Infections or Vaccines Associated with Finkelstein-Seidlmayer Vasculitis: Systematic Review
In conclusion, most cases of Finkelstein-Seidlmayer vasculitis are preceded by an infection. In a minority of cases, this skin vasculitis develops before resolution of the infe ction. In most cases, however, this vasculitis develops after resolution of the infection. More rarely, this vasculitis is preceded by a vaccination. (Source: Clinical Reviews in Allergy and Immunology)
Source: Clinical Reviews in Allergy and Immunology - May 12, 2022 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Allergy to Local Anesthetics is a Rarity: Review of Diagnostics and Strategies for Clinical Management
AbstractLocal anesthetics (LA) are commonly used in procedures and in topical agents for pain management. With the increasing use of LA drugs, the management of LA reactions is more frequently encountered in the office and in operating rooms. True allergic reactions involving IgE-mediated reactions and anaphylaxis are rare; they have only been identified in case reports and account for less than 1% of adverse LA reactions. Most reactions are non-allergic or are a result of hypersensitivity to other culprits such as preservatives, excipients, or other exposures. LA reactions that are misclassified as true allergies can lead...
Source: Clinical Reviews in Allergy and Immunology - April 28, 2022 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Real-Life Effectiveness of Benralizumab, Mepolizumab and Omalizumab in Severe Allergic Asthma Associated with Nasal Polyps
AbstractBiological therapies are available for the treatment of the severe allergic asthma (SAA) with blood eosinophil count  ≥ 0.3 × 109/L. Several of them also showed benefits on nasal polyps (NP), one of the most frequent comorbidities of the severe asthma, but comparative studies on their effectiveness in the association SAA-NP are currently lacking. The aim of this study is to compare the effectiveness of benralizumab, mepolizumab and omalizumab in patients with SAA-NP in real-life settings. A retrospective, observational, multicenter real-life study was realized including patients with SAA-NP treated by be...
Source: Clinical Reviews in Allergy and Immunology - April 14, 2022 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Thoracic Involvement in Systemic Autoimmune Rheumatic Diseases: Pathogenesis and Management
AbstractThoracic involvement is one of the main determinants of morbidity and mortality in patients with autoimmune rheumatic diseases (ARDs), with different prevalence and manifestations according to the underlying disease. Interstitial lung disease (ILD) is the most common pulmonary complication, particularly in patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc), idiopathic inflammatory myopathies (IIMs) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Other thoracic manifestations include pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), mostly in patients with SSc, airway disease, mainly in RA, and pleural involvement, which is common in systemic lupus erythe...
Source: Clinical Reviews in Allergy and Immunology - March 18, 2022 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Diagnostic Modalities in Primary Immunodeficiency
AbstractAs the field of inborn errors of immunity expands, providers continually update and fine-tune their diagnostic approach and selection of testing modalities to increase diagnostic accuracy. Here, we first describe a mechanistic consideration of laboratory testing, highlighting both benefits and drawbacks of currently clinically available testing modalities. Next, we provide methods in evaluation of patients presenting with concern for inborn errors of immunity as defined by the International Union of Immunological Societies 2019 phenotypic categories: primary antibody deficiencies, cellular and humoral immune defici...
Source: Clinical Reviews in Allergy and Immunology - March 15, 2022 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

The Airway Microbiome-IL-17 Axis: a Critical Regulator of Chronic Inflammatory Disease
AbstractThe respiratory tract is home to a diverse microbial community whose influence on local and systemic immune responses is only beginning to be appreciated. Increasing reports have linked changes in this microbiome to a range of pulmonary and extrapulmonary disorders, including asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and rheumatoid arthritis. Central to many of these findings is the role of IL-17-type immunity as an important driver of inflammation. Despite the crucial role played by IL-17-mediated immune responses in protection against infection, overt Th17 cell responses have been implicated in the pathogenes...
Source: Clinical Reviews in Allergy and Immunology - March 11, 2022 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Dupilumab-Associated Adverse Events During Treatment of Allergic Diseases
AbstractAmong the new biological therapies for atopic diseases, dupilumab is a fully human monoclonal antibody directed against IL-4R α, the common chain of interleukin-4 and interleukin-13 receptors. Dupilumab showed clinical improvements in patients with atopic dermatitis, asthma, and chronic rhinosinusitis and is currently under development for other indications. While dupilumab is considered to be well tolerated, a number of recent publications have reported various adverse events. This review aims to summarize the current knowledge about these adverse events, which may help clinicians to improve the follow-up of pati...
Source: Clinical Reviews in Allergy and Immunology - March 11, 2022 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Premedication Protocols to Prevent Hypersensitivity Reactions to Chemotherapy: a Literature Review
AbstractHypersensitivity reactions (HSRs) to chemotherapy may prevent patients from receiving the most effective therapy. This review was undertaken to identify evidence-based preventive premedication strategies that reduce the likelihood of HSR in the first instance and improve the safety of subsequent infusions in patients who have demonstrated HSR to a certain class of chemotherapy.  PubMed was searched until October 2021 using the key words: “hypersensitivity to chemotherapeutic drugs,” “hypersensitivity to antineoplastic agents,” “taxanes hypersensitivity,” “platinum compound hypersensitivity,” “pre...
Source: Clinical Reviews in Allergy and Immunology - March 8, 2022 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Clinical Significance of Antinucleolar Antibodies: Biomarkers for Autoimmune Diseases, Malignancies, and others
AbstractNucleolar staining is one of the standard patterns in immunofluorescence antinuclear antibodies (ANA), seen in 5 –9% of ANA in various conditions. Antinucleolar antibodies (ANoA) are classified into 3 patterns in the International Consensus on ANA Patterns (ICAP) classification; AC-8 homogeneous pattern, AC-9 clumpy pattern, and AC-10 punctate pattern. Specificities known to show AC-8 include anti-Th/To, -PM -Scl, -nucleophosmin/B23, -nucleolin/C23, -No55, and others. AC-9 is seen by anti-fibrillarin/U3RNP and AC-10 by anti-RNA polymerase I and hUBF/NOR-90. ANoA has been classically known to be associated with sc...
Source: Clinical Reviews in Allergy and Immunology - March 8, 2022 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

A Narrative Review of Pathogenetic and Histopathologic Aspects, Epidemiology, Classification Systems, and Disease Outcome Measures in Systemic Sclerosis
AbstractSystemic sclerosis (SSc) is a rare systemic autoimmune disease, characterized by the presence of three main actors: vasculopathy, immune activation, and fibrosis. This pathologic process is then translated in a clinical picture with great variability among different patients in terms of type of organ involvement, disease severity and prognosis. This heterogeneity is a main feature of SSc, which, in addition to the presence of early phases of the disease characterized by mild symptoms, can explain the high difficulty in establishing classification criteria, and in defining patients ’ subsets and disease outcomes. ...
Source: Clinical Reviews in Allergy and Immunology - March 7, 2022 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

The Role of Autoantibody Testing in Modern Personalized Medicine
AbstractPersonalized medicine (PM) aims individualized approach to prevention, diagnosis, and treatment. Precision Medicine applies the paradigm of PM by defining groups of individuals with akin characteristics. Often the two terms have been used interchangeably. The quest for PM has been advancing for centuries as traditional nosology classification defines groups of clinical conditions with relatively similar prognoses and treatment options. However, any individual is characterized by a unique set of multiple characteristics and therefore the achievement of PM implies the determination of myriad demographic, epidemiologi...
Source: Clinical Reviews in Allergy and Immunology - March 4, 2022 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Autoantibody Markers of Increased Risk of Malignancy in Patients with Dermatomyositis
AbstractDermatomyositis is a chronic inflammatory disease involving the skin and muscles. It most commonly occurs in adults with preponderance in females, but pediatric occurrence is also possible. The risk of malignancy in adult patients with dermatomyositis was reported to be 4.66-fold higher compared to that in the general population. A significantly increased risk of malignancy was reported within the first 12 months following the diagnosis of dermatomyositis (standardized incidence ratio equaled 17). One of the characteristic laboratory findings associated with dermatomyositis is the presence of circulating autoantibo...
Source: Clinical Reviews in Allergy and Immunology - February 11, 2022 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Spectrum of Genetic T-Cell Disorders from 22q11.2DS to CHARGE
AbstractImproved genetic testing has led to recognition of a diverse group of disorders of inborn errors of immunity that present as primarily T-cell defects. These disorders present with variable degrees of immunodeficiency, autoimmunity, multiple organ system dysfunction, and neurocognitive defects. 22q11.2 deletion syndrome, commonly known as DiGeorge syndrome, represents the most common disorder on this spectrum. In most individuals, a 3  Mb deletion of 22q11 results in haploinsufficiency of 90 known genes and clinical complications of varying severity. These include cardiac, endocrine, gastrointestinal, renal, palata...
Source: Clinical Reviews in Allergy and Immunology - February 8, 2022 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

The Role of Patch Testing in Evaluating Delayed Hypersensitivity Reactions to Medications
AbstractConfirming drug imputability is an important step in the management of cutaneous adverse drug reactions (CADR). Re-challenge is inconvenient and in many cases life threatening. We review the literature on ideal patch testing technique for specific CADRs. Testing should be performed approximately 3  months after the resolution of the eruption using standard patch testing techniques. Commercially available patch test preparations are available for a minority of drugs, so in most cases, testing should be performed with the drug at various recommended concentrations and in different vehicles. Te sting to all known exc...
Source: Clinical Reviews in Allergy and Immunology - February 3, 2022 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

An Italian Multicenter Study on Anti-NXP2 Antibodies: Clinical and Serological Associations
AbstractThe identification of anti-NXP2 antibodies is considered a serological marker of dermatomyositis (DM), with calcinosis, severe myositis and, in some reports, with cancer. Historically, these associations with anti-NXP2 antibodies have been detected by immunoprecipitation (IP), but in the last few years commercial immunoblotting assays have been released. The aim of this collaborative project was to analyse the clinical features associated to anti-NXP2 antibodies, both with commercial line blot (LB) and IP. Myositis-specific and myositis-associated autoantibodies were detected in single centres by commercial line bl...
Source: Clinical Reviews in Allergy and Immunology - January 29, 2022 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research