Eosinophilic Gastrointestinal Disorders
AbstractEosinophilic gastrointestinal disorders (EGID) are a group of disorders characterized by pathologic eosinophilic infiltration of the esophagus, stomach, small intestine, or colon leading to organ dysfunction and clinical symptoms (J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr; Spergel et al., 52: 300 –306,2011). These disorders include eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE), eosinophilic gastritis (EG), eosinophilic gastroenteritis (EGE), eosinophilic enteritis (EE), and eosinophilic colitis (EC). Symptoms are dependent not only on the location (organ) as well as extent (layer invasion of the bowel wall). Common symptoms of EoE include d...
Source: Clinical Reviews in Allergy and Immunology - March 21, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

The Role of Environmental Controls in Managing Asthma in Lower-Income Urban Communities
AbstractChildren living in lower-income urban communities are at much greater risk of developing asthma, going to the emergency department for an asthma attack and being hospitalized for asthma than children living in upper- and middle-income communities. For many asthmatic children living in urban communities, especially those with greater morbidity, the allergic pathway is important in the etiology of the disease. The stages of developing allergic disease can be divided into the onset of allergic sensitization, development of allergic disease and subsequent exacerbations, and it is useful to consider the relevance of int...
Source: Clinical Reviews in Allergy and Immunology - March 21, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Allergic Comorbidity in Eosinophilic Esophagitis: Mechanistic Relevance and Clinical Implications
AbstractAllergic eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is a chronic, allergen-mediated inflammatory disease of the esophagus, and the most common cause of prolonged dysphagia in children and young adults in the developed world. While initially undistinguished from gastroesophageal reflux disease-associated esophageal eosinophilia, EoE is now recognized as a clinically distinct entity that shares fundamental inflammatory features of other allergic conditions and is similarly increasing in incidence and prevalence. The clinical and epidemiologic associations between EoE and other allergic manifestations are well established. In add...
Source: Clinical Reviews in Allergy and Immunology - March 21, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Comprehensive Analysis of Serum and Fecal Bile Acid Profiles and Interaction with Gut Microbiota in Primary Biliary Cholangitis
AbstractAccumulation of bile acids (BAs) contributes significantly to the pathogenesis of primary biliary cholangitis (PBC). Here, we sought to systematically characterize the serum and fecal BA profiles and the linkage between BAs and gut microbiota in PBC. The serum and fecal BAs were compared between 65 UDCA treatment-naive PBC and 109 healthy controls using UPLC-MS in cross-sectional study. In a prospective study, a subgroup of patients was enrolled for BA and microbiota analysis before and after UDCA therapy. BA compositions in serum and feces significantly differed between treatment-naive PBC and controls. Particular...
Source: Clinical Reviews in Allergy and Immunology - March 20, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

The Effects of Air Pollution on the Development of Atopic Disease
AbstractAir pollution is defined as the presence of noxious substances in the air at levels that impose a health hazard. Thus, there has been long-standing interest in the possible role of indoor and outdoor air pollutants on the development of respiratory disease. In this regard, asthma has been of particular interest but many studies have also been conducted to explore the relationship between air pollution, allergic rhinitis, and atopic dermatitis. Traffic-related air pollutants or TRAP refers to a broad group of pollutants including elemental carbon, black soot, nitrogen dioxide (NO2), nitric oxide (NO), sulfur dioxide...
Source: Clinical Reviews in Allergy and Immunology - February 26, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Food Protein-Induced Enterocolitis Syndrome: a Comprehensive Review
AbstractFood protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome (FPIES) is a non-IgE-mediated food allergy that has been well-characterized clinically, yet it is still poorly understood. Acute FPIES is characterized by vomiting 1 –4 h and/or diarrhea within 24 h after ingestion of a culprit food. Chronic FPIES is the result of chronic exposure to an offending food that can result in chronic watery diarrhea, intermittent vomiting, and failure to thrive. FPIES typically presents in infancy and self-resolves by school age i n most patients. Adult-onset FPIES is rare, but it has been reported. Cow’s milk and soy are the most common ...
Source: Clinical Reviews in Allergy and Immunology - February 8, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

A Review of the Contribution of Mast Cells in Wound Healing: Involved Molecular and Cellular Mechanisms
AbstractMast cells (MCs), apart from their classic role in allergy, contribute to a number of biologic processes including wound healing. In particular, two aspects of their histologic distribution within the skin have attracted the attention of researchers to study their wound healing role; they represent up to 8% of the total number of cells within the dermis and their cutaneous versions are localized adjacent to the epidermis and the subdermal vasculature and nerves. At the onset of a cutaneous injury, the accumulation of MCs and release of proinflammatory and immunomodulatory mediators have been well documented. The ro...
Source: Clinical Reviews in Allergy and Immunology - February 7, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

The Role of Home Environments in Allergic Disease
AbstractAllergic diseases are surprisingly common, chronic health conditions. The primary location where the vast majority of people are exposed to allergens and other substances is in their home. This means it is important to understand home environments and how a home ’s systems function and interact—and that how we occupy these spaces plays a crucial role in both environmental exposure and management of allergic disease. This review provides an overview of what is understood about home environmental exposure and its impact on our health, and proposes a syste matic process for using a patient’s environmental histor...
Source: Clinical Reviews in Allergy and Immunology - January 25, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

The Role of MIF on Eosinophil Biology and Eosinophilic Inflammation
AbstractMacrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is an inflammatory cytokine that participates in innate and adaptive immune responses. MIF contributes to the resistance against infection agents, but also to the cellular and tissue damage in infectious, autoimmune, and allergic diseases. In the past years, several studies demonstrated a critical role for MIF in the pathogenesis of type-2-mediated inflammation, including allergy and helminth infection. Atopic patients have increased MIF amounts in affected tissues, mainly produced by immune cells such as macrophages, Th2 cells, and eosinophils. Increased MIF mRNA and pr...
Source: Clinical Reviews in Allergy and Immunology - January 25, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Inner-City Asthma in Children
AbstractAsthma in inner-city children is often severe and difficult to control. Residence in poor and urban areas confers increased asthma morbidity even after adjusting for ethnicity, age, and gender. Higher exposure to household pests, such as cockroaches and mice, pollutants and tobacco smoke exposure, poverty, material hardship, poor-quality housing, differences in health care quality, medication compliance, and heath care access also contribute to increased asthma morbidity in this population. Since 1991, the National Institutes of Allergy and Infectious Diseases established research networks: the National Cooperative...
Source: Clinical Reviews in Allergy and Immunology - January 21, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Regional Differences in Food Allergies
This study demonstrates an unmet need in China for a thorough investigation of the prevalence of food allergies in China, the specific foods involved, and characterization of the specific antigenic triggers of food allergy with respect to ethnicity, age, and diet in China. (Source: Clinical Reviews in Allergy and Immunology)
Source: Clinical Reviews in Allergy and Immunology - January 5, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Antinuclear Antibodies in Systemic Sclerosis: an Update
AbstractSystemic sclerosis is an autoimmune disease characterized by fibrosis of skin and internal organs, vasculopathy, and dysregulation of immune system. A diagnostically important feature of immunological abnormalities in systemic sclerosis is the presence of circulating antinuclear antibodies, which may be detected in 90 –95% of patients with either of the four main laboratory methods: immunofluorescence, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, immunodiffusion, and immunoblotting. There are several antinuclear antibodies specific for systemic sclerosis. These include antibodies against topoisomerase (anti-TOPO I), kine t...
Source: Clinical Reviews in Allergy and Immunology - January 3, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Microbiota and Food Allergy
AbstractEmerging evidence suggests that the increasing prevalence of food allergies is associated with compositional and functional changes in our gut microbiota. Microbiota-host interactions play a key role in regulating the immune system. Development of a healthy gut microbiota and immune system occurs early in life and is largely shaped by exposure to maternal microbes through vaginal/natural delivery and breast milk, whereas use of antibiotics can disrupt gut homeostasis and significantly raise the risk of allergic diseases. Thus, changes in the quantity or diversity of gut microbes affect oral toleranace through inter...
Source: Clinical Reviews in Allergy and Immunology - December 18, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Mast Cell-Mediated Orchestration of the Immune Responses in Human Allergic Asthma: Current Insights
AbstractImproving the lung function after experimental allergen challenge by blocking of mast cell (MC) mediators and the capability of MC mediators (including histamine, prostaglandin (PG) D2, and leukotriene (LT) C4) in induction of mucosal edema, bronchoconstriction, and mucus secretion provide evidence that MCs play a key role in pathophysiology of asthma. In asthma, the number of MCs increases in the airways and infiltration of MCs in a variety of anatomical sites including the epithelium, the submucosal glands, and the smooth muscle bundles occurs. MC localization within the ASM is accompanied with the hypertrophy an...
Source: Clinical Reviews in Allergy and Immunology - November 30, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Regulatory T Cell Plasticity and Stability and Autoimmune Diseases
AbstractCD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells (Tregs) are a class of CD4+ T cells with immunosuppressive functions that play a critical role in maintaining immune homeostasis. However, in certain disease settings, Tregs demonstrate plastic differentiation, and the stability of these Tregs, which is characterized by the stable expression or protective epigenetic modifications of the transcription factor Foxp3, becomes abnormal. Plastic Tregs have some features of helper T (Th) cells, such as the secretion of Th-related cytokines and the expression of specific transcription factors in Th cells, but also still retain the expression of...
Source: Clinical Reviews in Allergy and Immunology - November 17, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research