What Are Treatments for Hiccups?

Discussion Hiccups affect nearly everyone at sometime in their life but continue to be poorly understood and are usually considered a nuisance. The medical term for hiccups is singultus which comes from the Latin meaning “to be caught in the act of sobbing.” Hiccups are caused by a diaphragmatic spasm that causes a sudden inhalation that is interrupted by the spasmodic closure of the glottis that produces the characteristic hiccup sound. The ‘hic’ in hiccup occurs 4-60 times/minute and in adults has no physiological purpose, but in fetuses may help train inspiratory muscles for respiration after delivery. A retrospective study of consecutive patients in a community hospital found 55 of 100,000 patients had hiccups. Of those, only 2 were under age 18, so it appears that although hiccups occur in the pediatric population, they are not often brought to the attention of medical personnel. Hiccups are classified based on their duration. Acute hiccups last less than 48 hours, persistent hiccups last more than two days and intractable hiccups last more than one month. Hiccups that last more than 48 hours are more likely to be associated with an organic or anatomic problem. Hiccups are caused by a reflex arc. The afferent component is from the vagus nerve, phrenic nerve and sympathetic nerves of the thoracic outflow tract. The central nerves are in the upper spinal cord, medulla near the respiratory center, hypothalamus and reticular formation. These area...
Source: PediatricEducation.org - Category: Pediatrics Authors: Tags: Uncategorized Source Type: news

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Conclusions: Hybrid depth electrodes appear to be as safe and effective as standard depth electrodes for intracranial monitoring and provide unique opportunities to study the human brain at single-neuron resolution.Stereotact Funct Neurosurg
Source: Stereotactic and Functional Neurosurgery - Category: Neurosurgery Source Type: research
AbstractCervical spinal cord injury (SCI) can cause tetraplegia. Nerve transfer has been routinely utilized for reconstruction of hand in brachial plexus injuries. Here, we report reconstruction of finger flexion (hand grasp) and extension (hand release) in a victim of cervical spinal cord injury with tetraplegia. We also focus on importance of extension phase in restoration of hand function in the tetraplegic case, in addition to provision of a detailed description of both operations including text, photographs, and a video. We used double nerve transfer, namely brachialis branches of musculocutaneous nerve to anterior in...
Source: Acta Neurochirurgica - Category: Neurosurgery Source Type: research
Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 2018, Advance Article DOI: 10.1039/C8CP05404E, PaperEwa Mosiniewicz-Szablewska, Antonia R. Clavijo, Ana P. O. R. Castilho, Leonardo G. Paterno, Marcelo A. Pereira-da-Silva, Jaros ław Więckowski, Maria A. G. Soler, Paulo C. Morais The importance of the substrate surface effects on the magnetic behavior of layer-by-layer assembled polyvinyl alcohol/iron oxide nanofilms is evidenced. To cite this article before page numbers are assigned, use the DOI form of citation above. The content of this RSS Feed (c) The Royal Society of Chemistry
Source: RSC - Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. latest articles - Category: Chemistry Authors: Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 15 October 2018Source: Multiple Sclerosis and Related DisordersAuthor(s): Yezen Sammaraiee, Martin Yardley, Liz Keenan, Katrina Buchanan, Val Stevenson, Rachel FarrellAbstractObjectiveEvaluate long-term efficacy and safety of ITB in treating MS-related spasticity over ∼ 20 years of service provision in a single centre.MethodsA single centre prospective observational cohort study was performed. Eligible subjects underwent ITB trial by bolus dose via lumbar puncture and responders proceeded to pump implantation. Demographics, spasticity scores (Ashworth), spasm score (Penn), stiffness, ...
Source: Multiple Sclerosis and Related Disorders - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
I read with great interest the study recently published by Yamanaka and colleagues,1 reporting the results of the study aimed to pharmacologically induce β common receptor (βcR) subunit upregulation before ischemia to optimize the neuroprotective effect of erythropoietin (EPO). The authors hypothesized that βcR subunit upregulation by diazoxide (DZ) before ischemia amplifies the neuroprotective effects of EPO in mice after spinal cord injury (SCI) . They reported that that optimal βcR upregulation occurred at 36 hours after DZ administration, and the optimal DZ dosage for βcR induction was 20 mg/kg.
Source: The Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery - Category: Cardiovascular & Thoracic Surgery Authors: Tags: Adult: Aorta: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research
MPs are demanding a 5p levy on bottles of wine to pay for treating problem drinkers and alcoholics. Increasing alcohol duty by 1% could raise £100million a year and save the NHS money, it is claimed.
Source: the Mail online | Health - Category: Consumer Health News Source Type: news
We reported the organic template-free synthesis of gold (Au) nanoparticles (NPs) supported on TiO2, SiO2, and Al2O3 displaying uniform Au sizes and high dispersions over the supports. The Au-based catalysts were prepared by a deposition –precipitation method using urea as the precipitating agent. In the next step, the solvent-free oxidation of benzyl alcohol was investigated as model reaction using only 0.08–0.05 mol% of Au loadings and oxygen (O2) as the oxidant. Very high catalytic performances (TOF up to 443,624  h−1) could be achieved. Specifically, we investigated their catalytic activities...
Source: European Journal of Applied Physiology - Category: Physiology Source Type: research
Developmental Dynamics,Volume 0, Issue ja, -Not available-.
Source: Developmental Dynamics - Category: Molecular Biology Authors: Source Type: research
Enterovirus A71 (EV-A71) receptors that have been identified to date cannot fully explain the pathogenesis of EV-A71, which is an important global cause of hand, foot, and mouth disease and life-threatening encephalitis. We identified an IFN-γ–inducible EV-A71 cellular entry factor, human tryptophanyl-tRNA synthetase (hWARS), using genome-wide RNAi library screening. The importance of hWARS in mediating virus entry and infectivity was confirmed by virus attachment, in vitro pulldown, antibody/antigen blocking, and CRISPR/Cas9-mediated deletion. Hyperexpression and plasma membrane translocation of hWARS were obs...
Source: Journal of Clinical Investigation - Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Source Type: research
One in four Americans goes to a therapist, and CBT is the most popular and safest treatment for depression. But 43 percent experience anxiety, break ups or other side effects, a German study reveals.
Source: the Mail online | Health - Category: Consumer Health News Source Type: news
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