Cytoskeletal Organization and Cell Polarity in the Pathogenesis of Crohn ’s Disease
AbstractCrohn ’s disease (CD) is a type of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and affects diverse segments of the entire gastrointestinal tract. Although the underlying causes of CD are not completely known, it is believed that disruption of the intestinal barrier and cell polarity may contribute to pathogenesis. The formation of the intestinal epithelial barrier, which is mainly regulated by cytoskeletal modulations, and apico-basal cell polarity are two major and mutually dependent features of the intestinal epithelial layer. As this layer serves as an important barrier between the external environment an d the internal ...
Source: Clinical Reviews in Allergy and Immunology - May 29, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

COVID-19 and Asthma: Reflection During the Pandemic
AbstractCoronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a global pandemic infectious disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), and abnormal, overactivated innate immunity and “cytokine storms” have been proposed as potential pathological mechanisms for rapid COVID-19 progression. Theoretically, asthmatic patients should have increased susceptibility and severity for SARS-CoV-2 infection due to a deficient antiviral immune response and the tendency for exacerbation el icited by common respiratory viruses. However, existing studies have not shown an expected prevalence of asthmatic individual...
Source: Clinical Reviews in Allergy and Immunology - May 27, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Omalizumab Updosing in Chronic Spontaneous Urticaria: an Overview of Real-World Evidence
AbstractChronic spontaneous urticaria (CSU) is defined as the spontaneous development of itchy hives and/or angioedema due to known or unknown causes that last for at least 6  weeks. At any given time, CSU is believed to affect 0.5–1% of the global population. Omalizumab (a recombinant, humanized anti-immunoglobulin-E antibody) is the only approved treatment for antihistamine refractory CSU. However, ~ 30% of patients remain symptomatic at licensed doses of omalizum ab 150 mg and 300 mg, even after a treatment period of over 6 months. In the recent years, there have been several studies on updosing of the drug, sug...
Source: Clinical Reviews in Allergy and Immunology - May 15, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Immunobiology of T Cells in Sj ögren’s Syndrome
AbstractSj ögren’s syndrome (SjS) is a systemic autoimmune disease marked by xerostomia (dry mouth), keratoconjunctivitis sicca (eye dryness), and other systematic disorders. Its pathogenesis involves an inflammatory process that is characterized by lymphocytic infiltration into exocrine glands and other ti ssues. Although the development of ectopic lymphoid tissue and overproduction of autoantibodies by hyperactive B cells suggest that they may promote SjS development, treatment directed towards them fails to induce significant laboratory or clinical improvement. T cells are overwhelming infiltrators in most phases of ...
Source: Clinical Reviews in Allergy and Immunology - May 10, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Cutaneous Vasculitis: Review on Diagnosis and Clinicopathologic Correlations
AbstractCutaneous vasculitis is an inflammatory disease affecting the dermal blood vessel walls. The skin is a privileged organ in the setting of vasculitis since it is easily accessible for physical examination and safe biopsy, allowing an accurate characterization of inflammatory lesions. The skin is often involved. Also, cutaneous vasculitis can reflect a cutaneous component of a systemic vasculitis, a skin-limited or skin-dominant expression or variant of a systemic vasculitis, or be a single-organ vasculitis per se. Vasculitis lesions are multiple and polymorphic. They may induce a wide spectrum of clinical manifestat...
Source: Clinical Reviews in Allergy and Immunology - May 5, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Resolving Clinical Phenotypes into Endotypes in Allergy: Molecular and Omics Approaches
AbstractAllergic diseases are highly complex with respect to pathogenesis, inflammation, and response to treatment. Current efforts for allergic disease diagnosis have focused on clinical evidence as a binary outcome. Although outcome status based on clinical phenotypes (observable characteristics) is convenient and inexpensive to measure in large studies, it does not adequately provide insight into the complex molecular determinants of allergic disease. Individuals with similar clinical diagnoses do not necessarily have similar disease etiologies, natural histories, or responses to treatment. This heterogeneity contribute...
Source: Clinical Reviews in Allergy and Immunology - May 5, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Anti-inflammatory Action of Statins in Cardiovascular Disease: the Role of Inflammasome and Toll-Like Receptor Pathways
AbstractAtherosclerosis is one type of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in which activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome and toll-like receptor (TLR) pathways is implicated. One of the most effective treatments for atherosclerosis is the use of statin medications. Recent studies have indicated that statins, in addition to their lipid-lowering effects, exert inhibitory and/or stimulatory effects on the NLRP3 inflammasome and TLRs. Some of the statins lead to activation of the inflammasome and subsequently cause secretion of IL-1 β and IL-18. Thus, these actions may further aggravate the disease. On the other hand, some statins ca...
Source: Clinical Reviews in Allergy and Immunology - May 5, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Clinical Pathway for Early Diagnosis of COVID-19: Updates from Experience to Evidence-Based Practice
AbstractThe COVID-19 pandemic is a significant global event in the history of infectious diseases. The SARS-CoV-2 appears to have originated from bats but is now easily transmissible among humans, primarily through droplet or direct contact. Clinical features of COVID-19 include high fever, cough, and fatigue which may progress to ARDS. Respiratory failure can occur rapidly after this. The primary laboratory findings include lymphopenia and eosinopenia. Elevated D-dimer, procalcitonin, and CRP levels may correlate with disease severity. Imaging findings include ground-glass opacities and patchy consolidation on CT scan. Mo...
Source: Clinical Reviews in Allergy and Immunology - April 23, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Influence of Cosmetic Type and Distribution Channel on the Presence of Regulated Fragrance Allergens: Study of 2044 Commercial Products
AbstractContact dermatitis linked to cosmetic products is a very common reason for visits to the dermatologist, and in more than half the cases, it is due to an allergic reaction. Fragrances are most often the culprit. The aim of the study was to describe the common fragrance allergens in different categories of cosmetic products available on the European market. We wanted to assess the influence of cosmetic type and distribution channel on the presence of fragrance allergens. There are the allergens whose concentration exceeds 0.001% in leave-on products and 0.01% in rinse-off products. A total of 2044 commercial hygiene,...
Source: Clinical Reviews in Allergy and Immunology - April 21, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

The Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor (AHR) as a Potential Target for the Control of Intestinal Inflammation: Insights from an Immune and Bacteria Sensor Receptor
AbstractThe aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) is widely expressed in immune and non-immune cells of the gut and its activation has been correlated to the outcome of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). In ulcerative colitis and Crohn ’s disease, there is an excessive chronic inflammation with massive accumulation of leukocytes in the gut, in an attempt to constrain the invasion of pathogenic microorganisms on the damaged organ. Accordingly, it is known that dietary components, xenobiotics, and some chemicals or metabolites can activate AHR and induce the modulation of inflammatory responses. In fact, the AHR triggering by sp...
Source: Clinical Reviews in Allergy and Immunology - April 10, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

New Insights into Asthma Inflammation: Focus on iNKT, MAIT, and γδT Cells
AbstractAsthma is a chronic immunological disease affecting all age groups, but often starting in childhood. Although it has long been ascribed to a single pathology, recent studies have highlighted its heterogeneity due to the potential involvement of various pathogenic mechanisms. Here, we present our current understanding of the role of innate-like T (ILT) cells in asthma pathogenesis. These cells constitute a specific family mainly comprising γδT, invariant natural killer (iNKT) and mucosal-associated invariant (MAIT) T cells. They all share the ability to massively secrete a wide range of cytokines in a T-cell recep...
Source: Clinical Reviews in Allergy and Immunology - April 2, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

JAK Inhibitors: Prospects in Connective Tissue Diseases
AbstractThe dysregulation of the JAK –STAT pathway is associated with various immune disorders. Four JAK inhibitors have been approved for rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and numerous JAK inhibitors are currently being tested in phase II and III trials for the treatment of various autoimmune inflammatory diseases. In this narrative review , we elucidate the involvement of the JAK–STAT signaling pathway in the pathogenesis of connective tissue diseases (CTDs). We also discuss the efficacy of the first- and second-generation JAK inhibitors (tofacitinib, baricitinib, ruxolitinib, peficitinib, filgotinib, upadacitinib, solcitin...
Source: Clinical Reviews in Allergy and Immunology - March 27, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Crosstalk Between Mast Cells and Adipocytes in Physiologic and Pathologic Conditions
AbstractExcessive fatty acids and glucose uptake support the infiltration of adipose tissue (AT) by a variety of immune cells including neutrophils, pro-inflammatory M1 macrophages, and mast cells (MCs). These cells promote inflammation by releasing pro-inflammatory mediators. The involvement of MCs in AT biology is supported by their accumulation in the AT of obese individuals along with significantly higher serum levels of MC-derived tryptase. AT-resident MCs under the influence of locally derived adipokines such as leptin become activated and release pro-inflammatory cytokines including TNF α that worsens the inflammat...
Source: Clinical Reviews in Allergy and Immunology - March 24, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

New Concepts and Technological Resources in Patient Education and Asthma Self-Management
AbstractAsthma is a chronic disease that is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. In general, the use of technology resources or electronic health (e-health) has been shown to have beneficial effects on patients with asthma. E-health can impact a broad section of patients and can be cost-effective and associated with high patient satisfaction. E-health may enable remote delivery of care, as well as timely access to health care, which are some of the common challenges faced by patients with asthma. Web-based asthma self-management systems have been found to improve quality of life, self-reported asthma sympto...
Source: Clinical Reviews in Allergy and Immunology - March 24, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Immunogenetics of Kawasaki disease
AbstractKawasaki disease (KD) is a medium vessel vasculitis that affects young children. Despite extensive research over the last 50  years, the etiology of KD remains an enigma. Seasonal change in wind patterns was shown to have correlation with the epidemics of KD in Japan. Occurrence of disease in epidemiological clusters, seasonal variation, and a very low risk of recurrence suggest that KD is triggered by an infectious agen t. The identification of oligoclonal IgA response in the affected tissues suggests an antigen-driven inflammation. The recent identification of a viral antigen in the cytoplasm of bronchial ciliat...
Source: Clinical Reviews in Allergy and Immunology - March 20, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research