Preface
Dev Neurosci (Source: Developmental Neuroscience)
Source: Developmental Neuroscience - June 28, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Learning and Memory Effects of Neonatal Methamphetamine Exposure in Sprague-Dawley Rats: Test of the Role of Dopamine Receptors D1 in Mediating the Long-Term Effects
Methamphetamine (MA) abuse is a worldwide issue that produces health and cognitive effects in the user. MA is abused by some women who then become pregnant and expose their developing child to the drug. Preclinical rodent models demonstrate cognitive deficits following developmental MA exposure, an effect observed in children exposed to MA in utero. To determine if the dopamine receptor D1 (DRD1) is involved in the learning and memory deficits following MA exposure, male Sprague-Dawley rats were treated 4 times daily at 2 h intervals with 0 (saline) or 10 mg/kg of MA from postnatal day (P)6 –15, 30 min after 0.5, 1.0, or...
Source: Developmental Neuroscience - June 18, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Perinatal Ischemia Alters Global Expression of Synaptosomal Proteins Critical for Neural Plasticity in the Developing Mouse Brain
Ischemic perinatal stroke (IPS) affects 1 in 2,300 –5,000 live births. Despite a survival rate #x3e;95%, approximately 60% of IPS infants develop motor and cognitive impairments. Given the importance of axonal growth and synaptic plasticity in neurocognitive development, our objective was to identify the molecular pathways underlying IPS-associate d synaptic dysfunction using a mouse model. IPS was induced by unilateral ligation of the common carotid artery of postnatal day 10 (P10) mice. Five days after ischemia, sensorimotor and motor functions were assessed by vibrissae-evoked forepaw placement and the tail suspension...
Source: Developmental Neuroscience - June 17, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Rapid and Efficient Differentiation of Rodent Neural Stem Cells into Oligodendrocyte Progenitor Cells
Oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) may have beneficial effects in cell replacement therapy of neurodegenerative disease owing to their unique capability to differentiate into myelinogenic oligodendrocytes (OLs) in response to extrinsic signals. Therefore, it is of significance to establish an effective differentiation methodology to generate highly pure OPCs and OLs from some easily accessible stem cell sources. To achieve this goal, in this study, we present a rapid and efficient protocol for oligodendroglial lineage differentiation from mouse neural stem cells (NSCs), rat NSCs, or mouse embryonic stem cell-derived n...
Source: Developmental Neuroscience - June 5, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Preschool Language Outcomes following Perinatal Hypoxic-Ischemic Encephalopathy in the Age of Therapeutic Hypothermia
Early studies following perinatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) suggested expressive language deficits and academic difficulties, but there is only limited detailed study of language development in this population since the widespread adoption of therapeutic hypothermia (TH). Expressive and receptive language testing was performed as part of a larger battery with 45 children with a mean age of 26 months following perinatal HIE treated with TH. Overall cohort outcomes as well as the effects of gender, estimated household income, initial pH and base excess, and pattern of injury on neonatal brain MRI were assessed. T...
Source: Developmental Neuroscience - June 5, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Ascending Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Intrauterine Inflammation in Near-Term Rabbits Leading to Newborn Neurobehavioral Deficits
Conclusions: This is the first study using an ascending LPS-induced intrauterine inflammation model in rabbits, showing mostly transient hypertonia and mainly locomotor deficits in the kits. Not all proinflammatory cytokines are increased in the fetal brain following LPS administration. Changes in key tetrahydro ­biopterin biosynthetic enzymes possibly indicate different effects of the inflammatory insult.Dev Neurosci (Source: Developmental Neuroscience)
Source: Developmental Neuroscience - June 4, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Rapid Postnatal Adaptation of Neurodevelopment in Pigs Born Late Preterm
Preterm birth interrupts intrauterine brain growth and maturation and may induce a delay in postnatal neurodevelopment. Such developmental delays can result from the reduced fetal age at birth, together with the clinical compli ­cations of preterm birth (e.g., hypoxia, ischemia, and inflammation). We hypothesized that late preterm birth, inducing only mild clinical complications, has minimal effects on brain-related outcomes such as motor function and behavior. Using the pig as a model for late preterm infants, piglets we re cesarean delivered preterm (90%, 106 days gestation) or at full term, reared by identical procedur...
Source: Developmental Neuroscience - May 29, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Assessment of Prenatal Kynurenine Metabolism Using Tissue Slices: Focus on the Neosynthesis of Kynurenic Acid in Mice
Several lines of evidence support the hypothesis that abnormally elevated brain levels of kynurenic acid (KYNA), a metabolite of the kynurenine pathway (KP) of tryptophan degradation, play a pathophysiologically significant role in schizophrenia and other major neurodevelopmental disorders. Studies in experimental animal models suggest that KP impairments in these diseases may originate already in utero since prenatal administration of KYNA ’s bioprecursor, kynurenine, leads to biochemical and structural abnormalities as well as distinct cognitive impairments in adulthood. As KP metabolism during pregnancy is still insuf...
Source: Developmental Neuroscience - May 23, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Neonatal Inhibition of Connexin 36 Ameliorates Fetal Brain Injury Induced by Maternal Noninfectious Fever in Mice
Prenatal fever could result in brain function impairments in the offspring. The present study investigated the effect of interleukin-6 (IL-6)-induced maternal fever on the offspring and the involvement of connexin 36 in this process. Pregnant C57BL/6J mice were injected with IL-6 on gestational day 15. The levels of iNOS and COX-2 were measured as an index of neuroinflammation in the brain of newborn pups. Offspring were treated with the connexin 36 (Cx36) inhibitor mefloquine at postnatal day (P)1 –P3 or at P40–P42. Rotarod, grip traction, and foot fault tests were carried out to evaluate the motor behavior of adult o...
Source: Developmental Neuroscience - May 21, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Hypoxia-Ischemia and Hypothermia Independently and Interactively Affect Neuronal Pathology in Neonatal Piglets with Short-Term Recovery
Therapeutic hypothermia is the standard of clinical care for moderate neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy. We investigated the independent and interactive effects of hypoxia-ischemia (HI) and temperature on neuronal survival and injury in basal ganglia and cerebral cortex in neonatal piglets. Male piglets were randomized to receive HI injury or sham procedure followed by 29 h of normothermia, sustained hypothermia induced at 2 h, or hypothermia with rewarming during fentanyl-nitrous oxide anesthesia. Viable and injured neurons and apoptotic profiles were counted in the anterior putamen, posterior putamen, and motor co...
Source: Developmental Neuroscience - May 20, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Exogenous Ketone Bodies as Promising Neuroprotective Agents for Developmental Brain Injury
Ketone bodies are a promising area of neuroprotection research that may be ideally suited to the injured newborn. During normal development, the human infant is in significant ketosis for at least the first week of life. Ketone uptake and metabolism is upregulated in the both the fetus and neonate, with ketone bodies providing at least 10% of cerebral metabolic energy requirements, as well as being the preferred precursors for the synthesis of fatty acids and cholesterol. At the same time, ketone bodies have been shown to have multiple neuroprotective effects, including being anticonvulsant, decreasing oxidative stress and...
Source: Developmental Neuroscience - May 14, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

A Ferret Model of Encephalopathy of Prematurity
There is an ongoing need for relevant animal models in which to test therapeutic interventions for infants with neurological sequelae of prematurity. The ferret is an attractive model species as it has a gyrified brain with a white-to-gray matter ratio similar to that in the human brain. A model of encephalopathy of prematurity was developed in postnatal day 10 (P10) ferret kits, considered to be developmentally equivalent to infants of 24 –26 weeks’ gestation. Cross-fostered P10 ferret kits received 5 mg/kg of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) before undergoing consecutive hypoxia-hyperoxia-hypoxia (60 min at 9%, 120 min at 60...
Source: Developmental Neuroscience - May 10, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Seizures Are Associated with Blood-Brain Barrier Disruption in a Piglet Model of Neonatal Hypoxic-Ischaemic Encephalopathy
Seizures in the neonatal period are most often symptomatic of central nervous system (CNS) dysfunction and the most common cause is hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy (HIE). Seizures are associated with poor long-term outcomes and increased neuropathology. Blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption and inflammation may contribute to seizures and increased neuropathology but are incompletely understood in neonatal HIE. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of seizures on BBB integrity in a preclinical model of neonatal hypoxic-ischaemic (HI) injury. Piglets (age: #x3c;24 h) were subjected to a 30-min HI insult followe...
Source: Developmental Neuroscience - May 6, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Comparison of Frequency- and Time-Domain Autoregulation and Vasoreactivity Indices in a Piglet Model of Hypoxia-Ischemia and Hypothermia
Conclusion: Our findings indicate that phase shift is the most accurate component of autoregulation monitoring in the developing brain, and it can be measured using correlation or by calculating phase when coherence is maximal. Phase and correlation autoregulation indices from MAP and rSO2 and vasoreactivity indices from MAP and HbT are accurate metrics that are suitable for clinical HIE studies.Dev Neurosci (Source: Developmental Neuroscience)
Source: Developmental Neuroscience - May 6, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Behavioral and Biochemical Features of the Course and Surgical Treatment of Experimental Obstructive Hydrocephalus in Young Rats
Conclusions: Pups treated with a CSF shunt showed better performance on memory tests. VSCS did not revert demyelination caused by hydrocephalus. Likewise, reactive astrocytosis and cell proliferation over the germinal matrix were not reversed after shunting. Hydrocephalic animals had raised levels of inflammatory interleukins, which returned to normal after treatment.Dev Neurosci (Source: Developmental Neuroscience)
Source: Developmental Neuroscience - April 18, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research