A Systematic Review of the Valproic-Acid-Induced Rodent Model of Autism
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterised by repetitive behaviours, cognitive rigidity/inflexibility, and social-affective impairment. Unfortunately, few pharmacological treatments exist to alleviate these socio-behavioural impairments. Prenatal administration of valproic acid (VPA) has become an accepted animal model of ASD and has been extensively used to explore new pharmacotherapies in rodents. We conducted a systematic review of the behavioural impairments induced by the VPA model in rodents, with specific reference to 3 core socio-behavioural alterations associated with ASD: repeti...
Source: Developmental Neuroscience - August 18, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research
Caffeine Restores Background EEG Activity Independent of Infarct Reduction after Neonatal Hypoxic Ischemic Brain Injury
In human preterm newborns, caffeine increases brain activity and improves neurodevelopmental outcomes. In animal models of hypoxic ischemic brain injury, caffeine pretreatment reduces infarct volume. We studied the relationship between tissue neuroprotection and brain activity after injury to further understand caffeine neuroprotection. Rat dams received caffeine prior to birth or on postnatal day 3 (P3) through P16. Caffeine-treated and -untreated pups underwent the Vannucci procedure (unilateral carotid ligation, global hypoxia) on P2. A subset had EEG recordings. Brain hemispheric infarct volume was measured on P16. P2 ...
Source: Developmental Neuroscience - August 18, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research
The Development of Adolescent Chronic Pain following Traumatic Brain Injury and Surgery: The Role of Diet and Early Life Stress
Pain is evolutionarily necessary for survival in that it reduces tissue damage by signaling the body to respond to a harmful stimulus. However, in many circumstances, acute pain becomes chronic, and this is often dysfunctional. Adolescent chronic pain is a growing epidemic with an unknown etiology and limited effective treatment options. Given that the relationship between acute pain and chronic pain is not straightforward, there is a need to better understand the factors that contribute to the chronification of pain. Since early life factors are critical to a variety of outcomes in the developmental and adolescent periods...
Source: Developmental Neuroscience - July 10, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research
Positive Modulation of SK Channel Impedes Neuron-Specific Cytoskeletal Organization and Maturation
N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) modulates the structural plasticity of dendritic spines by impacting cytoskeletal organization and kinase signaling. In the developing nervous system, activation of NMDAR is pertinent for neuronal migration, neurite differentiation, and cellular organization. Given that small conductance potassium channels (SK2/3) repress NMDAR ionotropic signaling, this study highlights the impact of neonatal SK channel potentiation on adult cortical and hippocampal organization. Neonatal SK channel potentiation was performed by one injection of SK2/3 agonist (CyPPA) into the pallium of mice on postna...
Source: Developmental Neuroscience - June 24, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research
A Metabolomics Study of Hypoxia Ischemia during Mouse Brain Development Using Hyperpolarized < sup > 13 < /sup > C
Conclusion: We describe a method for detecting and monitoring the evolution of HI injury during brain maturation which could prove to be an excellent biomarker of injury.Dev Neurosci (Source: Developmental Neuroscience)
Source: Developmental Neuroscience - June 22, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research
Acute Lengthening of Progenitor Mitosis Influences Progeny Fate during Cortical Development < b > < i > in vivo < /i > < /b >
Conclusions: This study establishes a valuable new experimental paradigm towards understanding mechanisms whereby lengthened mitosis duration may explain some cases of microcephaly.Dev Neurosci (Source: Developmental Neuroscience)
Source: Developmental Neuroscience - June 15, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research
Socioeconomic Status in Infancy and the Developing Brain: Functional Connectivity of the Hippocampus and Amygdala
The development of the hippocampus and amygdala is particularly sensitive to environmental factors, including socioeconomic status (SES). Studies that have investigated associations between SES and brain development markers have rarely focused on connectivity. Accordingly, this longitudinal study examined whether SES in infancy (parental education and income-to-needs ratio) predicts the functional connectivity of the hippocampus and amygdala in late childhood, and in turn whether functional connectivity is associated with child socioemotional adjustment in a middle-class sample. SES indices were measured when children (n =...
Source: Developmental Neuroscience - June 9, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research
Deficit of Long-Term Potentiation Induction, but Not Maintenance, in the Juvenile Hippocampus after Neonatal Proinflammatory Stress
CA3-CA1 long-term potentiation (LTP) in the hippocampal slices from juvenile Wistar rats was studied to reveal factors potentially contributing to different sensitivity to neonatal proinflammatory stress (NPS). NPS was induced by intra peritoneal injections of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to neonatal rats (two injections of LPS, or saline in the control group, consecutively on postnatal days 3 and 5 [PND3 and PND5]). In females, a significant effect of NPS on hippocampus development was associated with modifications of lon g-term synaptic plasticity, the synapses becoming more resistant to LTP induction. LTP defici...
Source: Developmental Neuroscience - May 5, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research
White Matter Alterations in < b > < i > Fmr1 < /i > < /b > Knockout Mice during Early Postnatal Brain Development
In this study, we examined several white matter regions in the maleFmr1 KO mouse brain compared to male wild-type (WT) mice at postnatal days (PND) 18, 21, 30, and 60, which coincide with critical stages of myelination and postnatal brain development. White matter volume, T2 relaxation time, and magnetization transfer ratio (MTR) were measured using magnetic resonance imaging and myelin content was determined with histological staining of myelin. Differences in the developmental accumulation of white matter and myelin betweenFmr1 KO and WT mice were observed in the corpus callosum, external and internal capsules, cerebral ...
Source: Developmental Neuroscience - April 29, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research
Maternal Undernourishment in Guinea Pigs Leads to Fetal Growth Restriction with Increased Hypoxic Cells and Oxidative Stress in the Brain
Conclusions: Chronic hypoxia is likely to be an important signaling mechanism in the FGR brain, but with males showing more hypoxia than females. This may involve sex differences in adaptive decreases in growth and normalizing of oxygen, with implications for sex-specific alterations in brain development and risk for later neuropsychiatric disorder.Dev Neurosci (Source: Developmental Neuroscience)
Source: Developmental Neuroscience - April 21, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research
Integrated Effects of Neonatal Ventral Hippocampal Lesions and Impoverished Social-Environmental Rearing on Endophenotypes of Mental Illness and Addiction Vulnerability
A wide range of mental illnesses show high rates of addiction comorbidities regardless of their genetic, neurodevelopmental, and/or adverse-environmental etiologies. Understanding how the spectrum of mental illnesses produce addiction vulnerability will be key to discovering more effective preventions and integrated treatments for adults with addiction and dual diagnosis comorbidities. A population of 131 rats containing a spectrum of etiological mental illness models and degrees of severity was experimentally generated by crossing neonatal ventral hippocampal lesions (NVHL;n = 68) or controls (SHAM-operated;n = 63) with a...
Source: Developmental Neuroscience - March 11, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research
Combined Treatment with Insulin-Like Growth Factor 1 and AMD3100 Improves Motor Outcome in a Murine Model of Neonatal Hypoxic-Ischemic Encephalopathy
The objective of this study was to assess the short-term efficacy of inducing endogenous stem cell mobilization after injury in a model of neonatal HIE. Postnatal day 9 CD1 pups received sham surgery or unilateral carotid artery ligation and 30 min of hypoxia followed by saline, AMD3100, IGF1, or both agents. Intraperitoneal injections of 5-ethynyl-2 ′-deoxyuridine (EdU) and 5-bromo-2′-deoxyuridine were used to label replicating progenitor cells. At P14, animals underwent rotarod testing, and the brains were sectioned for area measurements and immunofluorescence staining. Comparisons were made using one-way analysi...
Source: Developmental Neuroscience - February 13, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research
Abnormal Auditory Mismatch Fields in Children and Adolescents with 47,XYY Syndrome
This study investigated whether similar findings are observed in XYY-associated ASD and whether delayed processing is also present in individuals with XYYwithout ASD. MEG measured MMFs arising from the left and the right superior temporal gyrus during an auditory oddball paradigm with vowel stimuli (/a/ and /u/) in children/adolescents with XYY both with and without a diagnosis of ASD, as well as in those with ASD-I and in typically developing controls (TD). Ninety male participants (6 –17 years old) were included in the final analyses (TD,n = 38, 11.50 ± 2.88 years; ASD-I,n = 21, 13.83 ± 3.25 years; XYY without ASD,n ...
Source: Developmental Neuroscience - July 5, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research