Salting the Earth: The Environmental Impact of Oil and Gas Wastewater Spills
When wastewater from oil and gas extraction is accidentally or illegally released into the environment, the ecological impacts can be immediate and readily visible. Less is known about the potential human health impacts of these briny releases.© Avner Vengosh Most studies of human populations have focused on residential proximity to well pads as a proxy for exposure to drilling-associated chemicals. But studies like these can’t tell which pollutants or factors might be driving associations—or whether observed health problems are even related to oil and gas extraction. © Elise Elliott Between 2009 and 2014 more than 21,000 individual spills involving over 175 million gallons of wastewater were reported in the 11 main U.S. oil- and gas-producing states of Alaska, California, Colorado, Kansas, Montana, New Mexico, North Dakota, Oklahoma, Texas, Utah, and Wyoming (shown in orange).© Map Resources, EHP A USGS scientist collects sediment samples close to a 2015 spill at Blacktail Creek in North Dakota. Samples were collected at a depth where brine might be expected to have penetrated the soil, then were shipped to various USGS laboratories to evaluate whether the spill altered sediments and microbial communities. © Adam Benthem/USGS Wastewater impacts are not confined to the area immediately around a spill or leak. This USGS sampling crew has drilled through the...
Notch signaling is a highly conserved intercellular pathway with tightly regulated and pleiotropic roles in normal tissue development and homeostasis. Dysregulated Notch signaling has also been implicated in human disease, including multiple forms of cancer, and represents an emerging therapeutic target. Successful development of such therapeutics requires a detailed understanding of potential on-target toxicities. Here, we identify autosomal dominant mutations of the canonical Notch ligand Jagged1 (or JAG1) as a cause of peripheral nerve disease in 2 unrelated families with the hereditary axonal neuropathy Charcot-Marie-T...
The rapid rise in circulating fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) associated with kidney injury results in calcitriol deficiency, altered calcium homeostasis, and secondary hyperparathyroidism, and may contribute to cardiovascular complications and death. However, the mechanisms of increased FGF23 in states of kidney injury remain unclear. In this issue of the JCI, Simic et al. screened plasma taken from the renal vein of patients undergoing cardiac catheterization and identified glycerol-3-phosphate (G-3-P) as the most significant correlate of simultaneous arterial FGF23 levels. When G-3-P was administered to mice, FGF23 ...
States with the highest rates of melanoma cases linked to ultraviolet radiation are spread across the United States on the East and West coasts, in Hawaii and in landlocked states, according to a study published Monday in the International Journal of Cancer.
Patches made from human placenta could prevent men becoming impotent following prostate cancer surgery. Incontinence and erectile dysfunction can occur in up to seven in ten men.
Once thought to be"undruggable," a target in renal cell carcinoma now has a drug aimed at it, and initial results from a small clinical trial are promising.Medscape Medical News
Ultra-processed foods are so altered that it can be hard to recognise the underlying ingredients. These include cheap vegetable oils, flours, whey proteins and sugar.
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