Correction to: Effectiveness, Tolerability, and Safety of Belimumab in Patients with Refractory SLE: a Review of Observational Clinical-Practice-Based Studies
The following changes are made for this article: (1.) Maddalena Larosa ’s given name and surname were inadvertently interchanged. The authorgroup section is now corrected. (2.) The author(s)’ decision to opt for Open Choice. (Source: Clinical Reviews in Allergy and Immunology)
Source: Clinical Reviews in Allergy and Immunology - August 23, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

The Immunologic Role of IL-17 in Psoriasis and Psoriatic Arthritis Pathogenesis
This article reviews the immunologic role of interleukin (IL)-17, the major effector cytokine in the pathogenesis of psoriatic disease, along with the rationale for targeting the IL-17 cytokine family (IL-17A, IL-17F, and IL-17 receptor A) in the treatment of psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis. Emerging evidence indicates that major sources of IL-17A in patients with psoriatic disease are mast cells, γδ T cells, αβ T cells, and innate lymphoid cells in lesional skin and synovial fluid. Within the skin and joints, IL-17A acts on cellular targets, including keratinocytes, neutrophils, endothelial cells, fibroblasts, osteo...
Source: Clinical Reviews in Allergy and Immunology - August 14, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Dietary Therapy for Eosinophilic Esophagitis: Elimination and Reintroduction
AbstractEosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is a food antigen-mediated disorder of the esophagus characterized by eosinophil predominant inflammation and symptoms of esophageal dysfunction. Dietary antigen elimination induces clinical and histological remission in patients with EoE. The most restrictive of elimination diets (the elemental diet) removes all possible food antigens while empiric elimination diets remove all (or a subset) of food antigens most commonly reported to cause esophageal eosinophilia and food allergies (milk, egg, wheat, soy, peanuts, tree nuts, fish, or legumes). Elimination diets are effective treatment...
Source: Clinical Reviews in Allergy and Immunology - August 1, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Monoclonal Antibodies for Treatment of Eosinophilic Esophagitis
AbstractEosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is a chronic inflammatory disease of the esophagus affecting both children and adults, with debilitating and progressive symptoms. EoE has shown an explosive epidemiological rise in the past few decades. Many patients experience a poor level of disease control despite maximal use of available guideline-based therapies, which seriously hampers their quality of life. Diet restrictions and systemic and topical corticosteroids are the current mainstays of EoE therapy, but are associated with significant efficacy, treatment compliance, and safety issues such as oral or esophageal candidias...
Source: Clinical Reviews in Allergy and Immunology - August 1, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Does Aeroallergen Sensitization Cause or Contribute to Eosinophilic Esophagitis?
AbstractEosinophilic esophagitis is an atopic disease defined clinically by esophageal symptoms in combination with a dense esophageal eosinophilia. EoE is triggered and maintained by exposure to certain foods and it is known that dietary modification controls symptoms and achieves disease remission. Recently, aeroallergens have been implicated in the pathogenesis of EoE. To examine the role of aeroallergens in EoE, we reviewed the published literature. Sensitization and production of IgE antibodies to foods and aeroallergens in subjects with EoE has been demonstrated. However, the evidence suggests only a minor role for I...
Source: Clinical Reviews in Allergy and Immunology - August 1, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

The Global Face of Eosinophilic Esophagitis: Advocacy and Research Groups
AbstractAlthough eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) has been described in the literature for a substantial period, its recognition as a disease entity on the global stage is still relatively new. It has become a major diagnosis of consideration by medical providers when both adult and pediatric patients present with dysphagia, food impaction, and gastroesophageal reflux-like symptoms. In addition to the clinical work of specialists such as allergy-immunologists and gastroenterologists, the evolution of research organizations and advocacy groups focused on EoE have greatly assisted in bringing attention to, and raising awarenes...
Source: Clinical Reviews in Allergy and Immunology - August 1, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Eosinophilic Esophagitis Through the Flexible Endoscope and the Lens of a Photographer in the Amazon
AbstractEosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is a disorder that has been identified recently, thus knowledge about it, its pathogenesis, and potential etiologies has spread in an era where the medical community and the public are receiving the information and discussing it as it appears in the medical literature. Because physiology, pathology, and pathophysiology are difficult to explain in layman terms, the author has used photographs taken in remote areas of the Amazon to create visual similes within a narrative that brings the scientific and medical concepts of the knowledge on EoE to a level that allows both medical and non-...
Source: Clinical Reviews in Allergy and Immunology - August 1, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Autoimmunity in 2017
AbstractThe number of peer-reviewed articles published during the 2017 solar year and retrieved using the “autoimmunity” key word increased significantly compared to 2016 while maintaining a stable share within the immunology field, following years with alternated fortunes. A detailed arbitrary analysis of the published articles in leading immunology and autoimmunity journals provides a privileged v iewpoint on the current trends of research from both basic and clinical studies. Indeed, we are observing that major steps forward are found for rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, and systemic sclerosis, am...
Source: Clinical Reviews in Allergy and Immunology - July 26, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

The Clinical Utility of Pollen Counts
AbstractIn this review, we describe how pollen counts are performed, the health effects caused by exposure to varying amounts of pollen, the clinical utility of reporting pollen counts to the public, and how that information can be used by patients who have allergies to improve their health. The public is very interested in pollen counts, particularly if the counts provide a forecast of expected pollen exposure for the next few days. Traditional pollen counts are labor-intensive; poorly distributed; and, since the counts are usually 1-day-old, do not provide forecasts that can be acted on. New methods that provide short- a...
Source: Clinical Reviews in Allergy and Immunology - July 24, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

The Role of the Environment in Eosinophilic Esophagitis
AbstractEosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is a chronic, immune-mediated inflammatory disease with incompletely understood pathogenesis. Though disease manifestations were initially ascribed to a delayed reaction to food allergens, emerging evidence suggests that modifiable host factors and environmental allergen exposure may also play critical roles in the pathogenesis and ongoing manifestations of EoE. As with other atopic diseases, lack of early-life exposure to microbial pathogens leads to an immune tolerance defect and reprograms the commensal gut microflora toward a type 2 T helper (Th2) phenotype; the esophageal microbi...
Source: Clinical Reviews in Allergy and Immunology - July 21, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Gastrointestinal Manifestations of Hypereosinophilic Syndromes and Mast Cell Disorders: a Comprehensive Review
AbstractHypereosinophilic syndrome and mastocytosis are relatively rare proliferative diseases encountered in the general population. However, allergists frequently consider these disorders in the differential of patients presenting with gastrointestinal, pulmonary, cutaneous, and allergic symptoms. Gastrointestinal symptoms are some of the most frequent and/or debilitating aspects of both disease states and in many cases lead to poor quality of life and functional limitation for the patient. They are the third most common clinical manifestation in hypereosinophilic syndrome and have been found to be the most distressful a...
Source: Clinical Reviews in Allergy and Immunology - July 12, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Enhancing the Safety and Efficacy of Food Allergy Immunotherapy: a Review of Adjunctive Therapies
AbstractFood allergy is a potentially life-threatening condition with no approved curative therapy. A number of food allergen immunotherapies are being investigated in phase II/III trials; however, these are limited in their ability to restore immune tolerance to food allergens and often result in high rates of allergic side effects, sometimes involving anaphylaxis, that may curtail their impact. A variety of adjunctive therapies have been developed in order to enhance the efficacy and/or improve the safety of food allergen immunotherapy through either shifting the immune response from a Th2 polarized response to a Th1 and...
Source: Clinical Reviews in Allergy and Immunology - July 2, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Photocontact Dermatitis and Its Clinical Mimics: an Overview for the Allergist
AbstractPhoto-contact dermatitis (PCD) describes the adverse cutaneous reaction that occurs in some patients as a result of simultaneous exposure to a contactant and to light. PCD can be subdivided into photo-allergic and photo-irritant dermatitis depending on whether the contactant respectively invokes an allergic or irritant reaction. Photo-irritant reactions are commonly caused by plants, psoralens, and medications taken internally, whereas photo-allergic reactions are commonly caused by sunscreens and topical nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory medications. The work-up of photo-contact dermatitis includes a thorough history...
Source: Clinical Reviews in Allergy and Immunology - June 27, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research