Research Progress of Collapse Response Mediator Proteins in Neurodegenerative Diseases
(Source: Developmental Neuroscience)
Source: Developmental Neuroscience - March 4, 2022 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Association Between Multi-Organ Involvement and Brain Injury in Cooled Newborns: A Statistical Approach
(Source: Developmental Neuroscience)
Source: Developmental Neuroscience - March 2, 2022 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Repeated neonatal exposure to sevoflurane induces age-dependent impairments in cognition and synaptic plasticity in mice
Conclusions These data suggested that sevoflurane may impair cognitive performance and neuronal plasticity when administered repeatedly or in a high MAC during infancy, which is noticeable during adolescence but alleviates during adulthood. (Source: Developmental Neuroscience)
Source: Developmental Neuroscience - February 24, 2022 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Prognostic neurobiomarkers in neonatal encephalopathy
Therapeutic hypothermia is now standard-care for infants with moderate-severe neonatal encephalopathy (NE), and improves brain damage on neuroimaging, and neurodevelopmental outcomes. Critically, for effective neuroprotection, hypothermia should be started within 6 h from birth. There is compelling evidence to suggest that a proportion of infants with mild NE have material risk of developing brain damage and poor outcomes. This cohort is increasingly being offered therapeutic hypothermia, despite lack of trial evidence for its benefit. In current practice, infants need to be diagnosed within 6 h of birth for therapeutic tr...
Source: Developmental Neuroscience - February 15, 2022 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Endocannabinoid Receptor Expression in Early Zebrafish Development
This study combines reverse-transcriptase PCR with in situ hybridizations to compile a timeline of the developmental expression of six key cannabinoid receptors; cb1, cb2, trpv1, trpa1a, trpa1b, and gpr55 in zebrafish embryos, starting from as early as 6 hours post fertilization (hpf) until 3 days post fertilization. This time frame is roughly equivalent to two to ten weeks in human embryonic development. All six genes were confirmed to be expressed within this time range and share similarities with human and rodent expression. Cb1 expression was first detected between 12 and 24 hpf in the retina and CNS, and its expressio...
Source: Developmental Neuroscience - February 15, 2022 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Alterations in the Stool Microbiome in Newborns undergoing Mild Therapeutic Hypothermia after Hypoxic-Ischemic Encephalopathy
Conclusion: In this study we demonstrate an alteration in the microbiota composition in newborns undergoing TH for HIE. (359 words) (Source: Developmental Neuroscience)
Source: Developmental Neuroscience - February 9, 2022 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Vitamin E Decreases Cytotoxicity and Mitigates Inflammatory and Oxidative Stress Responses in a Ferret Organotypic Brain Slice Model of Neonatal Hypoxia-Ischemia
The gyrencephalic ferret brain is an excellent model in which to study hypoxia-ischemia (HI), a significant contributor to neurological injury in neonates. Vitamin E, an essential fat-soluble antioxidant, reduces oxidative stress and inflammation in both animal models and neonates. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of Vitamin E after oxygen glucose deprivation (OGD) in an organotypic ferret brain slice model of neonatal HI. We hypothesized that Vitamin E would decrease cytotoxicity, inflammation, and oxidative stress in OGD-exposed brain slices. Term-equivalent ferrets were sacrificed at postnatal (P) day 21-...
Source: Developmental Neuroscience - February 8, 2022 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

The utility of cerebral autoregulation indices in detecting severe brain injury varies by cooling treatment phase in neonates with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy
Identifying the hemodynamic range that best supports cerebral perfusion using near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) autoregulation monitoring is a potential physiological marker for neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) during therapeutic hypothermia. However, an optimal autoregulation monitoring algorithm has not been identified for neonatal clinical medicine. We tested whether the hemoglobin volume phase (HVP), hemoglobin volume (HVx), and pressure passivity index (PPI) identify changes in autoregulation that are associated with brain injury on MRI or death. The HVP measures the phase difference between a NIRS metri...
Source: Developmental Neuroscience - January 31, 2022 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

The difference in the cytoskeletal machinery of growth cones of growing axons and leading processes
In this study, we compared axonal elongating growth cones and leading process growth cones in the same conditions that manipulated filopodia, lamellipodia and drebrin, the latter mediates actin filament-microtubule interaction. Cerebral cortex (CX) neurons and medial ganglionic eminence (MGE) neurons from embryonic mice were cultured on less-adhesive cover glasses. Inhibition of filopodia formation by triple knock down of Mena, ENA and VASP or double knock down of Daam1 and fascin affected axon formation of CX neurons but did not affect the morphology of leading process of MGE neurons. On the other hand, treatment with CK6...
Source: Developmental Neuroscience - January 31, 2022 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Influence of Testosterone depletion on Neurotrophin-4 in Hippocampal synaptic plasticity and its effects on learning and memory
Sex steroids are neuromodulators that play a crucial role in learning, memory, and synaptic plasticity, providing circuit flexibility and dynamic functional connectivity in mammals. Previous studies indicate that testosterone is crucial for neuronal functions and required further investigation on various frontiers. However, it is surprising to note that studies on testosterone-induced NT-4 expression and its influence on synaptic plasticity and learning and memory moderation are scanty. The present study is focused on analyzing the localized influence of neurotrophin-4 (NT4) on hippocampal synaptic plasticity and associate...
Source: Developmental Neuroscience - January 27, 2022 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Developmental iron deficiency dysregulates TET activity and DNA hydroxymethylation in the rat hippocampus and cerebellum
Iron deficiency (ID) during neurodevelopment is associated with lasting cognitive and socioemotional deficits, and increased risk for neuropsychiatric disease throughout the lifespan. These neurophenotypical changes are underlain by gene dysregulation in the brain that outlasts the period of ID; however, the mechanisms by which ID establishes and maintains gene expression changes are incompletely understood. The epigenetic modification 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC), or DNA hydroxymethylation, is one candidate mechanism because of its dependence on iron-containing TET enzymes. The aim of the present study was to determine ...
Source: Developmental Neuroscience - January 11, 2022 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Promotion of the Differentiation of Dental Pulp Stem Cells into Oligodendrocytes by Knockdown of Heat-Shock Protein 27
In conclusion, our data provide an example of oligodendrocyte differentiation of a DPSCs model that may have potential application in human regenerative medicine. (Source: Developmental Neuroscience)
Source: Developmental Neuroscience - January 5, 2022 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Bioinformatic Analysis Reveals the Distinct Role of 5 ′UTR-Specific m6A RNA Modification in Mice Developing Cerebral Cortices
N6-methyladenosine (m6A) abundantly exists in the cerebral cortex and is emerging as an essential factor in cortical development and function. As the m6A-binding site appears to be dynamically methylated in different RNA regions at the temporal-specific developing stage, it is of value to distinguish the unique character of region- and temporal-specific m6A. Herein, we analyzed the status of temporal-specific m6A within RNA 5 ′ untranslated region (5′UTR) using m6A-methylated sequencing data and transcriptomic sequencing data from 12.5- to 13-day embryonic cerebral cortices and 14-day postnatal ones. We identified sort...
Source: Developmental Neuroscience - December 27, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Bioinformatic Analysis Reveals the Distinct Role of 5 ’UTR-specific m6A RNA Modification in Mice Developing Cerebral Cortices
N6-methyladenosine (m6A) abundantly exists in the cerebral cortex, and is emerging as an essential factor in cortical development and function. As the m6A binding site appears to be dynamically methylated in different RNA regions at the temporal-specific developing stage, it is of value to distinguish the unique character of region- and temporal-specific m6A. Herein, we analyzed the status of temporal-specific m6A within RNA 5 ’ untranslated region (5’UTR) using m6A-methylated sequencing data and transcriptomic sequencing data from 12.5-13-day embryonic cerebral cortices and 14-day postnatal ones. We identified sorts o...
Source: Developmental Neuroscience - December 27, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

L-Ascorbic Acid and Curcumin Prevents Brain Damage Induced via Lead Acetate in Rats: Possible Mechanisms
This study aimed to evaluate the possible neuroprotective role of L-ascorbic acid (ASCR) and curcumin (CRCM) alone or together against lead ac.-induced neurotoxicity. Rats were injected with lead ac. then treated orally with ASCR and CRCM alone or in combination for 7 days. Lead ac. caused elevation in brain tumor necrosis factor- α, interleukin-6, caspase-3, and malondialdehyde levels, while superoxide dismutase, reduced glutathione as well as the expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor, cAMP response element-binding, and Beclin1 were downregulated. Expressions of C/EBP homologous protein and mammalian Target of ...
Source: Developmental Neuroscience - December 23, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research