Short juvenile stress has no long-lasting effects on anxiety-like behavior, object recognition memory, or gross brain morphology but affects dendritic spines in the hippocampus in male rats
Conclusion: Short-term and daily restraint and predator stress during the juvenile stage had no long-lasting effects on anxiety-like behavior, object memory, volume of the corpus callosum or hippocampus, or perirhinal cortex thickness, but a decrease in dendritic spine density was found in the hippocampus. These findings suggest that different types of stressors have different impacts on microstructures in the brain without affecting behavior or the gross morphology of stress-sensitive brain areas. (Source: Developmental Neuroscience)
Source: Developmental Neuroscience - March 14, 2022 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

An optimized and detailed step-by-step protocol for the analysis of neuronal morphology in golgi-stained fetal sheep brain
We describe the step-by-step protocol to retrieve neuronal morphometrics using Imaris imaging software to provide quantification of apical and basal dendrites for measures of dendrite length ( μm), branch number, branch order and Sholl analysis (intersections over radius). We also detail software add-ons for data retrieval of dendritic spines including the number of spines, spine density and spine classification, which are critical indicators of synaptic function. The assessment of neuro nal morphology in the developing brain using Rapid-Golgi and Imaris software is labour-intensive, particularly during the optimization p...
Source: Developmental Neuroscience - March 11, 2022 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Deficits in seizure threshold and other behaviors in adult mice without gross neuroanatomic injury after late gestation transient prenatal hypoxia
This study demonstrates that late gestation transient prenatal hypoxia in mice is a simple, clinically relevant paradigm for studying putative environmental and genetic modulators of the long-term effects of hypoxia on the developing brain. (Source: Developmental Neuroscience)
Source: Developmental Neuroscience - March 11, 2022 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Brain outcomes in runted piglets: a translational model of fetal growth restriction
etal growth restriction (FGR) is associated with long-term neurodevelopmental disabilities including learning and behavioural disorders, autism, and cerebral palsy. Persistent changes in brain structure and function that are associated with developmental disabilities are demonstrated in FGR neonates. However, the mechanisms underlying these changes remain to be determined. There are currently no therapeutic interventions available to protect the FGR newborn brain. With the wide range of long-term neurodevelopmental disorders associated with FGR, the use of an animal model appropriate to investigating mechanisms of injury i...
Source: Developmental Neuroscience - March 9, 2022 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

The Vannucci Model of Hypoxic-Ischemic Injury in the Neonatal Rodent: 40 years later
Perinatal hypoxic-ischemic (HI) brain damage has long been a major cause of acute mortality and chronic neurologic morbidity in infants and children. Experimental animal models are essential to gain insights into the pathogenesis and management of perinatal HI brain damage. Prior to 1980 only large animal models were available. The first small animal model was developed in the postnatal 7 (P7) rat in 1981, now known as the Vannucci model. This model combines unilateral carotid artery ligation with subsequent hypoxia to produce transient hemispheric hypoxia-ischemia in the hemisphere ipsilateral to the ligation while the co...
Source: Developmental Neuroscience - March 9, 2022 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Expression analyses of Cep152, a responsible gene product for autosomal recessive primary microcephaly, during mouse brain development
In this study, we prepared an antibody against mouse Cep152, anti-Cep152, and performed expression analyses focusing on mouse brain development. Western blotting analyses revealed that Cep152 with a molecular mass of ~150 kDa was expressed strongly at embryonic day (E) 13 and then gradually decreased during the brain development process. Instead, protein bands of ~80 kDa and ~60 kDa came to be recognized after postnatal day (P)15 and P30, respectively. In immunohistochemical analyses, Cep152 was enriched in the centrosome of neuronal progenitors in the ventricular zone at E14, whereas it was diffusely distributed mainly in...
Source: Developmental Neuroscience - March 8, 2022 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Research Progress of Collapse Response Mediator Proteins in Neurodegenerative Diseases
(Source: Developmental Neuroscience)
Source: Developmental Neuroscience - March 4, 2022 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Association Between Multi-Organ Involvement and Brain Injury in Cooled Newborns: A Statistical Approach
(Source: Developmental Neuroscience)
Source: Developmental Neuroscience - March 2, 2022 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Repeated neonatal exposure to sevoflurane induces age-dependent impairments in cognition and synaptic plasticity in mice
Conclusions These data suggested that sevoflurane may impair cognitive performance and neuronal plasticity when administered repeatedly or in a high MAC during infancy, which is noticeable during adolescence but alleviates during adulthood. (Source: Developmental Neuroscience)
Source: Developmental Neuroscience - February 24, 2022 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Prognostic neurobiomarkers in neonatal encephalopathy
Therapeutic hypothermia is now standard-care for infants with moderate-severe neonatal encephalopathy (NE), and improves brain damage on neuroimaging, and neurodevelopmental outcomes. Critically, for effective neuroprotection, hypothermia should be started within 6 h from birth. There is compelling evidence to suggest that a proportion of infants with mild NE have material risk of developing brain damage and poor outcomes. This cohort is increasingly being offered therapeutic hypothermia, despite lack of trial evidence for its benefit. In current practice, infants need to be diagnosed within 6 h of birth for therapeutic tr...
Source: Developmental Neuroscience - February 15, 2022 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Endocannabinoid Receptor Expression in Early Zebrafish Development
This study combines reverse-transcriptase PCR with in situ hybridizations to compile a timeline of the developmental expression of six key cannabinoid receptors; cb1, cb2, trpv1, trpa1a, trpa1b, and gpr55 in zebrafish embryos, starting from as early as 6 hours post fertilization (hpf) until 3 days post fertilization. This time frame is roughly equivalent to two to ten weeks in human embryonic development. All six genes were confirmed to be expressed within this time range and share similarities with human and rodent expression. Cb1 expression was first detected between 12 and 24 hpf in the retina and CNS, and its expressio...
Source: Developmental Neuroscience - February 15, 2022 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Alterations in the Stool Microbiome in Newborns undergoing Mild Therapeutic Hypothermia after Hypoxic-Ischemic Encephalopathy
Conclusion: In this study we demonstrate an alteration in the microbiota composition in newborns undergoing TH for HIE. (359 words) (Source: Developmental Neuroscience)
Source: Developmental Neuroscience - February 9, 2022 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Vitamin E Decreases Cytotoxicity and Mitigates Inflammatory and Oxidative Stress Responses in a Ferret Organotypic Brain Slice Model of Neonatal Hypoxia-Ischemia
The gyrencephalic ferret brain is an excellent model in which to study hypoxia-ischemia (HI), a significant contributor to neurological injury in neonates. Vitamin E, an essential fat-soluble antioxidant, reduces oxidative stress and inflammation in both animal models and neonates. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of Vitamin E after oxygen glucose deprivation (OGD) in an organotypic ferret brain slice model of neonatal HI. We hypothesized that Vitamin E would decrease cytotoxicity, inflammation, and oxidative stress in OGD-exposed brain slices. Term-equivalent ferrets were sacrificed at postnatal (P) day 21-...
Source: Developmental Neuroscience - February 8, 2022 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

The utility of cerebral autoregulation indices in detecting severe brain injury varies by cooling treatment phase in neonates with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy
Identifying the hemodynamic range that best supports cerebral perfusion using near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) autoregulation monitoring is a potential physiological marker for neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) during therapeutic hypothermia. However, an optimal autoregulation monitoring algorithm has not been identified for neonatal clinical medicine. We tested whether the hemoglobin volume phase (HVP), hemoglobin volume (HVx), and pressure passivity index (PPI) identify changes in autoregulation that are associated with brain injury on MRI or death. The HVP measures the phase difference between a NIRS metri...
Source: Developmental Neuroscience - January 31, 2022 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

The difference in the cytoskeletal machinery of growth cones of growing axons and leading processes
In this study, we compared axonal elongating growth cones and leading process growth cones in the same conditions that manipulated filopodia, lamellipodia and drebrin, the latter mediates actin filament-microtubule interaction. Cerebral cortex (CX) neurons and medial ganglionic eminence (MGE) neurons from embryonic mice were cultured on less-adhesive cover glasses. Inhibition of filopodia formation by triple knock down of Mena, ENA and VASP or double knock down of Daam1 and fascin affected axon formation of CX neurons but did not affect the morphology of leading process of MGE neurons. On the other hand, treatment with CK6...
Source: Developmental Neuroscience - January 31, 2022 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research