Supporting a Healthy Microbiome for the Primary Prevention of Eczema
AbstractEczema is increasing worldwide with associated increases in health costs and decreases in quality of life. There are many factors that are speculated to interact in the development of eczema including genetics and environmental exposures. Prevention of the development of eczema may prevent the further development of food allergies and asthma. This concept has prompted a variety of research into the area of primary prevention of eczema in infants. This exploration includes a growing body of research examining infants supplemented with probiotics, prebiotics, or both (synbiotics) often compared with their breastfed c...
Source: Clinical Reviews in Allergy and Immunology - July 15, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Immunologic Adverse Effects of Biologics for the Treatment of Atopy
AbstractThe use of biologic agents as therapies for atopic diseases such as asthma and atopic dermatitis has increased greatly in recent years. The biological agents used to treat atopic diseases are for the most part monoclonal antibodies that suppress the immune response and reduce inflammation by targeting particular cytokines or other molecules involved in Th1, Th2, or Th17 immune reactions. Various side effects and rare complications have been reported from these agents. In this review, we discuss mechanisms of various adverse effects for the biologic agents currently in use or in development for atopic and inflammato...
Source: Clinical Reviews in Allergy and Immunology - July 13, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

The Relationship Between Hypermobile Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome (hEDS), Postural Orthostatic Tachycardia Syndrome (POTS), and Mast Cell Activation Syndrome (MCAS)
AbstractIn recent years, an association between hypermobile Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (hEDS), mast cell activation syndrome (MCAS), and postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome (POTS) has garnered attention and patients are increasingly presenting with this triad. However, a real relationship between these entities is unclear due to a lack of scientific validity. We conducted an extensive review of the literature using two different search strategies. A narrower strategy included 88 searches of various combinations of terms for each of the three conditions, yielding 19 unique papers. A broader search included 136 searches of...
Source: Clinical Reviews in Allergy and Immunology - July 2, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

The Epidemiology and Clinical Manifestations of Autoimmunity in Selective IgA Deficiency
AbstractSelective immunoglobulin A deficiency (SIgAD) is the most common primary immunodeficiency, defined as an isolated deficiency of IgA (less than 0.07  g/L). Although the majority of people born with IgA deficiency lead normal lives without significant pathology, there is nonetheless a significant association of IgA deficiency with mucosal infection, increased risks of atopic disease, and a higher prevalence of autoimmune disease. To explain thes e phenomena, we have performed an extensive literature review to define the geoepidemiology of IgA deficiency and particularly the relative risks for developing systemic...
Source: Clinical Reviews in Allergy and Immunology - July 2, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Resolvins: Emerging Players in Autoimmune and Inflammatory Diseases
AbstractResolvins, belonging to the group of specialized proresolving mediators (SPMs), are metabolic products of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids ( ω-3 PUFAs) and are synthesized during the initial phases of acute inflammatory responses to promote the resolution of inflammation. Resolvins are produced for termination of neutrophil infiltration, stimulation of the clearance of apoptotic cells by macrophages, and promotion of tissue remodeling a nd homeostasis. Metabolic dysregulation due to either uncontrolled activity of pro-inflammatory responses or to inefficient resolution of inflammation results in chronic in...
Source: Clinical Reviews in Allergy and Immunology - July 2, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Role of Mast Cells in Shaping the Tumor Microenvironment
AbstractEarly mast cell (MC) infiltration has been reported in a wide range of human and animal tumors particularly malignant melanoma and breast and colorectal cancer. The consequences of their presence in the tumor microenvironment (TME) or at their margins still remain unclear as it is associated with a good or poor prognosis based on the type and anatomical site of the tumor. Within the tumor, MC interactions occur with infiltrated immune cells, tumor cells, and extracellular matrix (ECM) through direct cell-to-cell interactions or release of a broad range of mediators capable of remodeling the TME. MCs actively contri...
Source: Clinical Reviews in Allergy and Immunology - June 29, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Platelets and IgE: Shaping the Innate Immune Response in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus
AbstractSystemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a systemic and potentially fatal autoimmune disease. SLE pathophysiology is complex and involves the interplay between the innate and adaptive immune systems, with a particularly significant role for type I interferons. Recently, the participation of other actors such as platelets and IgE has been described in SLE. On the one hand, platelets activated by different stimuli (antiphospholipid antibodies, immune complexes …) participate in immune dysregulation through direct interactions with immune cells. On the other hand, autoreactive IgE can activate basophils, promoting...
Source: Clinical Reviews in Allergy and Immunology - June 28, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Principles of Allergen Immunotherapy and Its Clinical Application in China: Contrasts and Comparisons with the USA
AbstractAllergen immunotherapy (AIT) for allergic rhinitis (AR), asthma, and other allergic diseases has developed quickly. House dust mite (HDM),Artemisia (wormwood),Humulus japonicus (Japanese hop),Alternaria alternata, andCladosporium herbarum are the five most common inhalant allergens in China. AIT has been performed in China for over 60  years. With the support of the Chinese Medical Association (CMA) and the Chinese Medical Doctors Association (CMDA), the Chinese College of Allergy and Asthma (CCAA) was established in 2016 as a specialized branch of CDMA and is the main certification authority for AIT. Chinese ...
Source: Clinical Reviews in Allergy and Immunology - June 26, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Bee Venom Immunotherapy: Current Status and Future Directions
This article reviews preclinical and clinical evidence on the therapeutic potential of these new therapies. Among hypoallergenic derivatives, hybrid allergens showed a markedly reduced IgE reactivity in mouse models. Whether they will offer therapeutic benefit over extract, it is still not known since clinical trials have not been carried out yet. T cell epitope peptides have proven effective in small clinical trials. Major histocompatibility complex class II restriction was circumvented by using long overlapping or promiscuous T cell epitope peptides. However, the T cell –mediated late-phase adverse events have been...
Source: Clinical Reviews in Allergy and Immunology - June 26, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Innate B Cells: the Archetype of Protective Immune Cells
AbstractThe innate B cell (IBC) population is heterogeneous and involved in the primary immune response. IBC functions include a high ability to produce natural antibodies with IgM isotype, the elimination of apoptotic cells, and a capacity to be cognate help to T cells. Among IBC subsets, B-1 cells and marginal zone B cells are the main producers of IgM, act as rapid immune responders that may relocate to follicular lymphoid and differentiate to cytokine and antibody-secreting cells shortly after infection. IBCs functions are highly dependent on their localization site and the nature of their B cell receptor repertoire, s...
Source: Clinical Reviews in Allergy and Immunology - June 10, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Eosinophilic Esophagitis: the Potential Role of Biologics in its Treatment
AbstractEosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is a chronic, relapsing inflammatory disease of the esophagus, characterized by the presence of significant esophageal mucosal eosinophilic infiltrates. The clinical presentation of EoE in childhood may include failure to thrive and feeding intolerance. The complication of food impaction is often related to the presence of strictures or narrow caliber esophagus. Over the last decade, there has been tremendous progress in the field of eosinophilic disorders, particularly eosinophilic esophagitis. Conventional treatment of eosinophilic esophagitis involves topical swallowed steroids, sy...
Source: Clinical Reviews in Allergy and Immunology - June 7, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Autoimmunity in 2018
AbstractIn the vast database of peer-reviewed articles, the number of 2018 papers published retrieved using the “autoimmunity” keyword remained unchanged compared with the brilliant results of 2017 while returning above a 5% share within the immunology field, after the brisk decrease of this ratio in 2017. As in the past 12 years, we have now searched PubMed for publications related to autoimmunity in th e major immunology and autoimmunity peer-reviewed journals and provide here an arbitrary discussion of the major themes encountered. Once again, we are happy to notice that similarities between autoimmune ...
Source: Clinical Reviews in Allergy and Immunology - June 5, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

JAK Inhibitors Suppress Innate Epigenetic Reprogramming: a Promise for Patients with Sj ögren’s Syndrome
AbstractPathogenesis of primary Sj ögren’s syndrome (SjS) remains obscure. However, recent data demonstrate the implication of epigenetic alterations in the DNA methylation/hydroxymethylation process in SjS mostly affecting genes regulated by two innate cytokines, interferon α (IFNα) and IFNγ as well as the oxidative stress pat hways. The Janus kinase (JAK) signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) pathway is known to be activated by IFN and reactive oxygen species (ROS). This prompts us to test the potential implication of JAK/STAT signaling on DNA methylation/hydroxymethylation ...
Source: Clinical Reviews in Allergy and Immunology - June 4, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Natural Antibodies: from First-Line Defense Against Pathogens to Perpetual Immune Homeostasis
AbstractNatural antibodies (nAbs) are most commonly defined as immunoglobulins present in the absence of pathological conditions or deliberate immunizations. Occurrence of nAbs in germ- and antigen-free mice suggest that their production is driven, at least in part, by self-antigens. Accordingly, nAbs are constituted of natural autoantibodies (nAAbs), and can belong to the IgM, IgG, or IgA subclasses. These nAbs provide immediate protection against infection while the adaptive arm of the immune system mounts a specific and long-term response. Beyond immediate protection from infection, nAbs have been shown to play various ...
Source: Clinical Reviews in Allergy and Immunology - June 3, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

The Innate Part of the Adaptive Immune System
AbstractThe innate immune response provides a first line of defense against common microorganisms and, for more complex and/or recurring situations where pathogens must be eliminated, an adaptive immune response has emerged and evolved to provide better protection against subsequent infections. However, such dichotomy has to be reevaluated because innate B cells (e.g., B1 and marginal zone B cells) and the newly described innate lymphoid cells (iLC) have been found to exhibit innate-like properties, such as antigen internalization, regulatory B cell functions, and helper T cell activities. In addition, the production and f...
Source: Clinical Reviews in Allergy and Immunology - June 1, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Autoinflammatory Pathogenesis and Targeted Therapy for Adult-Onset Still ’s Disease
AbstractAdult-onset Still ’s disease (AOSD) is a rare multisystem autoinflammatory disorder of unknown etiology. AOSD is generally characterized by high spiking fever, arthralgia or arthritis, skin rash, leukocytosis, and hyperferritinemia. Traditionally, AOSD has been treated with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, co rticosteroids, and immunosuppressants. An increasing number of studies have shown that proinflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin-1β, -18, -6, and tumor necrosis factor-α, play key roles in AOSD and may serve as therapeutic targets. In the current review, we provided insights into th...
Source: Clinical Reviews in Allergy and Immunology - May 30, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Complement System: a Neglected Pathway in Immunotherapy
AbstractApproved for the treatment of autoimmune diseases, hematological malignancies, and solid cancers, several monoclonal antibodies (mAb) make use of complement in their mechanism of action. Such an assessment is based on comprehensive investigations that used mouse models, in vitro studies, and analyses from patients at initiation (basal level to highlight deficiencies) and after treatment initiation (mAb impact on complement), which have further provided key insights into the importance of the complement activation and/or complement deficiencies in mAb activity. Accordingly, new approaches can now be developed with t...
Source: Clinical Reviews in Allergy and Immunology - May 29, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Toll-Like Receptors, Infections, and Rheumatoid Arthritis
AbstractToll-like receptors (TLR) that belong to the group of protein recognition receptor (PPR) provide an innate immune response following the sensing of conserved pathogen-associated microbial patterns (PAMPs) and changes in danger-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) that are generated as a consequence of cellular injury. Analysis of the TLR pathway has moreover offered new insights into the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Indeed, a dysfunctional TLR-mediated response characterizes RA patients and participates in establishment of a chronic inflammatory state. Such an inappropriate TLR response has been attr...
Source: Clinical Reviews in Allergy and Immunology - May 29, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Clinical, Immunological, and Genetic Features in Patients with Activated PI3K δ Syndrome (APDS): a Systematic Review
AbstractActivated phosphoinositide 3-kinase delta syndrome (APDS) is a novel primary immunodeficiency (PID) caused by heterozygous gain of function mutations in PI3K δ catalytic p110δ (PIK3CD) or regulatory p85 α (PIK3R1) subunits leading to APDS1 and APDS2, respectively. Patients with APDS present a spectrum of clinical manifestations, particularly recurrent respiratory infections and lymphoproliferation. We searched PubMed, Web of Science, and Scopus databases for APDS patients and screened for eligibility criteria. A total of 243 APDS patients were identified from 55 articles. For all patients, demogra...
Source: Clinical Reviews in Allergy and Immunology - May 21, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

The Impact of Environmental Chronic and Toxic Stress on Asthma
AbstractSeveral factors have been associated with the development of asthma and asthma-related morbidity and mortality. Exposures in the environment such as allergens and air pollutants have traditionally been linked to the risk of asthma and asthma outcomes. More recent literature has identified chronic psychosocial stress as an additional environmental exposure to consider in relation to asthma. Adverse childhood events (ACEs) and chronic and toxic stress have been associated with chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease, cancer, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Chronic stress has also been shown to resu...
Source: Clinical Reviews in Allergy and Immunology - May 11, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Therapeutic Antibodies for Nasal Polyposis Treatment: Where Are We Headed?
AbstractThis review article aims to outline what is known in the pathophysiology of chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyposis (CRSwNP) and describe the mechanism of the biologic agents being investigated for this disease. Chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyposis is an inflammatory disease of the nasal and paranasal mucosa, which causes symptoms of nasal obstruction, hyposmia, and rhinorrhea. Conventional therapy for CRSwNP includes intranasal corticosteroids (INCS) and polypectomy, but INCS offer only modest benefits, and recurrence after surgery is common. Therefore, effective pharmacologic therapies for CRSwNP are b...
Source: Clinical Reviews in Allergy and Immunology - May 10, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Asthma and Allergies in the School Environment
AbstractThe school is a complex microenvironment of indoor allergens, pollutants, and other exposures. The school represents an occupational model for children and exposures in this environment have a significant health effect. Current research establishes an association between school exposure and asthma morbidity in children. This review will focus on common school environmental exposures (cockroach, rodents, cat, dog, classroom pets, dust mite, fungus, and pollution) and their impact on children with allergies and asthma. Understanding and evaluation of school-based environments is needed to help guide school-based inte...
Source: Clinical Reviews in Allergy and Immunology - May 1, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Eosinophilic Gastrointestinal Disorders
AbstractEosinophilic gastrointestinal disorders (EGID) are a group of disorders characterized by pathologic eosinophilic infiltration of the esophagus, stomach, small intestine, or colon leading to organ dysfunction and clinical symptoms (J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr; Spergel et al., 52: 300 –306,2011). These disorders include eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE), eosinophilic gastritis (EG), eosinophilic gastroenteritis (EGE), eosinophilic enteritis (EE), and eosinophilic colitis (EC). Symptoms are dependent not only on the location (organ) as well as extent (layer invasion of the bowel wall). Common symptoms of EoE inclu...
Source: Clinical Reviews in Allergy and Immunology - March 22, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

The Role of Environmental Controls in Managing Asthma in Lower-Income Urban Communities
AbstractChildren living in lower-income urban communities are at much greater risk of developing asthma, going to the emergency department for an asthma attack and being hospitalized for asthma than children living in upper- and middle-income communities. For many asthmatic children living in urban communities, especially those with greater morbidity, the allergic pathway is important in the etiology of the disease. The stages of developing allergic disease can be divided into the onset of allergic sensitization, development of allergic disease and subsequent exacerbations, and it is useful to consider the relevance of int...
Source: Clinical Reviews in Allergy and Immunology - March 22, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Allergic Comorbidity in Eosinophilic Esophagitis: Mechanistic Relevance and Clinical Implications
AbstractAllergic eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is a chronic, allergen-mediated inflammatory disease of the esophagus, and the most common cause of prolonged dysphagia in children and young adults in the developed world. While initially undistinguished from gastroesophageal reflux disease-associated esophageal eosinophilia, EoE is now recognized as a clinically distinct entity that shares fundamental inflammatory features of other allergic conditions and is similarly increasing in incidence and prevalence. The clinical and epidemiologic associations between EoE and other allergic manifestations are well established. In add...
Source: Clinical Reviews in Allergy and Immunology - March 22, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Comprehensive Analysis of Serum and Fecal Bile Acid Profiles and Interaction with Gut Microbiota in Primary Biliary Cholangitis
AbstractAccumulation of bile acids (BAs) contributes significantly to the pathogenesis of primary biliary cholangitis (PBC). Here, we sought to systematically characterize the serum and fecal BA profiles and the linkage between BAs and gut microbiota in PBC. The serum and fecal BAs were compared between 65 UDCA treatment-naive PBC and 109 healthy controls using UPLC-MS in cross-sectional study. In a prospective study, a subgroup of patients was enrolled for BA and microbiota analysis before and after UDCA therapy. BA compositions in serum and feces significantly differed between treatment-naive PBC and controls. Particular...
Source: Clinical Reviews in Allergy and Immunology - March 21, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

The Effects of Air Pollution on the Development of Atopic Disease
AbstractAir pollution is defined as the presence of noxious substances in the air at levels that impose a health hazard. Thus, there has been long-standing interest in the possible role of indoor and outdoor air pollutants on the development of respiratory disease. In this regard, asthma has been of particular interest but many studies have also been conducted to explore the relationship between air pollution, allergic rhinitis, and atopic dermatitis. Traffic-related air pollutants or TRAP refers to a broad group of pollutants including elemental carbon, black soot, nitrogen dioxide (NO2), nitric oxide (NO), sulfur dioxide...
Source: Clinical Reviews in Allergy and Immunology - February 26, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Food Protein-Induced Enterocolitis Syndrome: a Comprehensive Review
AbstractFood protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome (FPIES) is a non-IgE-mediated food allergy that has been well-characterized clinically, yet it is still poorly understood. Acute FPIES is characterized by vomiting 1 –4 h and/or diarrhea within 24 h after ingestion of a culprit food. Chronic FPIES is the result of chronic exposure to an offending food that can result in chronic watery diarrhea, intermittent vomiting, and failure to thrive. FPIES typically presents in infancy and self-resolves by school age i n most patients. Adult-onset FPIES is rare, but it has been reported. Cow’s milk and soy are ...
Source: Clinical Reviews in Allergy and Immunology - February 8, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

A Review of the Contribution of Mast Cells in Wound Healing: Involved Molecular and Cellular Mechanisms
AbstractMast cells (MCs), apart from their classic role in allergy, contribute to a number of biologic processes including wound healing. In particular, two aspects of their histologic distribution within the skin have attracted the attention of researchers to study their wound healing role; they represent up to 8% of the total number of cells within the dermis and their cutaneous versions are localized adjacent to the epidermis and the subdermal vasculature and nerves. At the onset of a cutaneous injury, the accumulation of MCs and release of proinflammatory and immunomodulatory mediators have been well documented. The ro...
Source: Clinical Reviews in Allergy and Immunology - February 7, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

The Role of Home Environments in Allergic Disease
AbstractAllergic diseases are surprisingly common, chronic health conditions. The primary location where the vast majority of people are exposed to allergens and other substances is in their home. This means it is important to understand home environments and how a home ’s systems function and interact—and that how we occupy these spaces plays a crucial role in both environmental exposure and management of allergic disease. This review provides an overview of what is understood about home environmental exposure and its impact on our health, and proposes a syste matic process for using a patient’s environm...
Source: Clinical Reviews in Allergy and Immunology - January 25, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

The Role of MIF on Eosinophil Biology and Eosinophilic Inflammation
AbstractMacrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is an inflammatory cytokine that participates in innate and adaptive immune responses. MIF contributes to the resistance against infection agents, but also to the cellular and tissue damage in infectious, autoimmune, and allergic diseases. In the past years, several studies demonstrated a critical role for MIF in the pathogenesis of type-2-mediated inflammation, including allergy and helminth infection. Atopic patients have increased MIF amounts in affected tissues, mainly produced by immune cells such as macrophages, Th2 cells, and eosinophils. Increased MIF mRNA and pr...
Source: Clinical Reviews in Allergy and Immunology - January 25, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Inner-City Asthma in Children
AbstractAsthma in inner-city children is often severe and difficult to control. Residence in poor and urban areas confers increased asthma morbidity even after adjusting for ethnicity, age, and gender. Higher exposure to household pests, such as cockroaches and mice, pollutants and tobacco smoke exposure, poverty, material hardship, poor-quality housing, differences in health care quality, medication compliance, and heath care access also contribute to increased asthma morbidity in this population. Since 1991, the National Institutes of Allergy and Infectious Diseases established research networks: the National Cooperative...
Source: Clinical Reviews in Allergy and Immunology - January 21, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Regional Differences in Food Allergies
This study demonstrates an unmet need in China for a thorough investigation of the prevalence of food allergies in China, the specific foods involved, and characterization of the specific antigenic triggers of food allergy with respect to ethnicity, age, and diet in China. (Source: Clinical Reviews in Allergy and Immunology)
Source: Clinical Reviews in Allergy and Immunology - January 5, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Antinuclear Antibodies in Systemic Sclerosis: an Update
AbstractSystemic sclerosis is an autoimmune disease characterized by fibrosis of skin and internal organs, vasculopathy, and dysregulation of immune system. A diagnostically important feature of immunological abnormalities in systemic sclerosis is the presence of circulating antinuclear antibodies, which may be detected in 90 –95% of patients with either of the four main laboratory methods: immunofluorescence, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, immunodiffusion, and immunoblotting. There are several antinuclear antibodies specific for systemic sclerosis. These include antibodies against topoisomerase (anti-TOPO I), ki...
Source: Clinical Reviews in Allergy and Immunology - January 3, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Microbiota and Food Allergy
AbstractEmerging evidence suggests that the increasing prevalence of food allergies is associated with compositional and functional changes in our gut microbiota. Microbiota-host interactions play a key role in regulating the immune system. Development of a healthy gut microbiota and immune system occurs early in life and is largely shaped by exposure to maternal microbes through vaginal/natural delivery and breast milk, whereas use of antibiotics can disrupt gut homeostasis and significantly raise the risk of allergic diseases. Thus, changes in the quantity or diversity of gut microbes affect oral toleranace through inter...
Source: Clinical Reviews in Allergy and Immunology - December 18, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Mast Cell-Mediated Orchestration of the Immune Responses in Human Allergic Asthma: Current Insights
AbstractImproving the lung function after experimental allergen challenge by blocking of mast cell (MC) mediators and the capability of MC mediators (including histamine, prostaglandin (PG) D2, and leukotriene (LT) C4) in induction of mucosal edema, bronchoconstriction, and mucus secretion provide evidence that MCs play a key role in pathophysiology of asthma. In asthma, the number of MCs increases in the airways and infiltration of MCs in a variety of anatomical sites including the epithelium, the submucosal glands, and the smooth muscle bundles occurs. MC localization within the ASM is accompanied with the hypertrophy an...
Source: Clinical Reviews in Allergy and Immunology - November 30, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Regulatory T Cell Plasticity and Stability and Autoimmune Diseases
AbstractCD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells (Tregs) are a class of CD4+ T cells with immunosuppressive functions that play a critical role in maintaining immune homeostasis. However, in certain disease settings, Tregs demonstrate plastic differentiation, and the stability of these Tregs, which is characterized by the stable expression or protective epigenetic modifications of the transcription factor Foxp3, becomes abnormal. Plastic Tregs have some features of helper T (Th) cells, such as the secretion of Th-related cytokines and the expression of specific transcription factors in Th cells, but also still retain the expression of...
Source: Clinical Reviews in Allergy and Immunology - November 17, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

The Human Microbiota and Asthma
AbstractOver the last few decades, advances in our understanding of microbial ecology have allowed us to appreciate the important role of microbial communities in maintaining human health. While much of this research has focused on gut microbes, microbial communities in other body sites and from the environment are increasingly recognized in human disease. Here, we discuss recent advances in our understanding of host –microbiota interactions in the development and manifestation of asthma focusing on three distinct microbial compartments. First, environmental microbes originating from house dust, pets, and farm animal...
Source: Clinical Reviews in Allergy and Immunology - November 13, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Contact Dermatitis to Cosmetics
AbstractAllergic contact dermatitis (ACD) to cosmetics is extremely common —probably the most common reason patients present for patch testing. The diagnosis should initially be suspected based on the patient history and the distribution of the dermatitis. Once the diagnosis is suspected, empiric recommendations for low allergenicity products should be implemented until patch testing is performed. The face is exposed to greatest number of cosmetics, and as a result, facial dermatitis is the prototypical presentation of cosmetic contact dermatitis. In particular, the eyelids are frequently involved, with common source...
Source: Clinical Reviews in Allergy and Immunology - November 12, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

IgE-Mediated Food Allergy
AbstractFood allergies are defined as adverse immune responses to food proteins that result in typical clinical symptoms involving the dermatologic, respiratory, gastrointestinal, cardiovascular, and/or neurologic systems. IgE-mediated food-allergic disease differs from non-IgE-mediated disease because the pathophysiology results from activation of the immune system, causing a T helper 2 response which results in IgE binding to Fcε receptors on effector cells like mast cells and basophils. The activation of these cells causes release of histamine and other preformed mediators, and rapid symptom onset, in contrast w...
Source: Clinical Reviews in Allergy and Immunology - October 29, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Irritant Contact Dermatitis
AbstractContact dermatitis accounts for 95% of occupational skin disorders. Irritant contact dermatitis (ICD) is often caused by cumulative exposure to weak irritants, accounting for 80% of all cases of contact dermatitis. ICD can co-exist with atopic dermatitis (AD) and allergic contact dermatitis (ACD). Patients with AD and ACD may have a lower inflammatory threshold for developing ICD. Therefore, it needs to be distinguished from lesions of AD and ACD. ICD Patients report stinging and burning in excess of pruritus. Pruritus is classically reported by patients with AD and ACD. ICD lesions are typically well-demarcated un...
Source: Clinical Reviews in Allergy and Immunology - October 6, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Standardization of Autoantibody Testing in Autoimmune Hepatitis
AbstractIt is a comment on a recent review published on the Journal. (Source: Clinical Reviews in Allergy and Immunology)
Source: Clinical Reviews in Allergy and Immunology - October 4, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Psychosocial Mediators of Change and Patient Selection Factors in Oral Immunotherapy Trials
AbstractHealth-related quality of life (HRQL) is influenced by physiological, psychological, and environmental variables and can be best understood by considering the interactions of factors that cut across multiple levels. One of the most important issues relating to treatment in food allergy is to identify, describe, and define predictors that may contribute to modify HRQL outcomes. The research presented demonstrates that measures of HRQL are able to distinguish key features of known groups (e.g. relating to reaction severity, treatment, allergen type/number, expectation of outcome) and delineate impact on hitherto unkn...
Source: Clinical Reviews in Allergy and Immunology - October 3, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Patch Testing Pearls
AbstractDermatitis is one of the most common illnesses encountered by healthcare providers and the causes are numerous. Contact dermatitis is the form of dermatitis resulting from contact with the environment, and it may be either irritant or allergic in nature. Patch testing has been the gold standard for diagnosis of allergic contact dermatitis since its formal description over 100  years ago by Jadassohn. While this diagnostic tool may seem simple to us today, there are numerous potential points for error that the practitioner must keep in mind. Patient selection, technique of patch test placement, allergen selecti...
Source: Clinical Reviews in Allergy and Immunology - September 30, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Atherosclerosis in Rheumatoid Arthritis: Promoters and Opponents
AbstractSubstantial epidemiological data identified cardiovascular (CV) diseases as a main cause of mortality in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). In light of this, RA patients may benefit from additional CV risk screening and more intensive prevention strategies. Nevertheless, current algorithms for CV risk stratification still remain tailored on general population and are burdened by a significant underestimation of CV risk in RA patients. Acute CV events in patients with RA are largely related to an accelerated atherosclerosis. As pathophysiological features of atherosclerosis overlap those occurring in the infla...
Source: Clinical Reviews in Allergy and Immunology - September 26, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Contact Dermatitis in Atopic Dermatitis Children —Past, Present, and Future
AbstractAllergic contact dermatitis (ACD) used to be considered a rarity in children, but recently has been estimated to effect 4.4 million children in the USA alone, with a notable rise in investigative research in the field of pediatric ACD. Researchers have shown that patch testing is safe and effective in afflicted children and that those with atopic dermatitis (AD) have similar sensitization rates, although they have a higher sensitization to certain allergens, thought to be related to the inflammatory (IL-4) milieu. Patch testing assessment guidelines in children include five key considerations: if a patient ’s...
Source: Clinical Reviews in Allergy and Immunology - September 17, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research