Role of Mast Cells in Shaping the Tumor Microenvironment
AbstractEarly mast cell (MC) infiltration has been reported in a wide range of human and animal tumors particularly malignant melanoma and breast and colorectal cancer. The consequences of their presence in the tumor microenvironment (TME) or at their margins still remain unclear as it is associated with a good or poor prognosis based on the type and anatomical site of the tumor. Within the tumor, MC interactions occur with infiltrated immune cells, tumor cells, and extracellular matrix (ECM) through direct cell-to-cell interactions or release of a broad range of mediators capable of remodeling the TME. MCs actively contri...
Source: Clinical Reviews in Allergy and Immunology - June 28, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Platelets and IgE: Shaping the Innate Immune Response in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus
AbstractSystemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a systemic and potentially fatal autoimmune disease. SLE pathophysiology is complex and involves the interplay between the innate and adaptive immune systems, with a particularly significant role for type I interferons. Recently, the participation of other actors such as platelets and IgE has been described in SLE. On the one hand, platelets activated by different stimuli (antiphospholipid antibodies, immune complexes …) participate in immune dysregulation through direct interactions with immune cells. On the other hand, autoreactive IgE can activate basophils, promoting a Th...
Source: Clinical Reviews in Allergy and Immunology - June 27, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Principles of Allergen Immunotherapy and Its Clinical Application in China: Contrasts and Comparisons with the USA
AbstractAllergen immunotherapy (AIT) for allergic rhinitis (AR), asthma, and other allergic diseases has developed quickly. House dust mite (HDM),Artemisia (wormwood),Humulus japonicus (Japanese hop),Alternaria alternata, andCladosporium herbarum are the five most common inhalant allergens in China. AIT has been performed in China for over 60  years. With the support of the Chinese Medical Association (CMA) and the Chinese Medical Doctors Association (CMDA), the Chinese College of Allergy and Asthma (CCAA) was established in 2016 as a specialized branch of CDMA and is the main certification authority for AIT. Chinese alle...
Source: Clinical Reviews in Allergy and Immunology - June 25, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Bee Venom Immunotherapy: Current Status and Future Directions
This article reviews preclinical and clinical evidence on the therapeutic potential of these new therapies. Among hypoallergenic derivatives, hybrid allergens showed a markedly reduced IgE reactivity in mouse models. Whether they will offer therapeutic benefit over extract, it is still not known since clinical trials have not been carried out yet. T cell epitope peptides have proven effective in small clinical trials. Major histocompatibility complex class II restriction was circumvented by using long overlapping or promiscuous T cell epitope peptides. However, the T cell –mediated late-phase adverse events have been rep...
Source: Clinical Reviews in Allergy and Immunology - June 25, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Innate B Cells: the Archetype of Protective Immune Cells
AbstractThe innate B cell (IBC) population is heterogeneous and involved in the primary immune response. IBC functions include a high ability to produce natural antibodies with IgM isotype, the elimination of apoptotic cells, and a capacity to be cognate help to T cells. Among IBC subsets, B-1 cells and marginal zone B cells are the main producers of IgM, act as rapid immune responders that may relocate to follicular lymphoid and differentiate to cytokine and antibody-secreting cells shortly after infection. IBCs functions are highly dependent on their localization site and the nature of their B cell receptor repertoire, s...
Source: Clinical Reviews in Allergy and Immunology - June 9, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Eosinophilic Esophagitis: the Potential Role of Biologics in its Treatment
AbstractEosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is a chronic, relapsing inflammatory disease of the esophagus, characterized by the presence of significant esophageal mucosal eosinophilic infiltrates. The clinical presentation of EoE in childhood may include failure to thrive and feeding intolerance. The complication of food impaction is often related to the presence of strictures or narrow caliber esophagus. Over the last decade, there has been tremendous progress in the field of eosinophilic disorders, particularly eosinophilic esophagitis. Conventional treatment of eosinophilic esophagitis involves topical swallowed steroids, sy...
Source: Clinical Reviews in Allergy and Immunology - June 6, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Autoimmunity in 2018
AbstractIn the vast database of peer-reviewed articles, the number of 2018 papers published retrieved using the “autoimmunity” keyword remained unchanged compared with the brilliant results of 2017 while returning above a 5% share within the immunology field, after the brisk decrease of this ratio in 2017. As in the past 12 years, we have now searched PubMed for publications related to autoimmunity in th e major immunology and autoimmunity peer-reviewed journals and provide here an arbitrary discussion of the major themes encountered. Once again, we are happy to notice that similarities between autoimmune diseases and...
Source: Clinical Reviews in Allergy and Immunology - June 4, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

JAK Inhibitors Suppress Innate Epigenetic Reprogramming: a Promise for Patients with Sj ögren’s Syndrome
AbstractPathogenesis of primary Sj ögren’s syndrome (SjS) remains obscure. However, recent data demonstrate the implication of epigenetic alterations in the DNA methylation/hydroxymethylation process in SjS mostly affecting genes regulated by two innate cytokines, interferon α (IFNα) and IFNγ as well as the oxidative stress pat hways. The Janus kinase (JAK) signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) pathway is known to be activated by IFN and reactive oxygen species (ROS). This prompts us to test the potential implication of JAK/STAT signaling on DNA methylation/hydroxymethylation alterations in SjS. For...
Source: Clinical Reviews in Allergy and Immunology - June 3, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Natural Antibodies: from First-Line Defense Against Pathogens to Perpetual Immune Homeostasis
AbstractNatural antibodies (nAbs) are most commonly defined as immunoglobulins present in the absence of pathological conditions or deliberate immunizations. Occurrence of nAbs in germ- and antigen-free mice suggest that their production is driven, at least in part, by self-antigens. Accordingly, nAbs are constituted of natural autoantibodies (nAAbs), and can belong to the IgM, IgG, or IgA subclasses. These nAbs provide immediate protection against infection while the adaptive arm of the immune system mounts a specific and long-term response. Beyond immediate protection from infection, nAbs have been shown to play various ...
Source: Clinical Reviews in Allergy and Immunology - June 2, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

The Innate Part of the Adaptive Immune System
AbstractThe innate immune response provides a first line of defense against common microorganisms and, for more complex and/or recurring situations where pathogens must be eliminated, an adaptive immune response has emerged and evolved to provide better protection against subsequent infections. However, such dichotomy has to be reevaluated because innate B cells (e.g., B1 and marginal zone B cells) and the newly described innate lymphoid cells (iLC) have been found to exhibit innate-like properties, such as antigen internalization, regulatory B cell functions, and helper T cell activities. In addition, the production and f...
Source: Clinical Reviews in Allergy and Immunology - May 31, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Autoinflammatory Pathogenesis and Targeted Therapy for Adult-Onset Still ’s Disease
AbstractAdult-onset Still ’s disease (AOSD) is a rare multisystem autoinflammatory disorder of unknown etiology. AOSD is generally characterized by high spiking fever, arthralgia or arthritis, skin rash, leukocytosis, and hyperferritinemia. Traditionally, AOSD has been treated with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, co rticosteroids, and immunosuppressants. An increasing number of studies have shown that proinflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin-1β, -18, -6, and tumor necrosis factor-α, play key roles in AOSD and may serve as therapeutic targets. In the current review, we provided insights into the roles of th...
Source: Clinical Reviews in Allergy and Immunology - May 29, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Complement System: a Neglected Pathway in Immunotherapy
AbstractApproved for the treatment of autoimmune diseases, hematological malignancies, and solid cancers, several monoclonal antibodies (mAb) make use of complement in their mechanism of action. Such an assessment is based on comprehensive investigations that used mouse models, in vitro studies, and analyses from patients at initiation (basal level to highlight deficiencies) and after treatment initiation (mAb impact on complement), which have further provided key insights into the importance of the complement activation and/or complement deficiencies in mAb activity. Accordingly, new approaches can now be developed with t...
Source: Clinical Reviews in Allergy and Immunology - May 28, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Toll-Like Receptors, Infections, and Rheumatoid Arthritis
AbstractToll-like receptors (TLR) that belong to the group of protein recognition receptor (PPR) provide an innate immune response following the sensing of conserved pathogen-associated microbial patterns (PAMPs) and changes in danger-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) that are generated as a consequence of cellular injury. Analysis of the TLR pathway has moreover offered new insights into the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Indeed, a dysfunctional TLR-mediated response characterizes RA patients and participates in establishment of a chronic inflammatory state. Such an inappropriate TLR response has been attr...
Source: Clinical Reviews in Allergy and Immunology - May 28, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Clinical, Immunological, and Genetic Features in Patients with Activated PI3K δ Syndrome (APDS): a Systematic Review
AbstractActivated phosphoinositide 3-kinase delta syndrome (APDS) is a novel primary immunodeficiency (PID) caused by heterozygous gain of function mutations in PI3K δ catalytic p110δ (PIK3CD) or regulatory p85 α (PIK3R1) subunits leading to APDS1 and APDS2, respectively. Patients with APDS present a spectrum of clinical manifestations, particularly recurrent respiratory infections and lymphoproliferation. We searched PubMed, Web of Science, and Scopus databases for APDS patients and screened for eligibility criteria. A total of 243 APDS patients were identified from 55 articles. For all patients, demographic, clinical,...
Source: Clinical Reviews in Allergy and Immunology - May 20, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

The Impact of Environmental Chronic and Toxic Stress on Asthma
AbstractSeveral factors have been associated with the development of asthma and asthma-related morbidity and mortality. Exposures in the environment such as allergens and air pollutants have traditionally been linked to the risk of asthma and asthma outcomes. More recent literature has identified chronic psychosocial stress as an additional environmental exposure to consider in relation to asthma. Adverse childhood events (ACEs) and chronic and toxic stress have been associated with chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease, cancer, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Chronic stress has also been shown to resu...
Source: Clinical Reviews in Allergy and Immunology - May 10, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research