Impact of Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease on Mucosal Immunity and Atopic Disorders
AbstractAtopic disorders and gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) are some of the most common medical conditions treated by primary care physicians and specialists alike. The observation that atopic disorders, like asthma, allergic rhinitis and sinusitis, food allergies, atopic dermatitis, contact dermatitis, and eosinophilic esophagitis are common comorbidities in patients with GERD raises the question of the nature of the relationship that may exist between GERD and atopic disorders. In this article, we review the pathophysiology of GERD, its effect on the immune system, the effect of acid-blocking medications on aller...
Source: Clinical Reviews in Allergy and Immunology - September 11, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Understanding Asthma Phenotypes, Endotypes, and Mechanisms of Disease
AbstractThe model of asthma as a single entity has now been replaced by a much more complex biological network of distinct and interrelating inflammatory pathways. The term asthma is now considered an umbrella diagnosis for several diseases with distinct mechanistic pathways (endotypes) and variable clinical presentations (phenotypes). The precise definition of these endotypes is central to asthma management due to inherent therapeutic and prognostic implications. This review presents the molecular mechanisms behind the heterogeneity of airway inflammation in asthmatic patients. Asthma endotypes may be broadly regarded as ...
Source: Clinical Reviews in Allergy and Immunology - September 11, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Impact of Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease on Mucosal Immunity and Atopic Disorders
AbstractAtopic disorders and gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) are some of the most common medical conditions treated by primary care physicians and specialists alike. The observation that atopic disorders, like asthma, allergic rhinitis and sinusitis, food allergies, atopic dermatitis, contact dermatitis, and eosinophilic esophagitis are common comorbidities in patients with GERD raises the question of the nature of the relationship that may exist between GERD and atopic disorders. In this article, we review the pathophysiology of GERD, its effect on the immune system, the effect of acid-blocking medications on aller...
Source: Clinical Reviews in Allergy and Immunology - September 11, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Understanding Asthma Phenotypes, Endotypes, and Mechanisms of Disease
AbstractThe model of asthma as a single entity has now been replaced by a much more complex biological network of distinct and interrelating inflammatory pathways. The term asthma is now considered an umbrella diagnosis for several diseases with distinct mechanistic pathways (endotypes) and variable clinical presentations (phenotypes). The precise definition of these endotypes is central to asthma management due to inherent therapeutic and prognostic implications. This review presents the molecular mechanisms behind the heterogeneity of airway inflammation in asthmatic patients. Asthma endotypes may be broadly regarded as ...
Source: Clinical Reviews in Allergy and Immunology - September 11, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Sj ögren’s Syndrome and Autoimmune Thyroid Disease: Two Sides of the Same Coin
AbstractThe coexistence of Sj ögren’s syndrome (SS) and autoimmune thyroid disease (AITD) has been documented. However, there is no consensus whether this coexistence should be considered as the same nosological condition or as polyautoimmunity. Thus, in this monocentric retrospective study, patients with SS alone (i.e., prim ary) were compared with patients with SS and AITD. In addition, a discussion of previous studies including those about genetic and environmental factors influencing the development of both conditions is presented. In our series, all patients with AITD had Hashimoto’s thyroiditis (HT). No signific...
Source: Clinical Reviews in Allergy and Immunology - September 5, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Beyond Avoidance: the Psychosocial Impact of Food Allergies
AbstractOver the past few years, the rates of food allergies have dramatically increased. As a result, the lives of patients and their caregivers have been dramatically altered. While most attention surrounding food allergies has focused on treatment, less consideration has been given to the mental health ramifications of living with this condition, among them depression, anxiety, post-traumatic stress, being bullied, and an overall poorer quality of life. At the same time, patients ’ family lives are often disrupted. Parents of food-allergic children, especially mothers, report anxiety, depression, and a decreased quali...
Source: Clinical Reviews in Allergy and Immunology - September 1, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Occupational and Hand Dermatitis: a Practical Approach
AbstractOccupational skin disease is common. It affects workers more often than reported. Contact dermatitis, both irritant and allergic, accounts for the majority of occupational skin diagnoses. Occupational contact dermatitis (OCD) frequently affects the hands and may have a profound impact on an employee ’s ability to perform a job. Severe OCD can affect a worker’s activities of daily living and can even lead to job loss. Numerous irritants have been described in the workplace, from the common (wet work) to the more obscure (warm, dry air). Several contact allergens may be work-related, and the majority of establish...
Source: Clinical Reviews in Allergy and Immunology - August 31, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Possible Role of Environmental Factors in the Development of Food Allergies
AbstractThe development of food allergies is thought to involve multiple factors, and it is unclear which conveys the most risk regarding this process. Since food allergy is a chronic disease without a cure at this time, understanding its development could provide an avenue for preventive practices and development of a curative treatment. Both historical and current data implicate maternal factors, genetics, and environmental exposures as major risk factors in the development of food allergy. An immature gut of the infant has been hypothesized as a possible route of sensitization. Breastfeeding until at least 6  months of...
Source: Clinical Reviews in Allergy and Immunology - August 29, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Contact Dermatitis to Medications and Skin Products
AbstractConsumer products and topical medications today contain many allergens that can cause a reaction on the skin known as allergic contact dermatitis. This review looks at various allergens in these products and reports current allergic contact dermatitis incidence and trends in North America, Europe, and Asia. First, medication contact allergy to corticosteroids will be discussed along with its five structural classes (A, B, C, D1, D2) and their steroid test compounds (tixocortol-21-pivalate, triamcinolone acetonide, budesonide, clobetasol-17-propionate, hydrocortisone-17-butyrate). Cross-reactivities between the ster...
Source: Clinical Reviews in Allergy and Immunology - August 25, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research