Correction to: Targeted Anti-IL-5 Therapies and Future Therapeutics for Hypereosinophilic Syndrome and Rare Eosinophilic Conditions
Conclusion” section. (Source: Clinical Reviews in Allergy and Immunology)
Source: Clinical Reviews in Allergy and Immunology - March 17, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Maternal Nutritional Status and Development of Atopic Dermatitis in Their Offspring
AbstractAtopic dermatitis (AD) is the leading chronic skin inflammatory disease and the initial manifestation of atopic march. Available evidence supports the notion that primary prevention early in life leads to a decreased incidence of AD, thus possibly decreasing the subsequent occurrence of atopic march. Nutritional status is essential to a proper functioning immune system and is valued for its important role in AD. Essential nutrients, which include carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, vitamins, and minerals, are transferred from the mother to the fetus through the placenta during gestation. Various nutrients, such as pol...
Source: Clinical Reviews in Allergy and Immunology - March 9, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

The Role of Mast Cells in IgE-Independent Lung Diseases
AbstractMast cells (MCs) are granular cells of the innate immune system which develop from CD34+/CD117+ progenitors and play a role in orchestrating adaptive immune responses. They have a well-known role in allergic reactions following immunoglobulin (Ig)E-mediated activation of the cell-surface expressed IgE high-affinity receptor (Fc εRI). MCs can also respond to various other stimuli due to the expression of a variety of receptors including toll-like receptors (TLRs), immunoglobulin (IgG) receptors (FcγR), complement receptors such as C5a (CD88) expressed by skin MCs, neuropeptides receptors including nerve growth fac...
Source: Clinical Reviews in Allergy and Immunology - February 20, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Animal Models of Autoimmune Liver Diseases: a Comprehensive Review
AbstractAutoimmune liver diseases (AILDs) are potentially life-threatening chronic liver diseases which include autoimmune hepatitis, primary biliary cholangitis, primary sclerosing cholangitis, and recently characterized IgG4-related sclerosing cholangitis. They are caused by immune attack on hepatocytes or bile ducts, with different mechanisms and clinical manifestations. The etiologies of AILDs include a susceptible genetic background, environment insults, infections, and changes of commensal microbiota, but remain complicated. Understanding of the underlying mechanisms of AILDs is mandatory for early diagnosis and inte...
Source: Clinical Reviews in Allergy and Immunology - February 18, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Using Baseline and Peak Serum Tryptase Levels to Diagnose Anaphylaxis: a Review
AbstractThe diagnosis of anaphylaxis relies on a suggestive clinical history after exposure to a potential triggering factor. Serum tryptase concentrations increase on degranulation of mast cells and therefore serum tryptase levels are measured to diagnose anaphylaxis. There is no standardized method for assessing total serum mast cell tryptase (MCT) in anaphylaxis. The Working Conference in 2010 proposed a consensus equation (peak MCT should be>  1.2x baseline tryptase + 2 ng/L) to diagnose acute mast cell activation (aMCA). Our objective was to narratively review the literature since the Working Conference in 201...
Source: Clinical Reviews in Allergy and Immunology - February 6, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

The Current State of Biologic Therapies for Treatment of Refractory Asthma
AbstractAsthma is a heterogeneous disease, with the immune processes behind the chronic inflammation underlying this disorder differing between the various identified asthma endotypes. In addition to heterogeneity in underlying disease pathophysiology, asthmatics fall across a broad spectrum of disease severity and can vary greatly in their response to convention asthma therapies. A small percentage of patients with severe persistent asthma will remain uncontrolled despite treatment with high-dose inhaled corticosteroids and a long-acting beta-agonist. Less than two decades ago, there were few options for these treatment-r...
Source: Clinical Reviews in Allergy and Immunology - January 23, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Targeted Anti-IL-5 Therapies and Future Therapeutics for Hypereosinophilic Syndrome and Rare Eosinophilic Conditions
AbstractEosinophilic inflammation is a component of many atopic diseases such as asthma, and biologics targeting eosinophils have been shown to be effective in subsets of these patients. However, there also are conditions in which eosinophils are the key inflammatory cells responsible for driving tissue damage. In these eosinophilic diseases such as hyper-eosinophilic syndrome, eosinophilic esophagitis, and eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (EGPA), the development of biologics inhibiting eosinophilic inflammation have offered targeted therapeutic strategies for patients that have not responded well to typical f...
Source: Clinical Reviews in Allergy and Immunology - January 8, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Eczema Herpeticum: Clinical and Pathophysiological Aspects
AbstractAtopic dermatitis (AD) is the most common chronic inflammatory skin disease in the world. AD is a complex pathology mainly characterized by an impaired skin barrier, immune response dysfunction, and unbalanced skin microbiota. Moreover, AD patients exhibit an increased risk of developing bacterial and viral infections. One of the most current, and potentially life-threatening, viral infection is caused by herpes simplex virus (HSV), which occurs in about 3% of AD patients under the name of eczema herpeticum (EH). Following a first part dedicated to the clinical features, virological diagnosis, and current treatment...
Source: Clinical Reviews in Allergy and Immunology - December 12, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

The Immunopathology of Complement Proteins and Innate Immunity in Autoimmune Disease
AbstractThe complement is a powerful cascade of the innate immunity and also acts as a bridge between innate and acquired immune defence. Complement activation can occur via three distinct pathways, the classical, alternative and lectin pathways, each resulting in the common terminal pathway. Complement activation results in the release of a range of biologically active molecules that significantly contribute to immune surveillance and tissue homeostasis. Several soluble and membrane-bound regulatory proteins restrict complement activation in order to prevent complement-mediated autologous damage, consumption and exacerbat...
Source: Clinical Reviews in Allergy and Immunology - December 12, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Mast Cell Biology at Molecular Level: a Comprehensive Review
AbstractMast cells (MCs) are portions of the innate and adaptive immune system derived from bone marrow (BM) progenitors that are rich in cytoplasmic granules. MC maturation, phenotype, and function are determined by their microenvironment. MCs accumulate at inflammatory sites associated with atopy, wound healing, and malignancies. They interact with the external environment and are predominantly located in close proximity of blood vessels and sensory nerves. MCs are key initiators and modulators of allergic, anaphylactic, and other inflammatory reactions, by induction of vasodilation, promoting of vascular permeability, r...
Source: Clinical Reviews in Allergy and Immunology - December 11, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Innate-like Lymphocytes and Innate Lymphoid Cells in Asthma
AbstractAsthma is a chronic pulmonary disease, highly associated with immune disorders. The typical symptoms of asthma include airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR), airway remodeling, mucus overproduction, and airflow limitation. The etiology of asthma is multifactorial and affected by genetic and environmental factors. Increasing trends toward dysbiosis, smoking, stress, air pollution, and a western lifestyle may account for the increasing incidence of asthma. Based on the presence or absence of eosinophilic inflammation, asthma is mainly divided into T helper 2 (Th2) and non-Th2 asthma. Th2 asthma is mediated by allergen-spe...
Source: Clinical Reviews in Allergy and Immunology - November 26, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Timing of Cow ’s Milk or Cow’s Milk Formula Introduction to the Infant Diet and Atopic Risk in Children: a Systematic Review and Meta-analysis
This study aims to systematically review the evidence describing the effects of timing of CM or cow’s milk formula (CMF) introduction to the infant diet on the development of atopic diseases during childhood. Pubmed, Embase, CINAHL, Cochrane CENTRAL, and CNKI were sea rched through May 30, 2019. Study screening and data extraction by two reviewers followed the PRISMA statement. Data were extracted independently in duplicate, and meta-analyses were performed by pooling unadjusted and adjusted odds ratio (OR) separately. Heterogeneity was explored usingI2 and publication bias by funnel plots and Begg ’s tests. In total, ...
Source: Clinical Reviews in Allergy and Immunology - November 24, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Perspective: Evolving Concepts in the Diagnosis and Understanding of Common Variable Immunodeficiency Disorders (CVID)
AbstractCommon variable immunodeficiency disorders (CVID) are the most frequent symptomatic primary immune deficiency in adults. At this time, the causes of these conditions are unknown. Patients with CVID experience immune system failure consequent to late onset antibody failure. They have increased susceptibility to infections and are also at risk of severe autoimmune and inflammatory disorders as a result of immune dysregulation. An increasing number of monogenic causes as well as a digenic disorder have been described in patients with a CVID phenotype. If a causative mutation is identified, patients are removed from th...
Source: Clinical Reviews in Allergy and Immunology - November 12, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Clinical Management of Primary Biliary Cholangitis —Strategies and Evolving Trends
AbstractPBC is a chronic progressive autoimmune disorder involving the destruction of intrahepatic small bile ducts, cholestasis, fibrosis, and ultimately cirrhosis if left untreated. It is largely driven by the autoimmune response, but bile acids and the intestinal microbiota are implicated in disease progression as well. The only drugs licensed for PBC are UDCA and OCA. UDCA as a first-line and OCA as a second-line therapy are safe and effective, but the lack of response in a significant portion of patients and inadequate control of symptoms such as fatigue and pruritus remain as concerns. Liver transplantation is an end...
Source: Clinical Reviews in Allergy and Immunology - November 10, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

The Myth of Mycotoxins and Mold Injury
AbstractIn recent years, mold has been blamed for many symptoms or a constellation of symptoms. These symptoms are usually vague and subjective and difficult or impossible to measure or quantify. Moreover, there is no scientific evidence that mold has anything to do with these symptoms. In particular, the concept of toxic mold syndrome has permeated the public consciousness, and mycotoxins have falsely been associated with autoimmune diseases and a variety of other conditions. In fact, there is no evidence that the presence of mycotoxins in the air is enough to cause any disease known to man. Molds legitimately can cause a...
Source: Clinical Reviews in Allergy and Immunology - October 12, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research