The Role of Dust Mites in Allergy
AbstractHouse dust mites are an unsurpassed cause of atopic sensitization and allergic illness throughout the world. The major allergenic dust mitesDermatophagoides pteronyssinus,Dermatophagoides farinae,Euroglyphus maynei, andBlomia tropicalis are eight-legged members of the Arachnid class. Their approximately 3-month lifespan comprises egg, larval, protonymph, tritonymph, and adult stages, with adults, about one fourth to one third of a millimeter in size, being at the threshold of visibility. The geographic and seasonal distributions of dust mites are determined by their need for adequate humidity, while their distribut...
Source: Clinical Reviews in Allergy and Immunology - June 23, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Update on the Use of C1-Esterase Inhibitor Replacement Therapy in the Acute and Prophylactic Treatment of Hereditary Angioedema
AbstractIn the vast majority of patients with hereditary angioedema (HAE), angioedema attacks are due to the quantitative or functional deficiency of C1-esterase inhibitor (C1-INH), which leads to increased vascular permeability and unregulated release of bradykinin. Exogenous administration of C1-INH is a rational way to restore the concentration and functional activity of this protein, regulate the release of bradykinin, and attenuate or prevent subcutaneous and submucosal edema associated with HAE. Recent international guidelines for the management of HAE include C1-INH as an option for acute treatment of HAE. In additi...
Source: Clinical Reviews in Allergy and Immunology - June 16, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Food-Related Contact Dermatitis, Contact Urticaria, and Atopy Patch Test with Food
AbstractA wide variety of foods may cause or aggravate skin diseases such as contact dermatitis, contact urticaria, or atopic dermatitis (AD), both in occupational and private settings. The mechanism of action underlying allergic disease to food, food additives, and spices may be immunologic and non-immunologic. The classification and understanding of these reactions is a complex field, and knowledge of the possible reaction patterns and appropriate diagnostic test methods is essential. In addition, certain foods may cause worsening of atopic dermatitis lesions in children. The atopy patch test (APT) is a well-established,...
Source: Clinical Reviews in Allergy and Immunology - June 7, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

A Comprehensive Review of Celiac Disease/Gluten-Sensitive Enteropathies
AbstractCeliac disease is a complex immune-mediated gluten-sensitive enteropathy with protean clinical manifestations. It is manifest in genetically predisposed individuals who ingest gluten in varying amounts. In broad terms, it is thought to affect 1% of the population in the USA. More specifically, the prevalence increases drastically from 1:133 in patients not-at-risk, to 1:56 in symptomatic patients, to 1:39 in patients with a second-degree relative with the diagnosis, and to 1:22 in patients with a first-degree relative with the diagnosis. It may be associated with several immune-mediated phenomena, autoimmune diseas...
Source: Clinical Reviews in Allergy and Immunology - June 2, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Mast Cell Activation Syndrome
AbstractMast cell activation syndrome (MCAS) involves the skin, gastrointestinal, cardiovascular, respiratory, and neurologic systems, classified as primary, secondary, and idiopathic. Earlier criteria for MCAS diagnosis included episodic symptoms with mast cell mediators affecting two or more organ systems with urticaria, angioedema, flushing, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal cramping, hypotensive syncope, tachycardia, wheezing, conjunctival injection, pruritus, nasal stuffiness, decrease in frequency, severity, or resolution of symptoms with anti-mediator therapy including H1/H2 receptor antagonists, anti-leukotrien...
Source: Clinical Reviews in Allergy and Immunology - June 1, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Nutritional Issues in Food Allergy
AbstractDiet and nutrition play an important role in the development and management of food allergy. The diet of expectant mothers can have an effect on their offspring in terms of allergic outcomes. A host of confounding factors may influence this, with a maternal diet rich in fruits and vegetables, fish, vitamin D-rich foods associated with a lower risk of allergic disease in their children. More surprisingly, the consumption of milk and butter has also been shown to have a protective effect, especially in a farm environment. Similarly, the diet of the infant can also be important, not only in terms of breast feeding, bu...
Source: Clinical Reviews in Allergy and Immunology - May 15, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Systemic Contact Dermatitis
AbstractSystemic contact dermatitis (SCD) traditionally refers to a skin condition where an individual who is cutaneously sensitized to an allergen will subsequently react to that same allergen or a cross reacting allergen via a different route. It occurs to allergens including metals, medications, and foods. The exact pathophysiology underlying this disease remains unknown, although it appears to be mediated by type 4 hypersensitivity reactions and possibly type 3 hypersensitivity reactions. The p-I concept (pharmacologic interaction with immunoreceptors) hypothesized that drugs are able to bind directly to a T cell recep...
Source: Clinical Reviews in Allergy and Immunology - May 15, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Gastrointestinal Disorders Associated with Primary Immunodeficiency Diseases
AbstractThere are now 354 inborn errors of immunity (primary immunodeficiency diseases (PIDDs)) with 344 distinct molecular etiologies reported according to the International Union of Immunological Sciences (IUIS) (Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 11: p. 1050-63, 2013, Semin Gastrointest Dis 8: p. 22-32, 1997, J Clin Immunol 38: p. 96-128, 2018). Using the IUIS document as a reference and cross-checking PubMed (www.ncbi.nlm.nih.pubmed.gov), we found that approximately one third of the 354 diseases of impaired immunity have a gastrointestinal component [J Clin Immunol 38: p. 96-128, 2018]. Often, the gastrointestinal symptomatolo...
Source: Clinical Reviews in Allergy and Immunology - May 13, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Allergic and Immunologic Perspectives of Inflammatory Bowel Disease
AbstractInflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic immune-mediated inflammatory condition primarily involving the gastrointestinal tract. It includes Crohn ’s disease (CD), ulcerative colitis (UC), and a less common phenotype—indeterminate colitis. It is thought to result from a complex interplay of environmental, microbial, and host factors including genetic factors, although the exact mechanism is not known. Dietary factors have been shown to pla y a role in the pathogenesis of IBD and can potentially alter the intestinal microbiota as well as disrupt the immune function in the gut. CD is characterized by transmur...
Source: Clinical Reviews in Allergy and Immunology - May 12, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

The Unique Molecular Signatures of Contact Dermatitis and Implications for Treatment
AbstractIrritant contact dermatitis (ICD) and allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) are common skin disorders that are characterized by inflammation, oozing, crusting, and pruritus. Atopic dermatitis (AD) is an inflammatory skin disease characterized by immune and barrier abnormalities and is additionally a risk factor for acquiring ICD and ACD. New work on allergic sensitization to common allergens (e.g., nickel and fragrance) in human skin has shown that different allergens have distinct molecular fingerprinting. For example, nickel promotes strong Th1/Th17 polarization, whereas fragrance allergy causes Th2/Th22 skewing, whi...
Source: Clinical Reviews in Allergy and Immunology - May 12, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

The Global Face of Eosinophilic Esophagitis: Advocacy and Research Groups
AbstractAlthough eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) has been described in the literature for a substantial period, its recognition as a disease entity on the global stage is still relatively new. It has become a major diagnosis of consideration by medical providers when both adult and pediatric patients present with dysphagia, food impaction, and gastroesophageal reflux-like symptoms. In addition to the clinical work of specialists such as allergy-immunologists and gastroenterologists, the evolution of research organizations and advocacy groups focused on EoE have greatly assisted in bringing attention to, and raising awarenes...
Source: Clinical Reviews in Allergy and Immunology - May 5, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Correction to: Effectiveness, Tolerability, and Safety of Belimumab in Patients with Refractory SLE: a Review of Observational Clinical-Practice-Based Studies
The original version of this article unfortunately contained a mistake. Maddalena Larosa ’s given name and surname were inadvertently interchanged. (Source: Clinical Reviews in Allergy and Immunology)
Source: Clinical Reviews in Allergy and Immunology - April 16, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Oral and Sublingual Immunotherapy for Treatment of IgE-Mediated Food Allergy
AbstractDevelopment of active therapies for IgE-mediated food allergy is a critical action step toward alleviating the adverse medical, psychosocial, and economic burdens on affected patients and families. Significant progress has been observed specifically in the application of single-allergen oral and sublingual immunotherapy for treatment of IgE-mediated food allergy, with emphasis on milk, egg, and peanut as the primary allergens. Oral immunotherapy (OIT) has demonstrated efficacy in promoting immunomodulatory effects that lead to the clinical outcome of desensitization, defined as reduced reactivity while on active OI...
Source: Clinical Reviews in Allergy and Immunology - April 14, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Correction to: Inflammation, Atherosclerosis, and Psoriasis
AbstractFollowing publication of this article [1] it came to our attention that we neglected to reference an article by Ishwarlal Jialal published in Critical Pathways in Cardiology [2]. (Source: Clinical Reviews in Allergy and Immunology)
Source: Clinical Reviews in Allergy and Immunology - March 19, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

The Impact of Baked Egg and Baked Milk Diets on IgE- and Non-IgE-Mediated Allergy
AbstractBaked milk (BM) and baked egg (BE) diets are increasingly used in the management of milk and egg allergy, rather than avoidance. Children with tolerance versus reactivity to BM and BE may have smaller skin prick test and lower specific IgE, and BM-tolerant children have less basophil reactivity and more peripheral T regulatory cells. However, most milk- and egg-allergic children tolerate BM and BE and an individual ’s reactivity is unpredictable. Non-reactivity is due to conformational changes in the allergens. Significant differences in the published advice about methods of introduction exist from graded introdu...
Source: Clinical Reviews in Allergy and Immunology - March 8, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research