Contents Vol. 42, 2020
Dev Neurosci 2020;42:I –IV (Source: Developmental Neuroscience)
Source: Developmental Neuroscience - March 24, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Phosphorylation of S6 Protein as a Potential Biomarker in Surgically Treated Refractory Epilepsy
The tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC), focal cortical dysplasia IIB (FCD IIB), and hemimegalencephaly (HME) exhibit similar molecular features that are dependent on the hyperactivation of the mTOR pathway. They are all associated with refractory epilepsy and the need for surgical resection with varying outcomes. The phosphorylated protein S6 (pS6) is a downstream target of mTOR, whose increased expression might indicate mTOR hyperactivation, but which is also present when there is no alteration in the pathway (such as in FCD type I). We have performed immunohistochemical marking and quantification of pS6 in resected brain s...
Source: Developmental Neuroscience - March 11, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

FGF3 from the Hypothalamus Regulates the Guidance of Thalamocortical Axons
Thalamus is an important sensory relay station: afferent sensory information, except olfactory signals, is transmitted by thalamocortical axons (TCAs) to the cerebral cortex. The pathway choice of TCAs depends on diverse diffusible or substrate-bound guidance cues in the environment. Not only classical guidance cues (ephrins, slits, semaphorins, and netrins), morphogens, which exerts patterning effects during early embryonic development, can also help axons navigate to their targets at later development stages. Here, expression analyses reveal that morphogen Fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-3 is expressed in the chick ventra...
Source: Developmental Neuroscience - March 8, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Structural Brain Changes during the Neonatal Period in a Rabbit Model of Intrauterine Growth Restriction
Conclusions: Overall, in the rabbit model used, IUGR is related to functional and brain changes evidenced already at birth, including changes in the neuronal arborization and abnormal oligodendrocyte maturation.Dev Neurosci (Source: Developmental Neuroscience)
Source: Developmental Neuroscience - March 5, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Integrated RNA Sequencing Reveals Epigenetic Impacts of Diesel Particulate Matter Exposure in Human Cerebral Organoids
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) manifests early in childhood. While genetic variants increase risk for ASD, a growing body of literature has established that in utero chemical exposures also contribute to ASD risk. These chemicals include air-based pollutants like diesel particulate matter (DPM). A combination of single-cell and direct transcriptomics of DPM-exposed human-induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cerebral organoids revealed toxicogenomic effects of DPM exposure during fetal brain development. Direct transcriptomics, sequencing RNA bases via Nanopore, revealed that cerebral organoids contain extensive RNA modifi...
Source: Developmental Neuroscience - March 3, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

The Role of Ninjurin1 and Its Impact beyond the Nervous System
Ninjurin1 (Ninj1) is a double-transmembrane cell surface protein that could promote nerve regeneration in the process of the peripheral nervous system injury and repairment. Nonetheless, the accurate function of Ninj1 in the central nervous system and outside the nervous system is not completely clear. According to the recent studies, we found that Ninj1 is also aberrantly expressed in various pathophysiological processes in vivo, including inflammation, tumorigenesis, and vascular, bone, and muscle homeostasis. These findings suggest that Ninj1 may play an influential role during these pathophysiological processes. Our re...
Source: Developmental Neuroscience - March 3, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

The Clinical Significance of miR-135b-5p and Its Role in the Proliferation and Apoptosis of Hippocampus Neurons in Children with Temporal Lobe Epilepsy
This study aimed to detect the expression of miR-135b-5p and primarily uncover its underlying function and mechanism in children with TLE. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction was used to evaluate the expression of miR-135b-5p in children with TLE and in a rat model of epilepsy. MTT assay and flow cytometric apoptosis assay were conducted to evaluate the effects of miR-135b-5p on cell viability and apoptosis. Additionally, the dual luciferase reporter assay was performed to confirm the direct target of miR-135b-5p. Our data showed that the expression of miR-135b-5p was significantly decreased in children with T...
Source: Developmental Neuroscience - February 17, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

The Eya1 Phosphatase Mediates Shh-Driven Symmetric Cell Division of Cerebellar Granule Cell Precursors
During neural development, stem and precursor cells can divide either symmetrically or asymmetrically. The transition between symmetric and asymmetric cell divisions is a major determinant of precursor cell expansion and neural differentiation, but the underlying mechanisms that regulate this transition are not well understood. Here, we identify the Sonic hedgehog (Shh) pathway as a critical determinant regulating the mode of division of cerebellar granule cell precursors (GCPs). Using partial gain and loss of function mutations within the Shh pathway, we show that pathway activation determines spindle orientation of GCPs,...
Source: Developmental Neuroscience - January 20, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Long-Term Effects of Prenatal Severe Hypoxia on Central and Peripheral Components of the Glucocorticoid System in Rats
Conclusions: Our findings demonstrate that in progeny a deficit of hippocampal GR resulting from maternal glucocorticoid response to hypoxia remains stable throughout life and is accompanied by severe disturbances of baseline glucocorticoid levels and its peripheral reception. Negative consequences of PSH can be prevented by injection with an inhibitor of corticosterone synthesis (metyrapone) to pregnant females undergoing hypoxia.Dev Neurosci (Source: Developmental Neuroscience)
Source: Developmental Neuroscience - January 13, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Prenatal High-Fat Diet Rescues Communication Deficits in < b > < i > Fmr1 < /i > < /b > Mutant Mice in a Sex-Specific Manner
Using high-throughput analysis methods, the present study sought to determine the impact of prenatal high-fat dietary manipulations on isolation-induced ultrasonic vocalization production in both male and femaleFmr1mutants on postnatal day 9. Prior to breeding, male FVB/129Fmr1 wildtype and femaleFmr1 heterozygous breeding pairs were assigned to 1 of 3 diet conditions: standard lab chow, omega-3 fatty acid-enriched chow, and a diet controlling for the fat increase. Prenatal exposure to omega-3 fatty acids improved reductions in the number of calls produced byFmr1heterozygotes females. Moreover, diminished spectral purity i...
Source: Developmental Neuroscience - January 4, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Long-Term Decreases in the Expression of Calcineurin and GABAA Receptors Induced by Early Maternal Separation Are Associated with Increased Anxiety-Like Behavior in Adult Male Rats
Conclusions: Together, our study suggests that GABAA receptors via calcineurin-dependent signaling pathways may play an important role in the expression of stress-induced anxiety-like behavior.Dev Neurosci (Source: Developmental Neuroscience)
Source: Developmental Neuroscience - December 18, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Morphological Characterization of the Developing Greater Cane Rat ( < b > < i > Thryonomys  swinderianus < /i > < /b > ) Brain
This study was therefore designed to characterize and describe distinctive external developmental features in the prenatal GCR brain across the entire gestational length using the emergence and differentiation of external features of the brain vesicles. Four gross morphometric brain parameters (weight, length, width, and height) were evaluated and expressed as mean ± SEM. Relationship between all brain morphometrics and gestation length were analyzed using one-way ANOVA and linear regression. Developmental milestones in the prenatal GCR were then compared with closely related precocial mammals. The earliest time point wit...
Source: Developmental Neuroscience - December 15, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Sulforaphane Protects Piglet Brains from Neonatal Hypoxic-Ischemic Injury
The striatal, primary sensorimotor cortical, and thalamic neurons are highly vulnerable to hypoxia-ischemia (HI) in term newborns. In a piglet model of HI that exhibits similar selective regional vulnerability, we tested the hypothesis that early treatment with sulforaphane, an activator of the Nrf2 transcription factor, protects vulnerable neurons from HI injury. Anesthetized piglets (aged 3 –7 days) were subjected to 45 min of hypoxia and 7 min of airway occlusion. At 15 min after resuscitation, the piglets received intravenous vehicle or sulforaphane. At 4 days of recovery, the density of viable neurons in the putamen...
Source: Developmental Neuroscience - December 10, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

miR-325-3p Protects Neurons from Oxygen-Glucose Deprivation and Reoxygenation Injury via Inhibition of RIP3
Conclusion: This study demonstrated that miR-325-3p targets RIP3 to inactivate the MAPK pathway, thereby protecting neurons against OGD/R-induced injury.Dev Neurosci (Source: Developmental Neuroscience)
Source: Developmental Neuroscience - October 30, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

TrkC Overexpression Protects Sevoflurane-Induced Neurotoxicity in Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Neurons
Conclusions: SEVO may induce neurotoxicity in human iPS-derived neurons, and its neurotoxic damage could be protected by the overexpression of TrkC.Dev Neurosci (Source: Developmental Neuroscience)
Source: Developmental Neuroscience - October 26, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research