Swine flu jab narcolepsy risk is very small
Conclusion This study confirms that the Pandemrix vaccine against swine flu is associated with a very small risk of narcolepsy in children and young people. As the authors point out, this risk may have been overestimated if children with narcolepsy who had been vaccinated were more rapidly referred than others because of increased awareness of the link. The methods used were practical for a rapid assessment of risk, but as this was essentially a case series analysis they are limited by a number of factors: The rates calculated are dependent on the accurate diagnosis and identification of the cases of narcolepsy. By using a particular diagnosis code (for narcolepsy and cataplexy) to identify hospital admission alongside the case reports it is possible some eligible cases were missed from the analysis. Out of the 23 centres asked only 16 replied that they had seen affected children in the relevant period and provided data. Baseline incidence was hard to estimate and capture, it varied widely between countries. There were also apparently significant increases and decreases in incidence in individual countries unrelated to vaccine use. There will inevitably be concerns that the Pandemrix vaccine was distributed too quickly and further testing should have been carried out. This ignores the context of the threat posed by swine flu at the time. At the height of the swine flu pandemic, millions of cases were occurring across the globe and there was real uncertainty about t...
In this study, aqueous suspensions of various active ingredients (A.I.s) were utilized to generate Engineered Water Nanostructures (EWNS) nano-sanitizers, containing the A.I. utilized to produced them (termed iEWNS). These iEWNS had nanoscale size, were loaded with ROS and contained the A.I. utilized to produce them. They were challenged with Influenza H1N1/PR/8 and Acinetobacter baumannii on surfaces and in air. The results indicate that a nanogram dose of A.I. is effective in producing significant inactivation in Influenza H1N1/PR/8 and Acinetobacter baumannii.
Considering the opioid epidemic, safe alternatives to opioids for pain management is paramount. Effective non-pharmacological management of chronic pain requires individuals to initiate and maintain healthy behavior changes over time. To facilitate behavioral change, an in-depth understanding of mechanisms of action underlying the intervention is required. Supported by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Common Fund, the Science of Behavior Change (SOBC) program seeks to make behavior change research more impactful, targeted, and systematic by promoting a common, mechanism-focused, experimental medicine approac...
Opioid misuse, particularly among those with chronic pain, constitutes a significant public health problem and is associated with a host of negative outcomes. Despite efforts to curb this increasing epidemic, opioids remain the most widely prescribed class of medications. Prescription opioids are often used to treat chronic pain despite the risks associated with use, and chronic pain remains an important factor in understanding this epidemic. Cannabis is another substance that has recently garnered attention in the chronic pain literature, as increasing numbers of individuals use cannabis to manage chronic pain.
Evidence supports a bidirectional relationship between characteristics of sleep and pain, however prospective and microlongitudinal studies suggest that sleep has a stronger effect on pain rather than vice versa. To develop an understanding of how changes in aspects of sleep may influence pain intensity, studies which support causal inference are required. Results from such studies may provide evidence to inform the design and evaluation of hybrid interventions for pain patients that include a sleep improvement intervention.
The widespread misuse and abuse of prescribed opioid pain relievers amongst chronic pain patients is a central contributor to the opioid epidemic. The current study aimed to identify potential risk factors and treatment targets that may reduce and prevent opioid misuse. The NIH's Patient Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS)-Abuse of Prescription Medication item bank (Rx-Abuse) was validated in both community and clinical samples to assess self-reported severity of medication abuse.
The experience of pain is different for everyone and there is considerable variability regarding pain perceptions. The recent opioid epidemic is a major source of stress for patients and clinicians alike. There is a significant need for comprehensive pain assessment and nonpharmacological treatments for pain. However, research suggests that nurses experience barriers related to the assessment and treatment of patients ’ pain. Such barriers may include not having enough time to work with patients, subjective pain assessments, medication-seeking behaviors, and lack of support from treating physicians.
Acute neuropathic pain (ANP) resulting from civilian and combat traumatic injuries has dramatic impact on society at large as it poses with significant personal and economic burden. With opioid abuse epidemic currently in public eye across all levels of society, it is pertinent new therapeutic modalities are needed to effectively treat and resolve ANP. Neuroinflammation is recognized as one of the primary drivers of acute neuropathic to chronic pain transition leading to prolonged disability and loss of productivity.
Research demonstrates bi-directional associations between sleep difficulty and chronic pain, as well as relationships between sleep, daily function, and mental health. Adolescents with chronic pain frequently report difficulty falling and staying asleep, associated daytime fatigue, and decreased energy levels. However, few studies track both objective and subjective sleep changes in adolescents with chronic pain, and how these changes impact measures of daily functioning and mental health. This prospective longitudinal study followed 62 adolescents (53 female, age 13-17) through an intensive interdisciplinary pain treatmen...
CLBP is a highly prevalent (55% adults) and expensive (costs range $84-$624.8 billion) condition in the United States. CLBP is accompanied by distressing behavioral symptoms, such as depressed mood, fatigue, and sleep disturbance, which negatively impact quality of life (QOL). The purpose of the study was to determine the extent to which behavioral symptoms (depressive mood, fatigue, poor sleep), independently or as a cluster, predict pain severity and QOL. Proinflammatory cytokine (IL-6) was evaluated to determine the extent to which inflammation may serve as a common underlying mechanism.
This study sought to characterize the etiology of sleep deficiency in adolescents with CAP and examine the associations between sleep and functioning. The sample included 21 adolescents 14 to 18 years old with CAP (female=85.7%, mean age=16.5 years). CAP is defined by abdominal pain present for two or more months, experienced at least four times per month, and not explained by another condition.
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