COVID-19 and Asthma: Reflection During the Pandemic
AbstractCoronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a global pandemic infectious disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), and abnormal, overactivated innate immunity and “cytokine storms” have been proposed as potential pathological mechanisms for rapid COVID-19 progression. Theoretically, asthmatic patients should have increased susceptibility and severity for SARS-CoV-2 infection due to a deficient antiviral immune response and the tendency for exacerbation el icited by common respiratory viruses. However, existing studies have not shown an expected prevalence of asthmatic in...
Source: Clinical Reviews in Allergy and Immunology - May 28, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Omalizumab Updosing in Chronic Spontaneous Urticaria: an Overview of Real-World Evidence
AbstractChronic spontaneous urticaria (CSU) is defined as the spontaneous development of itchy hives and/or angioedema due to known or unknown causes that last for at least 6  weeks. At any given time, CSU is believed to affect 0.5–1% of the global population. Omalizumab (a recombinant, humanized anti-immunoglobulin-E antibody) is the only approved treatment for antihistamine refractory CSU. However, ~ 30% of patients remain symptomatic at licensed doses of omalizum ab 150 mg and 300 mg, even after a treatment period of over 6 months. In the recent years, there have been several studies on ...
Source: Clinical Reviews in Allergy and Immunology - May 16, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Immunobiology of T Cells in Sj ögren’s Syndrome
AbstractSj ögren’s syndrome (SjS) is a systemic autoimmune disease marked by xerostomia (dry mouth), keratoconjunctivitis sicca (eye dryness), and other systematic disorders. Its pathogenesis involves an inflammatory process that is characterized by lymphocytic infiltration into exocrine glands and other ti ssues. Although the development of ectopic lymphoid tissue and overproduction of autoantibodies by hyperactive B cells suggest that they may promote SjS development, treatment directed towards them fails to induce significant laboratory or clinical improvement. T cells are overwhelming infiltrators in most ph...
Source: Clinical Reviews in Allergy and Immunology - May 11, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Cutaneous Vasculitis: Review on Diagnosis and Clinicopathologic Correlations
AbstractCutaneous vasculitis is an inflammatory disease affecting the dermal blood vessel walls. The skin is a privileged organ in the setting of vasculitis since it is easily accessible for physical examination and safe biopsy, allowing an accurate characterization of inflammatory lesions. The skin is often involved. Also, cutaneous vasculitis can reflect a cutaneous component of a systemic vasculitis, a skin-limited or skin-dominant expression or variant of a systemic vasculitis, or be a single-organ vasculitis per se. Vasculitis lesions are multiple and polymorphic. They may induce a wide spectrum of clinical manifestat...
Source: Clinical Reviews in Allergy and Immunology - May 6, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Resolving Clinical Phenotypes into Endotypes in Allergy: Molecular and Omics Approaches
AbstractAllergic diseases are highly complex with respect to pathogenesis, inflammation, and response to treatment. Current efforts for allergic disease diagnosis have focused on clinical evidence as a binary outcome. Although outcome status based on clinical phenotypes (observable characteristics) is convenient and inexpensive to measure in large studies, it does not adequately provide insight into the complex molecular determinants of allergic disease. Individuals with similar clinical diagnoses do not necessarily have similar disease etiologies, natural histories, or responses to treatment. This heterogeneity contribute...
Source: Clinical Reviews in Allergy and Immunology - May 6, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Anti-inflammatory Action of Statins in Cardiovascular Disease: the Role of Inflammasome and Toll-Like Receptor Pathways
AbstractAtherosclerosis is one type of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in which activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome and toll-like receptor (TLR) pathways is implicated. One of the most effective treatments for atherosclerosis is the use of statin medications. Recent studies have indicated that statins, in addition to their lipid-lowering effects, exert inhibitory and/or stimulatory effects on the NLRP3 inflammasome and TLRs. Some of the statins lead to activation of the inflammasome and subsequently cause secretion of IL-1 β and IL-18. Thus, these actions may further aggravate the disease. On the other hand, some statin...
Source: Clinical Reviews in Allergy and Immunology - May 6, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Clinical Pathway for Early Diagnosis of COVID-19: Updates from Experience to Evidence-Based Practice
AbstractThe COVID-19 pandemic is a significant global event in the history of infectious diseases. The SARS-CoV-2 appears to have originated from bats but is now easily transmissible among humans, primarily through droplet or direct contact. Clinical features of COVID-19 include high fever, cough, and fatigue which may progress to ARDS. Respiratory failure can occur rapidly after this. The primary laboratory findings include lymphopenia and eosinopenia. Elevated D-dimer, procalcitonin, and CRP levels may correlate with disease severity. Imaging findings include ground-glass opacities and patchy consolidation on CT scan. Mo...
Source: Clinical Reviews in Allergy and Immunology - April 24, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Influence of Cosmetic Type and Distribution Channel on the Presence of Regulated Fragrance Allergens: Study of 2044 Commercial Products
AbstractContact dermatitis linked to cosmetic products is a very common reason for visits to the dermatologist, and in more than half the cases, it is due to an allergic reaction. Fragrances are most often the culprit. The aim of the study was to describe the common fragrance allergens in different categories of cosmetic products available on the European market. We wanted to assess the influence of cosmetic type and distribution channel on the presence of fragrance allergens. There are the allergens whose concentration exceeds 0.001% in leave-on products and 0.01% in rinse-off products. A total of 2044 commercial hygiene,...
Source: Clinical Reviews in Allergy and Immunology - April 22, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

The Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor (AHR) as a Potential Target for the Control of Intestinal Inflammation: Insights from an Immune and Bacteria Sensor Receptor
AbstractThe aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) is widely expressed in immune and non-immune cells of the gut and its activation has been correlated to the outcome of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). In ulcerative colitis and Crohn ’s disease, there is an excessive chronic inflammation with massive accumulation of leukocytes in the gut, in an attempt to constrain the invasion of pathogenic microorganisms on the damaged organ. Accordingly, it is known that dietary components, xenobiotics, and some chemicals or metabolites can activate AHR and induce the modulation of inflammatory responses. In fact, the AHR triggering b...
Source: Clinical Reviews in Allergy and Immunology - April 11, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

New Insights into Asthma Inflammation: Focus on iNKT, MAIT, and γδT Cells
AbstractAsthma is a chronic immunological disease affecting all age groups, but often starting in childhood. Although it has long been ascribed to a single pathology, recent studies have highlighted its heterogeneity due to the potential involvement of various pathogenic mechanisms. Here, we present our current understanding of the role of innate-like T (ILT) cells in asthma pathogenesis. These cells constitute a specific family mainly comprising γδT, invariant natural killer (iNKT) and mucosal-associated invariant (MAIT) T cells. They all share the ability to massively secrete a wide range of cytokines in a T-...
Source: Clinical Reviews in Allergy and Immunology - April 3, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

JAK Inhibitors: Prospects in Connective Tissue Diseases
AbstractThe dysregulation of the JAK –STAT pathway is associated with various immune disorders. Four JAK inhibitors have been approved for rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and numerous JAK inhibitors are currently being tested in phase II and III trials for the treatment of various autoimmune inflammatory diseases. In this narrative review , we elucidate the involvement of the JAK–STAT signaling pathway in the pathogenesis of connective tissue diseases (CTDs). We also discuss the efficacy of the first- and second-generation JAK inhibitors (tofacitinib, baricitinib, ruxolitinib, peficitinib, filgotinib, upadacitinib, ...
Source: Clinical Reviews in Allergy and Immunology - March 28, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Crosstalk Between Mast Cells and Adipocytes in Physiologic and Pathologic Conditions
AbstractExcessive fatty acids and glucose uptake support the infiltration of adipose tissue (AT) by a variety of immune cells including neutrophils, pro-inflammatory M1 macrophages, and mast cells (MCs). These cells promote inflammation by releasing pro-inflammatory mediators. The involvement of MCs in AT biology is supported by their accumulation in the AT of obese individuals along with significantly higher serum levels of MC-derived tryptase. AT-resident MCs under the influence of locally derived adipokines such as leptin become activated and release pro-inflammatory cytokines including TNF α that worsens the infl...
Source: Clinical Reviews in Allergy and Immunology - March 25, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

New Concepts and Technological Resources in Patient Education and Asthma Self-Management
AbstractAsthma is a chronic disease that is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. In general, the use of technology resources or electronic health (e-health) has been shown to have beneficial effects on patients with asthma. E-health can impact a broad section of patients and can be cost-effective and associated with high patient satisfaction. E-health may enable remote delivery of care, as well as timely access to health care, which are some of the common challenges faced by patients with asthma. Web-based asthma self-management systems have been found to improve quality of life, self-reported asthma sympto...
Source: Clinical Reviews in Allergy and Immunology - March 25, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Immunogenetics of Kawasaki disease
AbstractKawasaki disease (KD) is a medium vessel vasculitis that affects young children. Despite extensive research over the last 50  years, the etiology of KD remains an enigma. Seasonal change in wind patterns was shown to have correlation with the epidemics of KD in Japan. Occurrence of disease in epidemiological clusters, seasonal variation, and a very low risk of recurrence suggest that KD is triggered by an infectious agen t. The identification of oligoclonal IgA response in the affected tissues suggests an antigen-driven inflammation. The recent identification of a viral antigen in the cytoplasm of bronchial ci...
Source: Clinical Reviews in Allergy and Immunology - March 21, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Correction to: Targeted Anti-IL-5 Therapies and Future Therapeutics for Hypereosinophilic Syndrome and Rare Eosinophilic Conditions
Conclusion” section. (Source: Clinical Reviews in Allergy and Immunology)
Source: Clinical Reviews in Allergy and Immunology - March 18, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Maternal Nutritional Status and Development of Atopic Dermatitis in Their Offspring
AbstractAtopic dermatitis (AD) is the leading chronic skin inflammatory disease and the initial manifestation of atopic march. Available evidence supports the notion that primary prevention early in life leads to a decreased incidence of AD, thus possibly decreasing the subsequent occurrence of atopic march. Nutritional status is essential to a proper functioning immune system and is valued for its important role in AD. Essential nutrients, which include carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, vitamins, and minerals, are transferred from the mother to the fetus through the placenta during gestation. Various nutrients, such as pol...
Source: Clinical Reviews in Allergy and Immunology - March 10, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

The Role of Mast Cells in IgE-Independent Lung Diseases
AbstractMast cells (MCs) are granular cells of the innate immune system which develop from CD34+/CD117+ progenitors and play a role in orchestrating adaptive immune responses. They have a well-known role in allergic reactions following immunoglobulin (Ig)E-mediated activation of the cell-surface expressed IgE high-affinity receptor (Fc εRI). MCs can also respond to various other stimuli due to the expression of a variety of receptors including toll-like receptors (TLRs), immunoglobulin (IgG) receptors (FcγR), complement receptors such as C5a (CD88) expressed by skin MCs, neuropeptides receptors including nerv...
Source: Clinical Reviews in Allergy and Immunology - February 21, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Animal Models of Autoimmune Liver Diseases: a Comprehensive Review
AbstractAutoimmune liver diseases (AILDs) are potentially life-threatening chronic liver diseases which include autoimmune hepatitis, primary biliary cholangitis, primary sclerosing cholangitis, and recently characterized IgG4-related sclerosing cholangitis. They are caused by immune attack on hepatocytes or bile ducts, with different mechanisms and clinical manifestations. The etiologies of AILDs include a susceptible genetic background, environment insults, infections, and changes of commensal microbiota, but remain complicated. Understanding of the underlying mechanisms of AILDs is mandatory for early diagnosis and inte...
Source: Clinical Reviews in Allergy and Immunology - February 19, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Using Baseline and Peak Serum Tryptase Levels to Diagnose Anaphylaxis: a Review
AbstractThe diagnosis of anaphylaxis relies on a suggestive clinical history after exposure to a potential triggering factor. Serum tryptase concentrations increase on degranulation of mast cells and therefore serum tryptase levels are measured to diagnose anaphylaxis. There is no standardized method for assessing total serum mast cell tryptase (MCT) in anaphylaxis. The Working Conference in 2010 proposed a consensus equation (peak MCT should be>  1.2x baseline tryptase + 2 ng/L) to diagnose acute mast cell activation (aMCA). Our objective was to narratively review the literature since the Working Con...
Source: Clinical Reviews in Allergy and Immunology - February 7, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

The Current State of Biologic Therapies for Treatment of Refractory Asthma
AbstractAsthma is a heterogeneous disease, with the immune processes behind the chronic inflammation underlying this disorder differing between the various identified asthma endotypes. In addition to heterogeneity in underlying disease pathophysiology, asthmatics fall across a broad spectrum of disease severity and can vary greatly in their response to convention asthma therapies. A small percentage of patients with severe persistent asthma will remain uncontrolled despite treatment with high-dose inhaled corticosteroids and a long-acting beta-agonist. Less than two decades ago, there were few options for these treatment-r...
Source: Clinical Reviews in Allergy and Immunology - January 24, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Targeted Anti-IL-5 Therapies and Future Therapeutics for Hypereosinophilic Syndrome and Rare Eosinophilic Conditions
AbstractEosinophilic inflammation is a component of many atopic diseases such as asthma, and biologics targeting eosinophils have been shown to be effective in subsets of these patients. However, there also are conditions in which eosinophils are the key inflammatory cells responsible for driving tissue damage. In these eosinophilic diseases such as hyper-eosinophilic syndrome, eosinophilic esophagitis, and eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (EGPA), the development of biologics inhibiting eosinophilic inflammation have offered targeted therapeutic strategies for patients that have not responded well to typical f...
Source: Clinical Reviews in Allergy and Immunology - January 9, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Eczema Herpeticum: Clinical and Pathophysiological Aspects
AbstractAtopic dermatitis (AD) is the most common chronic inflammatory skin disease in the world. AD is a complex pathology mainly characterized by an impaired skin barrier, immune response dysfunction, and unbalanced skin microbiota. Moreover, AD patients exhibit an increased risk of developing bacterial and viral infections. One of the most current, and potentially life-threatening, viral infection is caused by herpes simplex virus (HSV), which occurs in about 3% of AD patients under the name of eczema herpeticum (EH). Following a first part dedicated to the clinical features, virological diagnosis, and current treatment...
Source: Clinical Reviews in Allergy and Immunology - December 13, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

The Immunopathology of Complement Proteins and Innate Immunity in Autoimmune Disease
AbstractThe complement is a powerful cascade of the innate immunity and also acts as a bridge between innate and acquired immune defence. Complement activation can occur via three distinct pathways, the classical, alternative and lectin pathways, each resulting in the common terminal pathway. Complement activation results in the release of a range of biologically active molecules that significantly contribute to immune surveillance and tissue homeostasis. Several soluble and membrane-bound regulatory proteins restrict complement activation in order to prevent complement-mediated autologous damage, consumption and exacerbat...
Source: Clinical Reviews in Allergy and Immunology - December 13, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Mast Cell Biology at Molecular Level: a Comprehensive Review
AbstractMast cells (MCs) are portions of the innate and adaptive immune system derived from bone marrow (BM) progenitors that are rich in cytoplasmic granules. MC maturation, phenotype, and function are determined by their microenvironment. MCs accumulate at inflammatory sites associated with atopy, wound healing, and malignancies. They interact with the external environment and are predominantly located in close proximity of blood vessels and sensory nerves. MCs are key initiators and modulators of allergic, anaphylactic, and other inflammatory reactions, by induction of vasodilation, promoting of vascular permeability, r...
Source: Clinical Reviews in Allergy and Immunology - December 12, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Innate-like Lymphocytes and Innate Lymphoid Cells in Asthma
AbstractAsthma is a chronic pulmonary disease, highly associated with immune disorders. The typical symptoms of asthma include airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR), airway remodeling, mucus overproduction, and airflow limitation. The etiology of asthma is multifactorial and affected by genetic and environmental factors. Increasing trends toward dysbiosis, smoking, stress, air pollution, and a western lifestyle may account for the increasing incidence of asthma. Based on the presence or absence of eosinophilic inflammation, asthma is mainly divided into T helper 2 (Th2) and non-Th2 asthma. Th2 asthma is mediated by allergen-spe...
Source: Clinical Reviews in Allergy and Immunology - November 27, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Timing of Cow ’s Milk or Cow’s Milk Formula Introduction to the Infant Diet and Atopic Risk in Children: a Systematic Review and Meta-analysis
This study aims to systematically review the evidence describing the effects of timing of CM or cow’s milk formula (CMF) introduction to the infant diet on the development of atopic diseases during childhood. Pubmed, Embase, CINAHL, Cochrane CENTRAL, and CNKI were sea rched through May 30, 2019. Study screening and data extraction by two reviewers followed the PRISMA statement. Data were extracted independently in duplicate, and meta-analyses were performed by pooling unadjusted and adjusted odds ratio (OR) separately. Heterogeneity was explored usingI2 and publication bias by funnel plots and Begg ’s tests. In...
Source: Clinical Reviews in Allergy and Immunology - November 25, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Perspective: Evolving Concepts in the Diagnosis and Understanding of Common Variable Immunodeficiency Disorders (CVID)
AbstractCommon variable immunodeficiency disorders (CVID) are the most frequent symptomatic primary immune deficiency in adults. At this time, the causes of these conditions are unknown. Patients with CVID experience immune system failure consequent to late onset antibody failure. They have increased susceptibility to infections and are also at risk of severe autoimmune and inflammatory disorders as a result of immune dysregulation. An increasing number of monogenic causes as well as a digenic disorder have been described in patients with a CVID phenotype. If a causative mutation is identified, patients are removed from th...
Source: Clinical Reviews in Allergy and Immunology - November 13, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Clinical Management of Primary Biliary Cholangitis —Strategies and Evolving Trends
AbstractPBC is a chronic progressive autoimmune disorder involving the destruction of intrahepatic small bile ducts, cholestasis, fibrosis, and ultimately cirrhosis if left untreated. It is largely driven by the autoimmune response, but bile acids and the intestinal microbiota are implicated in disease progression as well. The only drugs licensed for PBC are UDCA and OCA. UDCA as a first-line and OCA as a second-line therapy are safe and effective, but the lack of response in a significant portion of patients and inadequate control of symptoms such as fatigue and pruritus remain as concerns. Liver transplantation is an end...
Source: Clinical Reviews in Allergy and Immunology - November 11, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

The Myth of Mycotoxins and Mold Injury
AbstractIn recent years, mold has been blamed for many symptoms or a constellation of symptoms. These symptoms are usually vague and subjective and difficult or impossible to measure or quantify. Moreover, there is no scientific evidence that mold has anything to do with these symptoms. In particular, the concept of toxic mold syndrome has permeated the public consciousness, and mycotoxins have falsely been associated with autoimmune diseases and a variety of other conditions. In fact, there is no evidence that the presence of mycotoxins in the air is enough to cause any disease known to man. Molds legitimately can cause a...
Source: Clinical Reviews in Allergy and Immunology - October 13, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Methanogenic Archaea: Emerging Partners in the Field of Allergic Diseases
AbstractArchaea, which form one of four domains of life alongside Eukarya, Bacteria, and giant viruses, have long been neglected as components of the human microbiota and potential opportunistic infectious pathogens. In this review, we focus on methanogenic Archaea, which rely on hydrogen for their metabolism and growth. On one hand, methanogenic Archaea in the gut are functional associates of the fermentative digestion of dietary fibers, favoring the production of beneficial short-chain fatty acids and likely contributing to the weaning reaction during the neonatal window of opportunity. On the other hand, methanogenic Ar...
Source: Clinical Reviews in Allergy and Immunology - September 14, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Cholangiocarcinoma in Patients with Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis (PSC): a Comprehensive Review
AbstractCholangiocarcinoma (CCA) is the most common malignancy in patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) and carries a high rate of mortality. Although the pathogenesis of CCA in PSC is largely unknown, inflammation-driven carcinogenesis concomitant with various genetic and epigenetic abnormalities are underlying factors. The majority of CCA cases develop from a dominant stricture (DS), which is defined as a stricture with a diameter
Source: Clinical Reviews in Allergy and Immunology - August 28, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Prediction of Adverse Pregnancy Outcomes in Women with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus
AbstractSystemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic, autoimmune disease associated with major obstetrical complications such as gestational loss, preterm delivery, fetal growth restriction (FGR) and preeclampsia. Published literature is not consensual regarding the main risk factors for each of these outcomes. Our goal with this study was to determine the most important predictors for each of the main adverse pregnancy outcomes in this population. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of unifetal pregnancies of women with the diagnosis of SLE followed in our unit between January 1994 and December 2016. We excluded ...
Source: Clinical Reviews in Allergy and Immunology - August 23, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Clinical Characteristics and Risk Factors of Diffuse Alveolar Hemorrhage in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus: a Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis Based on Observational Studies
AbstractDiffuse alveolar hemorrhage (DAH) is a rare but potentially deadly manifestation of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical characteristics and risk factors of DAH in SLE. A systematic review and meta-analysis of previous observational studies compared the clinical characteristics and risk factors between DAH-SLE and SLE patients without DAH. A total of 5 observational studies were included in this meta-analysis. Compared with the SLE patients without DAH, DAH-SLE patients had a significantly higher incidence of neuropsychiatric events (OR  = 4.321, 95...
Source: Clinical Reviews in Allergy and Immunology - August 22, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Extrarenal Immune-Mediated Disorders Linked with Acute Poststreptococcal Glomerulonephritis: a Systematic Review
AbstractStreptococcus A infections have been associated with immune-mediated sequelae including acute glomerulonephritis, acute rheumatic fever, thrombocytopenia, hemolytic anemia, Henoch-Sch önlein purpura, arthritis, uveitis, guttate psoriasis, and erythema nodosum. Available reviews do not report the occurrence of acute poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis in association with one of the mentioned conditions. We performed a systematic review of the literature on extrarenal immune-medi ated disorders associated with acute poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis. The principles recommended by the Economic and Social Rese...
Source: Clinical Reviews in Allergy and Immunology - August 8, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Systemic Amyloidosis: a Contemporary Overview
AbstractAmyloidosis constitutes a large spectrum of diseases characterized by an extracellular deposition of a fibrillar aggregate, generating insoluble and toxic amasses that may be deposited in tissues in bundles with an abnormal cross- β-sheet conformation, known as amyloid. Amyloid may lead to a cell damage and an impairment of organ function. Several different proteins are recognized as able to produce amyloid fibrils with a different tissue tropism related to the molecular structure. The deposition of amyloid may occur as a c onsequence of the presence of an abnormal protein, caused by high plasma levels of...
Source: Clinical Reviews in Allergy and Immunology - August 2, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Asthma Phenotypes as a Guide for Current and Future Biologic Therapies
AbstractAsthma has been increasingly recognized as being a heterogeneous disease with multiple distinct mechanisms and pathophysiologies. Evidence continues to build regarding the existence of different cell types, environmental exposures, pathogens, and other factors that produce a similar set of symptoms known collectively as asthma. This has led to a movement from a “one size fits all” symptom-based methodology to a more patient-centered, individualized approach to asthma treatment targeting the underlying disease process. A significant contributor to this shift to more personalized asthma therapy has been t...
Source: Clinical Reviews in Allergy and Immunology - July 29, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Fungi and Atopy
AbstractAtopy and fungi have a long associative history. Fungal spores were among the first substances to which humans were noted to be sensitized. Humans contact fungal spores in the outdoor, indoor, and occupational environments. As organisms, fungi have their own kingdom and are found in all environmental niches on earth. Currently, fungal exposure in the indoor environment especially related to wet housing conditions is of particular concern. Sensitization rates to fungi typically exceed 5% of the general public with higher rates among the atopic population. Alternaria is the best studied of the allergic fungi; however...
Source: Clinical Reviews in Allergy and Immunology - July 19, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Supporting a Healthy Microbiome for the Primary Prevention of Eczema
AbstractEczema is increasing worldwide with associated increases in health costs and decreases in quality of life. There are many factors that are speculated to interact in the development of eczema including genetics and environmental exposures. Prevention of the development of eczema may prevent the further development of food allergies and asthma. This concept has prompted a variety of research into the area of primary prevention of eczema in infants. This exploration includes a growing body of research examining infants supplemented with probiotics, prebiotics, or both (synbiotics) often compared with their breastfed c...
Source: Clinical Reviews in Allergy and Immunology - July 15, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Immunologic Adverse Effects of Biologics for the Treatment of Atopy
AbstractThe use of biologic agents as therapies for atopic diseases such as asthma and atopic dermatitis has increased greatly in recent years. The biological agents used to treat atopic diseases are for the most part monoclonal antibodies that suppress the immune response and reduce inflammation by targeting particular cytokines or other molecules involved in Th1, Th2, or Th17 immune reactions. Various side effects and rare complications have been reported from these agents. In this review, we discuss mechanisms of various adverse effects for the biologic agents currently in use or in development for atopic and inflammato...
Source: Clinical Reviews in Allergy and Immunology - July 13, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

The Relationship Between Hypermobile Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome (hEDS), Postural Orthostatic Tachycardia Syndrome (POTS), and Mast Cell Activation Syndrome (MCAS)
AbstractIn recent years, an association between hypermobile Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (hEDS), mast cell activation syndrome (MCAS), and postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome (POTS) has garnered attention and patients are increasingly presenting with this triad. However, a real relationship between these entities is unclear due to a lack of scientific validity. We conducted an extensive review of the literature using two different search strategies. A narrower strategy included 88 searches of various combinations of terms for each of the three conditions, yielding 19 unique papers. A broader search included 136 searches of...
Source: Clinical Reviews in Allergy and Immunology - July 2, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

The Epidemiology and Clinical Manifestations of Autoimmunity in Selective IgA Deficiency
AbstractSelective immunoglobulin A deficiency (SIgAD) is the most common primary immunodeficiency, defined as an isolated deficiency of IgA (less than 0.07  g/L). Although the majority of people born with IgA deficiency lead normal lives without significant pathology, there is nonetheless a significant association of IgA deficiency with mucosal infection, increased risks of atopic disease, and a higher prevalence of autoimmune disease. To explain thes e phenomena, we have performed an extensive literature review to define the geoepidemiology of IgA deficiency and particularly the relative risks for developing systemic...
Source: Clinical Reviews in Allergy and Immunology - July 2, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Resolvins: Emerging Players in Autoimmune and Inflammatory Diseases
AbstractResolvins, belonging to the group of specialized proresolving mediators (SPMs), are metabolic products of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids ( ω-3 PUFAs) and are synthesized during the initial phases of acute inflammatory responses to promote the resolution of inflammation. Resolvins are produced for termination of neutrophil infiltration, stimulation of the clearance of apoptotic cells by macrophages, and promotion of tissue remodeling a nd homeostasis. Metabolic dysregulation due to either uncontrolled activity of pro-inflammatory responses or to inefficient resolution of inflammation results in chronic in...
Source: Clinical Reviews in Allergy and Immunology - July 2, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Role of Mast Cells in Shaping the Tumor Microenvironment
AbstractEarly mast cell (MC) infiltration has been reported in a wide range of human and animal tumors particularly malignant melanoma and breast and colorectal cancer. The consequences of their presence in the tumor microenvironment (TME) or at their margins still remain unclear as it is associated with a good or poor prognosis based on the type and anatomical site of the tumor. Within the tumor, MC interactions occur with infiltrated immune cells, tumor cells, and extracellular matrix (ECM) through direct cell-to-cell interactions or release of a broad range of mediators capable of remodeling the TME. MCs actively contri...
Source: Clinical Reviews in Allergy and Immunology - June 29, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Platelets and IgE: Shaping the Innate Immune Response in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus
AbstractSystemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a systemic and potentially fatal autoimmune disease. SLE pathophysiology is complex and involves the interplay between the innate and adaptive immune systems, with a particularly significant role for type I interferons. Recently, the participation of other actors such as platelets and IgE has been described in SLE. On the one hand, platelets activated by different stimuli (antiphospholipid antibodies, immune complexes …) participate in immune dysregulation through direct interactions with immune cells. On the other hand, autoreactive IgE can activate basophils, promoting...
Source: Clinical Reviews in Allergy and Immunology - June 28, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Principles of Allergen Immunotherapy and Its Clinical Application in China: Contrasts and Comparisons with the USA
AbstractAllergen immunotherapy (AIT) for allergic rhinitis (AR), asthma, and other allergic diseases has developed quickly. House dust mite (HDM),Artemisia (wormwood),Humulus japonicus (Japanese hop),Alternaria alternata, andCladosporium herbarum are the five most common inhalant allergens in China. AIT has been performed in China for over 60  years. With the support of the Chinese Medical Association (CMA) and the Chinese Medical Doctors Association (CMDA), the Chinese College of Allergy and Asthma (CCAA) was established in 2016 as a specialized branch of CDMA and is the main certification authority for AIT. Chinese ...
Source: Clinical Reviews in Allergy and Immunology - June 26, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Bee Venom Immunotherapy: Current Status and Future Directions
This article reviews preclinical and clinical evidence on the therapeutic potential of these new therapies. Among hypoallergenic derivatives, hybrid allergens showed a markedly reduced IgE reactivity in mouse models. Whether they will offer therapeutic benefit over extract, it is still not known since clinical trials have not been carried out yet. T cell epitope peptides have proven effective in small clinical trials. Major histocompatibility complex class II restriction was circumvented by using long overlapping or promiscuous T cell epitope peptides. However, the T cell –mediated late-phase adverse events have been...
Source: Clinical Reviews in Allergy and Immunology - June 26, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Innate B Cells: the Archetype of Protective Immune Cells
AbstractThe innate B cell (IBC) population is heterogeneous and involved in the primary immune response. IBC functions include a high ability to produce natural antibodies with IgM isotype, the elimination of apoptotic cells, and a capacity to be cognate help to T cells. Among IBC subsets, B-1 cells and marginal zone B cells are the main producers of IgM, act as rapid immune responders that may relocate to follicular lymphoid and differentiate to cytokine and antibody-secreting cells shortly after infection. IBCs functions are highly dependent on their localization site and the nature of their B cell receptor repertoire, s...
Source: Clinical Reviews in Allergy and Immunology - June 10, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Eosinophilic Esophagitis: the Potential Role of Biologics in its Treatment
AbstractEosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is a chronic, relapsing inflammatory disease of the esophagus, characterized by the presence of significant esophageal mucosal eosinophilic infiltrates. The clinical presentation of EoE in childhood may include failure to thrive and feeding intolerance. The complication of food impaction is often related to the presence of strictures or narrow caliber esophagus. Over the last decade, there has been tremendous progress in the field of eosinophilic disorders, particularly eosinophilic esophagitis. Conventional treatment of eosinophilic esophagitis involves topical swallowed steroids, sy...
Source: Clinical Reviews in Allergy and Immunology - June 7, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Autoimmunity in 2018
AbstractIn the vast database of peer-reviewed articles, the number of 2018 papers published retrieved using the “autoimmunity” keyword remained unchanged compared with the brilliant results of 2017 while returning above a 5% share within the immunology field, after the brisk decrease of this ratio in 2017. As in the past 12 years, we have now searched PubMed for publications related to autoimmunity in th e major immunology and autoimmunity peer-reviewed journals and provide here an arbitrary discussion of the major themes encountered. Once again, we are happy to notice that similarities between autoimmune ...
Source: Clinical Reviews in Allergy and Immunology - June 5, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

JAK Inhibitors Suppress Innate Epigenetic Reprogramming: a Promise for Patients with Sj ögren’s Syndrome
AbstractPathogenesis of primary Sj ögren’s syndrome (SjS) remains obscure. However, recent data demonstrate the implication of epigenetic alterations in the DNA methylation/hydroxymethylation process in SjS mostly affecting genes regulated by two innate cytokines, interferon α (IFNα) and IFNγ as well as the oxidative stress pat hways. The Janus kinase (JAK) signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) pathway is known to be activated by IFN and reactive oxygen species (ROS). This prompts us to test the potential implication of JAK/STAT signaling on DNA methylation/hydroxymethylation ...
Source: Clinical Reviews in Allergy and Immunology - June 4, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research