Use of Ultraviolet Blood Irradiation Against Viral Infections
AbstractUltraviolet blood irradiation (UBI) was used with success in the 1930s and 1940s for a variety of diseases. Despite the success, the lack of understanding of the detailed mechanisms of actions, and the achievements of antibiotics, phased off the use of UBI from the 1950s. The emergence of novel viral infections, from HIV/AIDS to Ebola, from SARS and MERS, and SARS-CoV-2, bring back the attention to this therapeutical opportunity. UBI has a complex virucidal activity, mostly acting on the immune system response. It has effects on lymphocytes (T-cells and B-cells), macrophages, monocytes, dendritic cells, low-density...
Source: Clinical Reviews in Allergy and Immunology - October 6, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Equine Hypersensitivity: the Dark Horse of Allergy
AbstractA significant amount of medical literature has been published on the prevalence and treatment modalities of allergies to common household pets like dogs and cats. Although sensitization rates to horses are high in many urban areas, allergies to horses are rarely discussed. In order for allergists to treat effectively horse-allergic patients, they must be aware of various clinical presentations and treatment modalities that exist. A literature search was conducted in PubMED using the terms horse, immunotherapy, inhalant allergies, and food allergy limited to human studies from any period. What follows is a review of...
Source: Clinical Reviews in Allergy and Immunology - September 1, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Are Physicochemical Properties Shaping the Allergenic Potency of Plant Allergens?
AbstractThis review searched for published evidence that could explain how different physicochemical properties impact on the allergenicity of food proteins and if their effects would follow specific patterns among distinct protein families. Owing to the amount and complexity of the collected information, this literature overview was divided in two articles, the current one dedicated to protein families of plant allergens and a second one focused on animal allergens. Our extensive analysis of the available literature revealed that physicochemical characteristics had consistent effects on protein allergenicity for allergens...
Source: Clinical Reviews in Allergy and Immunology - September 1, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Clinical Manifestations and Management of Pediatric Beh çet’s Disease
AbstractBeh çet’s disease (BD) is a chronic, vasculitic disorder affecting all sizes of vessels. The disease rarely onsets at childhood and an early diagnosis is often challenging. Oral ulceration and fever of unknown cause are common initial manifestations that might confuse other inflammatory disorders. Th e clinical manifestation pattern in pediatric BD is heterogeneous and varies in different genders, ethnicities, and geographic regions. There are also some differences in clinical presentations and prognosis between pediatric and adult BD. The disease also affects children at an extremely young age with mostly benig...
Source: Clinical Reviews in Allergy and Immunology - August 6, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

A Review of Neutrophil Extracellular Traps (NETs) in Disease: Potential Anti-NETs Therapeutics
AbstractActivated neutrophils release neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) in response to a variety of stimuli. NETosis is driven by protein-arginine deiminase type 4, with the release of intracellular granule components that function by capturing and destroying microbes, including viral, fungal, bacterial, and protozoal pathogens. The positive effects of pathogen control are countered by pro-inflammatory effects as demonstrated in a variety of diseases. Components of NETS are non-specific, and other than controlling microbes, they cause injury to surrounding tissue by themselves or by increasing the pro-inflammatory resp...
Source: Clinical Reviews in Allergy and Immunology - July 31, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Autoimmunity in 2019
AbstractBased on the PubMed data, we have been performing a yearly evaluation of the publications related to autoimmune diseases and immunology to ascertain the relative weight of the former in the scientific literature. It is particularly intriguing to observe that despite the numerous new avenues of immune-related mechanisms, such as cancer immunotherapy, the proportion of immunology manuscripts related to autoimmunity continues to increase and has been approaching 20% in 2019. As in the previous 13  years, we performed an arbitrary selection of the peer-reviewed articles published by the major dedicated Journals and di...
Source: Clinical Reviews in Allergy and Immunology - July 28, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Fish Allergy: Fishing for Novel Diagnostic and Therapeutic Options
AbstractFish allergy is one of the most common food allergies. The currently recommended treatment commonly consists of avoiding all fish species. Recent literature suggests that these recommendations are overprotective for the majority of fish-allergic patients. This review summarizes recent findings and provides practical information regarding management of fish allergy in the individual patient. After precise history taking supported by additional specific IgE measurements and/or skin prick tests, fish-allergic patients can generally be categorized into the following clinical clusters: (A) poly-sensitized patients react...
Source: Clinical Reviews in Allergy and Immunology - July 24, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Interleukin-35 Promotes Th9 Cell Differentiation in IgG4-Related Disorders: Experimental Data and Review of the Literature
In conclusion, our data demonstrate that IL-35 actively participates in the process of inflammation and plays an important role in Th9 differentiation resulting in an immunoglobulin class switch towards IgG4. (Source: Clinical Reviews in Allergy and Immunology)
Source: Clinical Reviews in Allergy and Immunology - July 24, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Machine Learning in Rheumatic Diseases
AbstractWith advances in information technology, the demand for using data science to enhance healthcare and disease management is rapidly increasing. Among these technologies, machine learning (ML) has become ubiquitous and indispensable for solving complex problems in many scientific fields, including medical science. ML allows the development of guidelines and framing of the evaluation system for complex diseases based on massive data. In the analysis of rheumatic diseases, which are chronic and remarkably heterogeneous, ML can be anticipated to be extremely helpful in deciphering and revealing the inherent interrelatio...
Source: Clinical Reviews in Allergy and Immunology - July 16, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Current and Future Monoclonal Antibodies in the Treatment of Atopic Dermatitis
AbstractAtopic dermatitis is a common immunologic skin disease. Mild atopic dermatitis can be managed with emollients and topical therapies such as low potency topical steroids, which have a favorable safety profile. Severe atopic dermatitis, in contrast, is a challenging disease to treat. Topical therapies are typically inadequate for control of severe atopic dermatitis. When topical therapies fail, the mainstay of therapy for severe atopic dermatitis has traditionally been phototherapy or off-label use of systemic immunosuppressant treatment, yet systemic immunosuppressants all have significant potential toxicities, drug...
Source: Clinical Reviews in Allergy and Immunology - July 1, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Treatments for Childhood Atopic Dermatitis: an Update on Emerging Therapies
AbstractAtopic dermatitis (AD) is generally considered a T helper type 2 –dominated disease. Pediatric AD is usually less severe than adult AD, but it may present as moderate to severe lesions that are inadequately managed by current modalities including emollients/moisturizers, topical corticosteroids (TCSs), topical calcineurin inhibitors (TCIs), and even systemic im munosuppressants (such as cyclosporine, azathioprine, methotrexate, and mycophenolate mofetil). In addition, systemic immunosuppressants are often not recommended for childhood AD by the current guidelines due to their toxicities. Therefore, there is still...
Source: Clinical Reviews in Allergy and Immunology - June 29, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Health Effects of Trimellitic Anhydride Occupational Exposure: Insights from Animal Models and Immunosurveillance Programs
AbstractAcid anhydrides are used by chemical industries as plasticizers. Trimellitic acid (TMA) is an acid anhydride widely utilized in factories to produce paints, varnishes, and plastics. In addition to causing direct irritant effects, TMA can augment antibody responses in exposed factory workers leading to occupational asthma. Therefore, industries producing TMA have implemented occupational immunosurveillance programs (OISPs) to ensure early diagnosis and medical management, involving exposure reduction/ complete removal of sensitized workers from exposure areas. Multiple animal models (mice strains, rat stains, guinea...
Source: Clinical Reviews in Allergy and Immunology - June 26, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Type I Interferons in the Pathogenesis and Treatment of Autoimmune Diseases
AbstractType I interferons (IFN-Is) are a very important group of cytokines that are produced by innate immune cells but also  act on adaptive immune cells. IFN-Is possess antiviral, antitumor, and anti-proliferative effects, as well are associated with the initiation and maintenance of autoimmune disorders. Studies have shown that aberrantly expressed IFN-Is and/or type I IFN-inducible gene signatures in the serum or tis sues of patients with autoimmune disorders are linked to their pathogenesis, clinical manifestations, and disease activity. Type I interferonopathies with mutations in genes impacting the type I IFN sign...
Source: Clinical Reviews in Allergy and Immunology - June 16, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Chronic Granulomatous Disease: a Comprehensive Review
AbstractChronic granulomatous disease (CGD) is a primary immunodeficiency of phagocyte function due to defective NADPH oxidase (phox). Compared with the common types ofCYBB/gp91phox,NCF1/p47phox, andCYBA/p22phox deficiency,NCF4/p40phox deficiency is a mild and atypical form of CGD without invasive bacterial or fungal infections. It can be diagnosed using serum-opsonizedE.coli as a stimulus in dihydrorhodamine (DHR) assay. Patients withCYBC1/Eros deficiency, a new and rare form of CGD, present as loss of respiratory burst and gp91phox expression in phagocytes. Neutrophils from patients with CGD are deficient in neutrophil e...
Source: Clinical Reviews in Allergy and Immunology - June 9, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Specialized Pro-Resolving Lipid Mediators: Emerging Therapeutic Candidates for Multiple Sclerosis
AbstractMultiple sclerosis (MS) is a neuroinflammatory disease in which unresolved and uncontrolled inflammation disrupts normal cellular homeostasis and leads to a pathological disease state. It has long been recognized that endogenously derived metabolic by-products of omega fatty acids, known as specialized pro-resolving lipid mediators (SPMs), are instrumental in resolving the pathologic inflammation. However, there is minimal data available on the functional status of SPMs in MS, despite the fact that MS presents a classical model of chronic inflammation. Studies to date indicate that dysfunction of the SPM biosynthet...
Source: Clinical Reviews in Allergy and Immunology - June 2, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research