduced fetal age at birth, together with the clinical compli ­cations of preterm birth (e.g., hypoxia, ischemia, and inflammation). We hypothesized that late preterm birth, inducing only mild clinical complications, has minimal effects on brain-related outcomes such as motor function and behavior. Using the pig as a model for late preterm infants, piglets we re cesarean delivered preterm (90%, 106 days gestation) or at full term, reared by identical proce...
Source: Developmental Neuroscience - May 29, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Assessment of Prenatal Kynurenine Metabolism Using Tissue Slices: Focus on the Neosynthesis of Kynurenic Acid in Mice
Several lines of evidence support the hypothesis that abnormally elevated brain levels of kynurenic acid (KYNA), a metabolite of the kynurenine pathway (KP) of tryptophan degradation, play a pathophysiologically significant role in schizophrenia and other major neurodevelopmental disorders. Studies in experimental animal models suggest that KP impairments in these diseases may originate already in utero since prenatal administration of KYNA ’s bioprecursor, kynurenine, leads to biochemical and structural abnormalities as well as distinct cognitive impairments in adulthood. As KP metabolism during pregnancy is still i...
Source: Developmental Neuroscience - May 23, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Neonatal Inhibition of Connexin 36 Ameliorates Fetal Brain Injury Induced by Maternal Noninfectious Fever in Mice
Prenatal fever could result in brain function impairments in the offspring. The present study investigated the effect of interleukin-6 (IL-6)-induced maternal fever on the offspring and the involvement of connexin 36 in this process. Pregnant C57BL/6J mice were injected with IL-6 on gestational day 15. The levels of iNOS and COX-2 were measured as an index of neuroinflammation in the brain of newborn pups. Offspring were treated with the connexin 36 (Cx36) inhibitor mefloquine at postnatal day (P)1 –P3 or at P40–P42. Rotarod, grip traction, and foot fault tests were carried out to evaluate the motor behavior of...
Source: Developmental Neuroscience - May 21, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Hypoxia-Ischemia and Hypothermia Independently and Interactively Affect Neuronal Pathology in Neonatal Piglets with Short-Term Recovery
Therapeutic hypothermia is the standard of clinical care for moderate neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy. We investigated the independent and interactive effects of hypoxia-ischemia (HI) and temperature on neuronal survival and injury in basal ganglia and cerebral cortex in neonatal piglets. Male piglets were randomized to receive HI injury or sham procedure followed by 29 h of normothermia, sustained hypothermia induced at 2 h, or hypothermia with rewarming during fentanyl-nitrous oxide anesthesia. Viable and injured neurons and apoptotic profiles were counted in the anterior putamen, posterior putamen, and motor co...
Source: Developmental Neuroscience - May 20, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Exogenous Ketone Bodies as Promising Neuroprotective Agents for Developmental Brain Injury
Ketone bodies are a promising area of neuroprotection research that may be ideally suited to the injured newborn. During normal development, the human infant is in significant ketosis for at least the first week of life. Ketone uptake and metabolism is upregulated in the both the fetus and neonate, with ketone bodies providing at least 10% of cerebral metabolic energy requirements, as well as being the preferred precursors for the synthesis of fatty acids and cholesterol. At the same time, ketone bodies have been shown to have multiple neuroprotective effects, including being anticonvulsant, decreasing oxidative stress and...
Source: Developmental Neuroscience - May 14, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

A Ferret Model of Encephalopathy of Prematurity
There is an ongoing need for relevant animal models in which to test therapeutic interventions for infants with neurological sequelae of prematurity. The ferret is an attractive model species as it has a gyrified brain with a white-to-gray matter ratio similar to that in the human brain. A model of encephalopathy of prematurity was developed in postnatal day 10 (P10) ferret kits, considered to be developmentally equivalent to infants of 24 –26 weeks’ gestation. Cross-fostered P10 ferret kits received 5 mg/kg of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) before undergoing consecutive hypoxia-hyperoxia-hypoxia (60 min at 9%, 120 m...
Source: Developmental Neuroscience - May 11, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Seizures Are Associated with Blood-Brain Barrier Disruption in a Piglet Model of Neonatal Hypoxic-Ischaemic Encephalopathy
Seizures in the neonatal period are most often symptomatic of central nervous system (CNS) dysfunction and the most common cause is hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy (HIE). Seizures are associated with poor long-term outcomes and increased neuropathology. Blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption and inflammation may contribute to seizures and increased neuropathology but are incompletely understood in neonatal HIE. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of seizures on BBB integrity in a preclinical model of neonatal hypoxic-ischaemic (HI) injury. Piglets (age: #x3c;24 h) were subjected to a 30-min HI insult followe...
Source: Developmental Neuroscience - May 6, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Comparison of Frequency- and Time-Domain Autoregulation and Vasoreactivity Indices in a Piglet Model of Hypoxia-Ischemia and Hypothermia
Conclusion: Our findings indicate that phase shift is the most accurate component of autoregulation monitoring in the developing brain, and it can be measured using correlation or by calculating phase when coherence is maximal. Phase and correlation autoregulation indices from MAP and rSO2 and vasoreactivity indices from MAP and HbT are accurate metrics that are suitable for clinical HIE studies.Dev Neurosci (Source: Developmental Neuroscience)
Source: Developmental Neuroscience - May 6, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Behavioral and Biochemical Features of the Course and Surgical Treatment of Experimental Obstructive Hydrocephalus in Young Rats
Conclusions: Pups treated with a CSF shunt showed better performance on memory tests. VSCS did not revert demyelination caused by hydrocephalus. Likewise, reactive astrocytosis and cell proliferation over the germinal matrix were not reversed after shunting. Hydrocephalic animals had raised levels of inflammatory interleukins, which returned to normal after treatment.Dev Neurosci (Source: Developmental Neuroscience)
Source: Developmental Neuroscience - April 18, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Functional Connectivity and Metabolic Alterations in Medial Prefrontal Cortex in a Rat Model of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder: A Resting-State Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging and in vivo Proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy Study
In this study, we analyzed the functional connectivity and neurochemical levels of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rsfMRI) and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) in ethanol-exposed (Eth) and control (Ctr) rats. Pregnant Long-Evans rats were fed a liquid diet containing ethanol (2.1 –6.46% v/v ethanol) from gestational days 6 to 21 (Eth). Ctr animals received an isocaloric, isonutritive liquid diet. In young adulthood, male and female offspring underwent in vivo MRI using a 7.0-Tesla system.1H-MRS from the PFC and whole brain rsfMRI were obtained on t...
Source: Developmental Neuroscience - April 18, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

The Arginase Pathway in Neonatal Brain Hypoxia-Ischemia
Brain damage after hypoxia-ischemia (HI) occurs in an age-dependent manner. Neuroprotective strategies assumed to be effective in adults might have deleterious effects in the immature brain. In order to create effective therapies, the complex pathophysiology of HI in the developing brain requires exploring new mechanisms. Critical determinants of neuronal survival after HI are the extent of vascular dysfunction, inflammation, and oxidative stress, followed later by tissue repair. The key enzyme of these processes in the human body is arginase (ARG) that acts via the bioavailability of nitric oxide, and the synthesis of pol...
Source: Developmental Neuroscience - April 18, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Assessing Cerebral Metabolism in the Immature Rodent: From Extracts to Real-Time Assessments
Brain development is an energy-expensive process. Although glucose is irreplaceable, the developing brain utilizes a variety of substrates such as lactate and the ketone bodies, β-hydroxybutyrate and acetoacetate, to produce energy and synthesize the structural components necessary for cerebral maturation. When oxygen and nutrient supplies to the brain are restricted, as in neonatal hypoxia-ischemia (HI), cerebral energy metabolism undergoes alterations in substrate use to preserve the production of adenosine triphosphate. These changes have been studied by in situ biochemical methods that yielded valuable quantitativ...
Source: Developmental Neuroscience - April 16, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

How Early Can a Seizure Happen? Pathophysiological Considerations of Extremely Premature Infant Brain Development
Seizures in neonates represent a neurologic emergency requiring prompt recognition, determination of etiology, and treatment. Yet, the definition and identification of neonatal seizures remain challenging and controversial, in part due to the unique physiology of brain development at this life stage. These issues are compounded when considering seizures in premature infants, in whom the complexities of brain development may engender different clinical and electrographic seizure features at different points in neuronal maturation. In extremely premature infants (#x3c; 28 weeks gestational age), seizure pathophysiology has n...
Source: Developmental Neuroscience - April 8, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Chorioamnionitis in Rats Precipitates Extended Postnatal Inflammatory Lymphocyte Hyperreactivity
Preterm birth is an important cause of perinatal brain injury (PBI). Neurological injury in extremely preterm infants often begins in utero with chorioamnionitis (CHORIO) or inflammation/infection of the placenta and concomitant placental insufficiency. Studies in humans have shown dysregulated inflammatory signaling throughout the placental-fetal brain axis and altered peripheral immune responses in children born preterm with cerebral palsy (CP). We hypothesized that peripheral immune responses would be altered in our well-established rat model of CP. Specifically, we proposed that isolated peripheral blood mononuclear ce...
Source: Developmental Neuroscience - March 31, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Age-Dependent Electrocorticogram Dynamics and Epileptogenic Responsiveness in Rats Subjected to Prenatal Hypoxia
Using electrocorticogram (ECoG) analysis, we compared age-related dynamics of general neuronal activity and convulsive epileptiform responsiveness induced by intracortical microinjections of 4-aminopyridine (4-AP) in control Wistar rats and those subjected to prenatal hypoxia (Hx; E14; 7% O2, 3 h). The studies were carried out in three age periods roughly corresponding to childhood (P20 –27), adolescence (P30–45), and adulthood (P90–120). It was found that in the process of postnatal development of the control rats, the peak of the ECoG power spectrum density (PSD) of the theta rhythm during wakefulness s...
Source: Developmental Neuroscience - March 22, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Golgipathies in Neurodevelopment: A New View of Old Defects
The Golgi apparatus (GA) is involved in a whole spectrum of activities, from lipid biosynthesis and membrane secretion to the posttranslational processing and trafficking of most proteins, the control of mitosis, cell polarity, migration and morphogenesis, and diverse processes such as apoptosis, autophagy, and the stress response. In keeping with its versatility, mutations in GA proteins lead to a number of different disorders, including syndromes with multisystem involvement. Intriguingly, however, #x3e; 40% of the GA-related genes known to be associated with disease affect the central or peripheral nervous system, highl...
Source: Developmental Neuroscience - March 15, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Calbindin-1 Expression in the Hippocampus following Neonatal Hypoxia-Ischemia and Therapeutic Hypothermia and Deficits in Spatial Memory
Hippocampal injury following neonatal hypoxia-ischemia (HI) leads to memory impairments despite therapeutic hypothermia (TH). In the hippocampus, the expression of calbindin-1 (Calb1), a Ca2+-buffering protein, increases during postnatal development and decreases with aging and neurodegenerative disorders. Since persistent Ca2+ dysregulation after HI may lead to ongoing injury, persistent changes in hippocampal expression of Calb1 may contribute to memory impairments after neonatal HI. We hypothesized that, despite TH, neonatal HI persistently decreases Calb1 expression in the hippocampus, a change associated with memory d...
Source: Developmental Neuroscience - March 14, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Oligodendrocyte Progenitor Cell Proliferation and Fate after White Matter Stroke in Juvenile and Adult Mice
The incidence of stroke in children is 2.4 per 100,000 person-years and results in long-term motor and cognitive disability. In ischemic stroke, white matter (WM) is frequently injured, but is relatively understudied compared to grey matter injury. Previous research suggests that the cellular response to WM ischemic injury is different at different ages. Little is known about whether WM repair mechanisms differ in children and adults. We utilized a model of focal ischemic WM injury to determine the oligodendrocyte (OL) response to focal WM ischemic injury in juvenile and adult mice.Methods: Juvenile (21 –25 days of a...
Source: Developmental Neuroscience - March 14, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Strain-Related Differences in Mouse Neonatal Hypoxia-Ischemia
This study confirms that CD1 mice are more susceptible to injury than C57Bl/6J mice and that strain selection is important when using mouse models of HI.Dev Neurosci (Source: Developmental Neuroscience)
Source: Developmental Neuroscience - March 7, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Ferroptosis and Brain Injury
Ferroptosis is a nonapoptotic form of cell death characterized by the iron-dependent accumulation of toxic lipid reactive oxygen species. Small-molecule screening and subsequent optimization have yielded potent and specific activators and inhibitors of this process. These compounds have been employed to dissect the lethal mechanism and implicate this process in pathological cell death events observed in many tissues, including the brain. Indeed, ferroptosis is emerging as an important mechanism of cell death during stroke, intracerebral hemorrhage, and other acute brain injuries, and may also play a role in certain degener...
Source: Developmental Neuroscience - March 7, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Seizure Susceptibility Correlates with Brain Injury in Male Mice Treated with Hypothermia after Neonatal Hypoxia-Ischemia
Hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy is a common neonatal brain injury associated with significant morbidity and mortality despite the administration of therapeutic hypothermia (TH). Neonatal seizures and subsequent chronic epilepsy are frequent in this patient population and current treatments are partially effective. We used a neonatal murine hypoxia-ischemia (HI) model to test whether the severity of hippocampal and cortical injury predicts seizure susceptibility 8 days after HI and whether TH mitigates this susceptibility. HI at postnatal day 10 (P10) caused hippocampal injury not mitigated by TH in male or female pups. TH ...
Source: Developmental Neuroscience - March 7, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

HIF1 α Signaling in the Endogenous Protective Responses after Neonatal Brain Hypoxia-Ischemia
This study confirms the role of neuronal HIF1α signaling in the endogenous protective responses following HI in the developing brain.Dev Neurosci (Source: Developmental Neuroscience)
Source: Developmental Neuroscience - March 7, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

The Effect of Antenatal Betamethasone on White Matter Inflammation and Injury in Fetal Sheep and Ventilated Preterm Lambs
Antenatal administration of betamethasone (BM) is a common antecedent of preterm birth, but there is limited information about its impact on the acute evolution of preterm neonatal brain injury. We aimed to compare the effects of maternal BM in combination with mechanical ventilation on the white matter (WM) of late preterm sheep. At 0.85 of gestation, pregnant ewes were randomly assigned to receive intra-muscular (i.m.) saline (n = 9) or i.m. BM (n = 13). Lambs were delivered and unventilated controls (UVCSal,n = 4; UVCBM,n = 6) were humanely killed without intervention; ventilated lambs (VentSal,n = 5; VentBM,n = 7) were...
Source: Developmental Neuroscience - March 7, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Perinatal High-Fat Diet and Bisphenol A: Effects on Behavior and Gene Expression in the Medial Prefrontal Cortex
Both high-fat diets (HFD) and bisphenol A (BPA), an environmental endocrine disruptor, are prevalent in industrialized societies. Previous studies have detected separate effects of BPA and HFD; however, none have assessed possible interactive effects. Here, pregnant dams consumed 0, 40, or 400 µg BPA/kg/day and were fed either a control (CON; 15.8% kcal fat) or HFD (45% kcal fat) from gestational day 2 through parturition. The pups were individually dosed with BPA from postnatal days (P) 1–10, while the dams continued to consume one of the two diets. Maternal behavior increased with th e HFD while the offspring...
Source: Developmental Neuroscience - December 21, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Repeated Pediatric Concussions Evoke Long-Term Oligodendrocyte and White Matter Microstructural Dysregulation Distant from the Injury
Concussion or mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) is often accompanied by long-term behavioral and neuropsychological deficits. Emerging data suggest that these deficits can be exacerbated following repeated injuries. However, despite the overwhelming prevalence of mTBI in children due to falls and sports-related activities, the effects of mTBI on white matter (WM) structure and its development in children have not been extensively examined. Moreover, the effect of repeated mTBI (rmTBI) on developing WM has not yet been studied, despite the possibility of exacerbated outcomes with repeat injuries. To address this knowledge ...
Source: Developmental Neuroscience - November 22, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Intrauterine Growth Restriction and Hyperoxia as a Cause of White Matter Injury
Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is estimated to occur in 5% of pregnancies, with placental insufficiency being the most common cause in developed countries. While it is known that white matter injury occurs in premature infants, the extent of IUGR on white matter injury is less defined in term infants. We used a novel murine model that utilizes a thromboxane A2 (TXA2) analog (U46619), a potent vasoconstrictor, to induce maternal hypertension and mimic human placental insufficiency-induced IUGR to study the white matter. We also investigated the role of hyperoxia as an additional risk factor for white matter injury, ...
Source: Developmental Neuroscience - November 14, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Infants Uniquely Express High Levels of RBM3 and Other Cold-Adaptive Neuroprotectant Proteins in the Human Brain
Neuroprotective cold-shock proteins (CSPs) are abundant in the normothermic neonatal rodent brain but decrease with advancing neurodevelopmental age and are low or absent in the adult brain. It has not been established if neurodevelopmental age alters the baseline expression of CSPs in the human brain. Here, we tested the hypothesis that protein levels of RNA-binding motif 3 (RBM3), reticulon-3 (RTN3), and cold-induced RNA-binding protein (CIRBP) are abundant in the normothermic developing human brain but low-to-absent in adults. We also tested if β-klotho (KLB) is expressed in the developing brain; KLB functions as a...
Source: Developmental Neuroscience - November 7, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

NFAT5 Has a Job in the Brain
This article aims to summarize the current knowledge regarding the expression of NFAT5, its regulation of activation, and varied biological functions in the brain.Dev Neurosci (Source: Developmental Neuroscience)
Source: Developmental Neuroscience - November 2, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Can Functional Polymorphisms in < b > < i > VEGF < /i > < /b > and < b > < i > MMP < /i > < /b > Predict Intraventricular Hemorrhage in Extremely Preterm Newborns?
Conclusion: This study demonstrated that the GA/AA genotype inVEGF RS1570360 and the AA/AC genotype inVEGF RS699947 were associated with higher incidence rates of IVH in newborns ≤28 weeks of gestation. A future study is warranted to comprehensively examineVEGF polymorphisms in association with IVH.Dev Neurosci (Source: Developmental Neuroscience)
Source: Developmental Neuroscience - November 2, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

< b > < i > c-Jun N-Terminal Kinase < /i > < /b > Inhibition Induces Mitochondrial Oxidative Stress and Decreases Survival in Human Neural Stem Progenitors
Neural stem cells are attracting enormous attention in regenerative medicine due to their ability to self-renew and differentiate into the cell lineages that constitute the central nervous system. However, little is known about the mechanism underlying the regulation of their redox environment, which is essential for homeostatic cellular functions. The redox-modulatedc-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNK) are a molecular switch in stress signal transduction and are involved in numerous brain functions. Using a selective but broad-spectrum inhibitor of JNK 1/2/3, we investigated the role of JNK in regulating the levels of reactive ...
Source: Developmental Neuroscience - October 18, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Brain Diffusion Imaging and Tractography to Distinguish Clinical Severity of Human < b > < i > PLP1 < /i > < /b > -Related Disorders
Aims: We performed quantitative diffusion tensor imaging and brain tractography to distinguish clinical severity in a series of 35 patients with hypomyelinatingPLP1-related disorders classified using the Motor Developmental Score according to the best motor function acquired before the age of 5 years and the gross motor function measure (GMFM) at the time of magnetic resonance imaging acquisition.Methods: We calculated fractional anisotropy and diffusivity values in 26 regions of interest and the numbers of fibers and volumes of hemisphere tractograms. Fiber bundles on tractograms were characterized according to 3 criteria...
Source: Developmental Neuroscience - October 4, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Biochemical and Morphological Characterization of a Neurodevelopmental Disorder-Related Mono-ADP-Ribosylhydrolase, MACRO Domain Containing 2
In this study, we generated a specific antibody against MacroD2, and carried out expression and morphological analyses of the molecule during mouse brain development. In Western blotting, 2 MacroD2 isoforms with molecular masses of ∼70 and ∼75 kDa started to be expressed at embryonic day 16.5, reached the maximal level at postnatal day 8, and then gradually decreased through P30. In contrast, other isoforms with molecular masses of ∼110 and ∼140 kDa gradually increased during embryonic to postnatal development. In immu nohistochemical analyses, MacroD2 was strongly detected in cortical neurons in layer II&n...
Source: Developmental Neuroscience - September 18, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Validation of Raised Cord Blood Interleukin-16 in Perinatal Asphyxia and Neonatal Hypoxic-Ischaemic Encephalopathy in the BiHiVE2 Cohort
This study validates findings that cord blood-based IL-16 levels are increased in infants with PA, including those who go on to develop HIE.Dev Neurosci (Source: Developmental Neuroscience)
Source: Developmental Neuroscience - September 11, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Erratum
Dev Neurosci (Source: Developmental Neuroscience)
Source: Developmental Neuroscience - September 7, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Human Umbilical Cord Blood Therapy Protects Cerebral White Matter from Systemic LPS Exposure in Preterm Fetal Sheep
Conclusions: UCB cell treatment following inflammation reduces preterm white matter brain injury, likely mediated via anti-inflammatory actions.Dev Neurosci (Source: Developmental Neuroscience)
Source: Developmental Neuroscience - September 7, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Ischemic-Reperfusion Injury Increases Matrix Metalloproteinases and Tissue Metalloproteinase Inhibitors in Fetal Sheep Brain
Hypoxic-ischemic brain injury is a leading cause of neurodevelopmental morbidities in preterm and full-term infants. Blood-brain barrier dysfunction represents an important component of perinatal hypoxic-ischemic brain injury. The extracellular matrix (ECM) is a vital component of the blood-brain barrier. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and tissue inhibitors of matrix metalloproteinases (TIMPs) are important ECM components. They contribute to brain development, blood-brain barrier maintenance, and to regenerative and repair processes after hypoxic-ischemic brain injury. We hypothesized that ischemia at different durations...
Source: Developmental Neuroscience - July 26, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Different Developmental Pattern of Brain Activities in ADHD: A Study of Resting-State fMRI
In this study, we hypothesized that there are significant differences in the developmental patterns of local and global brain activities between ADHD and typically developing (TD) individuals. Three voxel-based measurements and the functional connectivity (FC) of the brain networks were extracted from resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) of both ADHD and TD participants 7 –16 years of age. The topological properties of brain networks in both groups were also analyzed, including hubs, hemispheric symmetry, together with local and global efficiency. The results showed, from the local perspective, ...
Source: Developmental Neuroscience - July 13, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Egr-1 Maintains NSC Proliferation and Its Overexpression Counteracts Cell Cycle Exit Triggered by the Withdrawal of Epidermal Growth Factor
In adult mammals, neural stem cells (NSCs) reside in specialized niches at the level of selected CNS regions, such as the subventricular zone (SVZ). The signaling pathways that reg ­ulate NSC proliferation and differentiation remain poorly understood. Early growth response protein 1 (Egr-1) is an important transcription factor, widely studied in the adult mammalian brain, mediating the activation of target genes by a variety of extracellular stimuli. In our study, we aimed at testing how Egr-1 regulates adult NSCs derived from mouse SVZ and, in particular, the interplay between Egr-1 and the proliferative factor EGF. W...
Source: Developmental Neuroscience - July 5, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

The Relationship between White Matter and Reading Acquisition, Refinement and Maintenance
Conclusion: We discuss these different associations of white-matter tracts with reading during development in the context of the biological processes model of myelination and pruning.Dev Neurosci (Source: Developmental Neuroscience)
Source: Developmental Neuroscience - June 25, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Brain Barrier Disruption and Region-Specific Neuronal Degeneration during Necrotizing Enterocolitis in Preterm Pigs
In conclusion, altered BCSFB properties and brain structural deficits were observed in pigs after preterm birth. Acute gastrointestinal NEC lesions were associated with systemic inflammation, increased BCSFB permeability and region-specific neurona l damage. The results demonstrate the importance of early interventions against NEC to prevent brain injury in preterm infants.Dev Neurosci (Source: Developmental Neuroscience)
Source: Developmental Neuroscience - June 6, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Hypothermia Is Neuroprotective after Severe Hypoxic-Ischaemic Brain Injury in Neonatal Rats Pre-Exposed to PAM < sub > 3 < /sub > CSK < sub > 4 < /sub >
Conclusion: In these experiments with severe brain injury, Toll-like receptor-2 triggering prior to HI injury does not have an additive injurious effect, and there is a small but significant neuroprotective effect of HT. HT appears to be neuroprotective over a continuum of injury severity in this model, and the effect size tapers off with increasing area loss. Our results indicate that gram-positive inflammatory exposure prior to HI injury does not negate the neuroprotective effect of HT in severe brain injury.Dev Neurosci (Source: Developmental Neuroscience)
Source: Developmental Neuroscience - June 1, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Juvenile Traumatic Brain Injury Results in Cognitive Deficits Associated with Impaired Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress and Early Tauopathy
The leading cause of death in the juvenile population is trauma, and in particular neurotrauma. The juvenile brain response to neurotrauma is not completely understood. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress has been shown to contribute to injury expansion and behavioral deficits in adult rodents and furthermore has been seen in adult postmortem human brains diagnosed with chronic traumatic encephalopathy. Whether endoplasmic reticulum stress is increased in juveniles with traumatic brain injury (TBI) is poorly delineated. We investigated this important topic using a juvenile rat controlled cortical impact (CCI) model. We propo...
Source: Developmental Neuroscience - May 29, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Intrauterine Growth Restriction Affects Cerebellar Granule Cells in the Developing Guinea Pig Brain
Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) can lead to adverse neurodevelopmental sequelae in postnatal life. However, the effects of IUGR on the cerebellum are still to be fully elucidated. A major determinant of growth and development of the cerebellum is proliferation and subsequent migration of cerebellar granule cells. Our objective was to determine whether IUGR, induced by chronic placental insufficiency (CPI) in guinea pigs, results in abnormal cerebellar development due to deficits suggestive of impaired granule cell proliferation and/or migration. CPI was induced by unilateral ligation of the uterine artery at mid-ges...
Source: Developmental Neuroscience - May 15, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Differential Fatty Acid-Binding Protein Expression in Persistent Radial Glia in the Human and Sheep Subventricular Zone
In this study, we demonstrate the distribution of FABP in the adult human SVZ and fetal ventricular zone and reveal its expression on persistent radial glia that may be involved in adult neurogenesis.Dev Neurosci (Source: Developmental Neuroscience)
Source: Developmental Neuroscience - April 20, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research