IJERPH, Vol. 17, Pages 5014: Insufficient Sun Exposure Has Become a Real Public Health Problem

This article aims to alert the medical community and public health authorities to accumulating evidence on health benefits from sun exposure, which suggests that insufficient sun exposure is a significant public health problem. Studies in the past decade indicate that insufficient sun exposure may be responsible for 340,000 deaths in the United States and 480,000 deaths in Europe per year, and an increased incidence of breast cancer, colorectal cancer, hypertension, cardiovascular disease, metabolic syndrome, multiple sclerosis, Alzheimer’s disease, autism, asthma, type 1 diabetes and myopia. Vitamin D has long been considered the principal mediator of beneficial effects of sun exposure. However, oral vitamin D supplementation has not been convincingly shown to prevent the above conditions; thus, serum 25(OH)D as an indicator of vitamin D status may be a proxy for and not a mediator of beneficial effects of sun exposure. New candidate mechanisms include the release of nitric oxide from the skin and direct effects of ultraviolet radiation (UVR) on peripheral blood cells. Collectively, this evidence indicates it would be wise for people living outside the tropics to ensure they expose their skin sufficiently to the sun. To minimize the harms of excessive sun exposure, great care must be taken to avoid sunburn, and sun exposure during high ambient UVR seasons should be obtained incrementally at not more than 5–30 min a day (depending on skin type and UV index...
Source: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health - Category: Environmental Health Authors: Tags: Review Source Type: research

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Publication date: Available online 2 August 2020Source: Cirugía Española (English Edition)Author(s): Sheila Serra-Pla, Anna Pallisera-Lloveras, Laura Mora-López, Ana Granados Maturano, Sebastian Gallardo, Carmen del Pino Zurita, Xavier Serra-Aracil
Source: Cirugia Espanola - Category: Surgery Source Type: research
Solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR) induces the production of vitamin D (VD), but it also causes erythema and skin cancer among other diseases. The amount of UVR to get benefit and avoid harm is unknown. Some principles were proposed to provide accessible information on how to avoid overexposure to the Sun. They are (1) the Shadow Rule (SR); (2) the UV Index (UVI); and (3) the Slip, Slop, Slap, Seek, Slide (5S) steps. This work discusses these principles in the tropics, considering measurements of solar UVR, total ozone column, and cloudiness. Indeed, the SR leads to overexposures. The UVI is adequate for cloudless skies, bu...
Source: Health Physics - Category: Radiology Tags: NOTES Source Type: research
The excess relative risk (ERR) of mortality for circulatory disease among nuclear workers was reanalyzed by taking into consideration the annual dose as the dose rate using publicly available epidemiological data of the Hanford site dedicated to the cohort study of nuclear workers in the US, the UK, and Canada. Values of the dose rate (cut-points) were chosen at 2 mSv y−1 intervals from 2 to 40 mSv y−1, and risk estimates were made for 32,988 workers, considering the doses accumulated below and above each cut-point to have different effects. Similarly to that in the previous study for cancer by Sasaki et al., e...
Source: Health Physics - Category: Radiology Tags: PAPERS Source Type: research
Conclusions: Patients with hematologic tumors had an increase in body weight, height, and fat mass, which was not identified in the solid tumor group. The positive correlation between anthropometry (triceps skinfold thickness and arm muscle circumference), deuterium oxide dilution, and bioelectric impedance analysis shows the applicability of anthropometry in clinical practice.RESUMO Objetivo: Verificar mudan ças no estado nutricional de crianças com câncer antes e após o tratamento quimioterápico e avaliar a correlação entre diluição de óxido de deut&eac...
Source: Revista Paulista de Pediatria - Category: Pediatrics Source Type: research
This article reviews the history of syphilis, including the unethical studies undertaken in the past; current epidemiology; treatme nt guidelines; and strategies to reduce new infections.
Source: Nursing Clinics of North America - Category: Nursing Authors: Source Type: research
This article provides an overview of the incidence and prevalence of sexually transmitted infections in pregnant women in the United States. It discusses screening guidelines and best practices related to treatments. Safety, pharmacology, and monitoring of both the woman and her fetus are detailed.
Source: Nursing Clinics of North America - Category: Nursing Authors: Source Type: research
AbstractDespite tremendous progress in understanding the pathobiology of astrocytoma, major gaps remain in our knowledge of the molecular basis underlying the aggressiveness of high-grade astrocytoma (glioblastoma - GBM). Recently, we and others have shown nuclear respiratory factor 1 (NRF1) transcription factor being highly active in human cancers, but its role in astrocytoma remains unknown. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to uncover the role of NRF1 in the progression of GBM. NRF1 has higher mRNA expression and transcription factor activity in astrocytoma compared to non-tumor brain tissue. NRF1 activity also c...
Source: Molecular Neurobiology - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
Authors: Liu X, Gong Y Abstract Females are highly predisposed to the occurrence of migraine, a recurrent neurovascular headache disorder. Although migraine improves or disappears during pregnancy, a significant association between migraine and hypertension (i.e., pre-eclampsia) or vascular complications (i.e., stroke) during gestation has been determined. Low-dose aspirin exerts an antithrombotic effect and can improve vascular resistance by regulating endothelial function, which are implicated in the pathogenesis of migraine, pre-eclampsia, and other vascular complications during pregnancy. Low-dose aspirin is wi...
Source: Medical Science Monitor - Category: Research Tags: Med Sci Monit Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS In general, this study constructs a prognostic risk assessment model for gastric cancer, which could improve the prognosis stratification of patients combined with other clinical indicators. PMID: 32740646 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Medical Science Monitor - Category: Research Tags: Med Sci Monit Source Type: research
This study aimed to investigate the expression and function of FSTL5 in HCC and its role in EMT. METHODS: FSTL5, E-cadherin and vimentin in HCC, and paracancerous tissues were detected by immunohistochemistry. Correlation of FSTL5 expression with overall survival was assessed. The proliferation and invasion of HCC cell lines SK-Hep1 and MHCC-LM3 were analyzed by cell counting kit-8 and Transwell assays. The expression of FSTL5, E-cadherin, and vimentin in HCC cells was examined by polymerase chain reaction and Western blot analysis. T-test was used to analyze the difference in proliferation and invasion ability betwee...
Source: Chinese Medical Journal - Category: General Medicine Authors: Tags: Chin Med J (Engl) Source Type: research
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