Vascular effects of insulin
Insulin affects the vascular tone through multiple and complex mechanisms involving both vasodilator and vasoconstrictor pathways (Fig. 1) that are further regulated by specific physiologic and pathologic conditions, including insulin resistance. Insulin receptors are present on both endothelial and smooth muscle cells. In the former, binding to the receptor leads to the activation of nitric oxide (NO) synthase and the release of prostaglandin I2 (PgI2) through the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (AKT) signaling, while through the RAF/mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling cascade the synthesis...
Source: Metabolism - Clinical and Experimental - September 22, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Andrea Natali, Lorenzo Nesti Source Type: research

Insulin resistance and insulin sensitizing agents
Insulin resistance is a common feature of obesity and type 2 diabetes, but novel approaches of diabetes subtyping (clustering) revealed variable degrees of insulin resistance in people with diabetes. Specifically, the severe insulin resistant diabetes (SIRD) subtype not only exhibits metabolic abnormalities, but also bears a higher risk for cardiovascular, renal and hepatic comorbidities. In humans, insulin resistance comprises dysfunctional adipose tissue, lipotoxic insulin signaling followed by glucotoxicity, oxidative stress and low-grade inflammation. (Source: Metabolism - Clinical and Experimental)
Source: Metabolism - Clinical and Experimental - September 22, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Lucia Mastrototaro, Michael Roden Source Type: research

Kidney disease in diabetes: from mechanisms to clinical presentation and treatment strategies
Metabolic and haemodynamic perturbations and their interaction drive the development of diabetic kidney disease (DKD) and its progression towards end stage renal disease (ESRD).Increased mitochondrial oxidative stress has been proposed as the central mechanism in the pathophysiology of DKD, but other mechanisms have been implicated.In parallel to increased oxidative stress, inflammation, cell apoptosis and tissue fibrosis drive the relentless progressive loss of kidney function affecting both the glomerular filtration barrier and the renal tubulointestitium. (Source: Metabolism - Clinical and Experimental)
Source: Metabolism - Clinical and Experimental - September 21, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Carlo Alberto Ricciardi, Luigi Gnudi Source Type: research

Editorial Board
(Source: Metabolism - Clinical and Experimental)
Source: Metabolism - Clinical and Experimental - September 16, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Future directions in insulin therapy
Insulin therapy has a long history at the cutting edge of technological development through purification, extended-action, molecular chemistry, and devices, and in support technologies including self-measurement and patient education. But unmet needs remain large. Today's therapy cannot deliver minute-to-minute control of glucose levels, and cannot imitate the reflex/incretin driven physiological insulin delivery at mealtimes. Further it depends on a raft of devices for administration several times a day, devices liked for their functionality, but disliked as an intrusive reminder of the condition, several times a day. (So...
Source: Metabolism - Clinical and Experimental - September 15, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Philip Home Source Type: research

Non-alcoholic Fatty liver disease, metabolic goal achievement with incident cardiovascular disease and eGFR-based chronic kidney disease in patients with prediabetes and diabetes
We aimed to evaluate the effect of NAFLD on the risk of incident cardiovascular disease (CVD) and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR)-based chronic kidney disease (CKD), and further test the joint effects and interactions between NAFLD status and individual metabolic element, as well as the total ‘ABCs’ metabolic goal achievement, on the CVD and CKD risk among 101,296 patients with prediabetes or diabetes from a prospective cohort study. (Source: Metabolism - Clinical and Experimental)
Source: Metabolism - Clinical and Experimental - September 9, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Mian Li, Zhiyun Zhao, Guijun Qin, Li Chen, Jieli Lu, Yanan Huo, Lulu Chen, Tianshu Zeng, Min Xu, Yuhong Chen, Tiange Wang, Shuangyuan Wang, Yiping Xu, Lixin Shi, Xulei Tang, Qing Su, Xuefeng Yu, Li Yan, Qin Wan, Gang Chen, Zhengnan Gao, Guixia Wang, Feixi Source Type: research

ApoA-I mimetics favorably impact cyclooxygenase 2 and bioactive lipids that may contribute to cardiometabolic syndrome in chronic treated HIV
We investigated whether apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) mimetic peptides 4F and 6F can be a novel therapeutic strategy to reduce blood and gut bioactive lipids, proinflammatory effects of endotoxin (LPS) and aberrant activation of cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) as instigators of increased risk for cardiometabolic disease in chronic treated HIV. (Source: Metabolism - Clinical and Experimental)
Source: Metabolism - Clinical and Experimental - September 9, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: M. Daskou, M. Sharma, W. Mu, R. Heymans, E. Ritou, V. Rezek, P. Hamid, A. Kossyvakis, S. Sen Roy, V. Grijalva, A. Chattopadhyay, J. Papesh, D. Meriwether, S.G. Kitchen, A.M. Fogelman, S.T. Reddy, T. Kelesidis Source Type: research

Unravelling Lipoprotein Metabolism with Stable Isotopes: Tracing the Flow
Dysregulated lipoprotein metabolism is a major case of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD). Use of stable isotope tracers and compartmental modelling have provided deeper understanding of the mechanisms underlying lipid disorders in patients at high risk of ASCVD, including familial hypercholesterolemia (FH), elevated lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)] and metabolic syndrome (MetS). In patients with FH, deficiency in low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor activity does not only impair the catabolism of LDL, but also induces hepatic overproduction and decreases catabolism of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins (TRLs). (Source: Me...
Source: Metabolism - Clinical and Experimental - September 7, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Qidi Ying, Dick C. Chan, P. Hugh R. Barrett, Gerald F. Watts Source Type: research

Metabolic improvement after gastric bypass correlates with changes in IGF-regulatory proteins stanniocalcin-2 and IGFBP-4
Pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A) is an enzyme that increases IGF-activity through cleavage of IGF-binding proteins (IGFBPs), primarily IGFBP-4, whereby bound IGF-I becomes released as a free molecule. The enzymatic activity of PAPP-A is irreversibly suppressed by the glycoprotein stanniocalcin-2 (STC2). Pre-clinical and clinical studies suggest that the STC2 – PAPP-A – IGFBP-4 axis is important in controlling local IGF-action. STC2, PAPP-A and IGFBP-4 are expressed in adipose tissue, and as bariatric surgery markedly reduces the amount of fat, we found it relevant to study the impact of Roux-en-Y ...
Source: Metabolism - Clinical and Experimental - September 6, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Rikke Hjortebjerg, Kirstine N. Bojsen-M øller, Mette Søeby, Claus Oxvig, Sten Madsbad, Jan Frystyk Source Type: research

Artificial intelligence and diabetes technology: a review
Artificial intelligence (AI) is widely discussed in the popular literature and is portrayed as impacting many aspects of human life, both in and out of the workplace. The potential for revolutionizing healthcare is significant because of the availability of increasingly powerful computational platforms and methods, along with increasingly informative sources of patient data, both in and out of clinical settings. This review aims to provide a realistic assessment of the potential for AI in understanding and managing diabetes, accounting for the state of the art in the methodology and medical devices that collect data, proce...
Source: Metabolism - Clinical and Experimental - September 1, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Thibault Gautier, Leah B. Ziegler, Matthew S. Gerber, Enrique Campos-N áñez, Stephen D. Patek Source Type: research

The β-cell glucose toxicity hypothesis: attractive but difficult to prove
β cells in the hyperglycemic environment of diabetes have marked changes in phenotype and function that are largely reversible if glucose levels can be returned to normal. A leading hypothesis is that these changes are caused by the elevated glucose levels leading to the concept of glucose toxicity . Support for the glucose toxicity hypothesis is largely circumstantial, but little progress has been made in defining the responsible mechanisms. Then questions emerge that are difficult to answer. In the very earliest stages of diabetes development, there is a dramatic loss of glucose-induced firs t-phase insulin release ...
Source: Metabolism - Clinical and Experimental - August 31, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Gordon C. Weir, Peter C. Butler, Susan Bonner-Weir Source Type: research

Deletion of BCATm increases insulin-stimulated glucose oxidation in the heart
Branched chain amino acid (BCAA) oxidation is impaired in cardiac insulin resistance, leading to the accumulation of BCAAs and the first products of BCAA oxidation, the branched chain ketoacids. However, it is not clear whether it is the BCAAs, BCKAs or both that are mediating cardiac insulin resistance. To determine this, we produced mice with a cardiac-specific deletion of BCAA aminotransferase (BCATm −/−), the first enzyme in the BCAA oxidation pathway that is responsible for converting BCAAs to BCKAs. (Source: Metabolism - Clinical and Experimental)
Source: Metabolism - Clinical and Experimental - August 31, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Golam M. Uddin, Qutuba G. Karwi, Simran Pherwani, Keshav Gopal, Cory S. Wagg, Dipsikha Biswas, Mariam Atnasious, Yikuan Wu, Guoqing Wu, Liyan Zhang, Kim L. Ho, Thomas Pulinilkunnil, John R. Ussher, Gary D. Lopaschuk Source Type: research

Diet and exercise reduce pre-existing NASH and fibrosis and have additional beneficial effects on the vasculature, adipose tissue and skeletal muscle via organ-crosstalk
Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) has become one of the most common liver diseases and is still without approved pharmacotherapy. Lifestyle interventions using exercise and diet change remain the current treatment of choice and even a small weight loss (5 –7%) can already have a beneficial effect on NASH. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms of exercise and diet interventions remain largely elusive, and it is unclear whether they exert their health effects via similar or different pathways. (Source: Metabolism - Clinical and Experimental)
Source: Metabolism - Clinical and Experimental - August 31, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Anita M. van den Hoek, Jelle C.B.C. de Jong, Nicole Worms, Anita van Nieuwkoop, Marijke Voskuilen, Aswin L. Menke, Serene Lek, Martien P.M. Caspers, Lars Verschuren, Robert Kleemann Source Type: research

Glucose Transporter 3 in Neuronal Glucose Metabolism: Health and Diseases
Neurons obtain glucose from extracellular environment for energy production mainly depending on glucose transporter 3 (GLUT3). GLUT3 uptakes glucose with high affinity and great transport capacity, and is important for neuronal energy metabolism. This review summarized the role of neuronal GLUT3 in brain metabolism, function and development under both physiological conditions and in diseases, aiming to provide insights into neuronal glucose metabolism and its effect on brain. GLUT3 stabilizes neuronal glucose uptake and utilization, influences brain development and function, and ameliorates aging-related manifestations. (S...
Source: Metabolism - Clinical and Experimental - August 20, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Wuxue Peng, Changhong Tan, Lijuan Mo, Jin Jiang, Wen Zhou, Juncong Du, Xuan Zhou, Xi Liu, Lifen Chen Source Type: research

Editorial Board
(Source: Metabolism - Clinical and Experimental)
Source: Metabolism - Clinical and Experimental - August 19, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Management of diabetic neuropathy
Diabetic neuropathy is a neurodegenerative disorder that may alter both the somatic and autonomic peripheral nervous systems in the context of diabetes mellitus (DM). It is a prevalent and burdensome chronic complication of DM, that requires timely management. Optimized glycemic control (mainly for type 1 DM), multifactorial intervention (mainly for type 2 DM), with lifestyle intervention/physical exercise, and weight loss represent the basis of management for diabetic distal symmetrical polyneuropathy, and should be implemented early in the disease course. (Source: Metabolism - Clinical and Experimental)
Source: Metabolism - Clinical and Experimental - August 16, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Simona Cernea, Itamar Raz Source Type: research

Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease increases the risk of diabetes in young adults: a nationwide population-based study in Korea
In this study, we investigated the relationship between NAFLD and incident diabetes risk in young adults using nationwide Korean population data. (Source: Metabolism - Clinical and Experimental)
Source: Metabolism - Clinical and Experimental - August 16, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Goh Eun Chung, Eun Ju Cho, Ji Won Yoon, Jeong-Ju Yoo, Young Chang, Yuri Cho, Sang-Hyun Park, Kyungdo Han, Dong Wook Shin, Su Jong Yu Source Type: research

Diabetes and metabolic dysfunction-associated fatty liver disease
Metabolic dysfunction-associated fatty liver disease (MAFLD) is a relatively novel classification which downplays the importance of alcohol in the definition of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and emphasizes the metabolic risk factors that underlie progression of NAFLD-associated pathology. All people with type 2 diabetes (T2D) and hepatic fat content>5% by biomarkers, imaging or biopsy are considered to have MAFLD. Since there have been very few published studies of MAFLD in diabetes, the present review assesses contemporary methods for quantifying liver fat and fibrosis (including those based on magnetic res...
Source: Metabolism - Clinical and Experimental - August 13, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Timothy M.E. Davis Source Type: research

AMP deamination is sufficient to replicate an atrophy-like metabolic phenotype in skeletal muscle
Skeletal muscle atrophy, whether caused by chronic disease, acute critical illness, disuse or aging, is characterized by tissue-specific decrease in oxidative capacity and broad alterations in metabolism that contribute to functional decline. However, the underlying mechanisms responsible for these metabolic changes are largely unknown. One of the most highly upregulated genes in atrophic muscle is AMP deaminase 3 (AMPD3: AMP  → IMP+NH3), which controls the content of intracellular adenine nucleotides (AdN; ATP + ADP + AMP). (Source: Metabolism - Clinical and Experimental)
Source: Metabolism - Clinical and Experimental - August 12, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Spencer G. Miller, Paul S. Hafen, Andrew S. Law, Catherine B. Springer, David L. Logsdon, Thomas M. O'Connell, Carol A. Witczak, Jeffrey J. Brault Source Type: research

Dietary carbohydrate intake and new-onset diabetes: A Nationwide Cohort Study in China
The association of carbohydrate intake with diabetes risk remains uncertain. We aimed to evaluate the prospective associations of the amount and types of carbohydrate intake with new-onset diabetes. (Source: Metabolism - Clinical and Experimental)
Source: Metabolism - Clinical and Experimental - August 12, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Chun Zhou, Zhuxian Zhang, Mengyi Liu, Yuanyuan Zhang, Huan Li, Panpan He, Qinqin Li, Chengzhang Liu, Xianhui Qin Source Type: research

Ischemic heart failure mortality is not predicted by cardiac insulin resistance but by diabetes per se and coronary flow reserve: A retrospective dynamic cardiac 18F-FDG PET study
The connection between peripheral insulin resistance (IR) and coronary artery disease is well-established. Both are major risk factors for the development of ischemic cardiomyopathy potentially leading to heart failure (HF). Whether cardiac IR also impacts overall survival and morbidity is still debated. We therefore aimed to test if cardiac IR predicts mortality and major cardiovascular events (MACE) in patients with HF scheduled for cardiac viability testing before revascularization. (Source: Metabolism - Clinical and Experimental)
Source: Metabolism - Clinical and Experimental - August 7, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Thien Vinh Luong, Mette Glavind B ülow Pedersen, Mette Louise Blouner Gram Kjærulff, Simon Madsen, Katrine Meyer Lauritsen, Lars Poulsen Tolbod, Esben Søndergaard, Lars Christian Gormsen Tags: Clinical Science Source Type: research

Ischemic heart failure mortality is not predicted by cardiac insulin resistance but by diabetes perse and coronary flow reserve: A retrospective dynamic cardiac 18F-FDG PET study
Background& aims.The connection between peripheral insulin resistance (IR) and coronary artery disease is well-established. Both are major risk factors for the development of ischemic cardiomyopathy potentially leading to heart failure (HF). Whether cardiac IR also impacts overall survival and morbidity is still debated. We therefore aimed to test if cardiac IR predicts mortality and major cardiovascular events (MACE) in patients with HF scheduled for cardiac viability testing before revascularization. (Source: Metabolism - Clinical and Experimental)
Source: Metabolism - Clinical and Experimental - August 7, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Thien Vinh Luong, Mette Glavind B ülow Pedersen, Mette Louise Blouner Gram Kjærulff, Simon Madsen, Katrine Meyer Lauritsen, Lars Poulsen Tolbod, Esben Søndergaard, Lars C. Gormsen Source Type: research

Rheb1 Promotes Glucose-stimulated Insulin Secretion in Human and Mouse β-cells by Upregulating GLUT Expression
Reduced β-cell mass and impaired β-cell function are primary causes of all types of diabetes. However, the intrinsic molecular mechanism that regulates β-cell growth and function remains elusive. Here, we demonstrate that the small GTPase Rheb1 is a critical regulator of glucose-stimulated insulin secret ion (GSIS) in β-cells. Rheb1 was highly expressed in mouse and human islets. In addition, β-cell-specific knockout of Rheb1 reduced the β-cell size and mass by suppressing β-cell proliferation and increasing β-cell apoptosis. (Source: Metabolism - Clinical and Experimental)
Source: Metabolism - Clinical and Experimental - August 7, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Yan Yang, Zixin Cai, Zhenhong Pan, Fen Liu, Dandan Li, Yujiao Ji, Jiaxin Zhong, Hairong Luo, Shanbiao Hu, Lei Song, Shaojie Yu, Ting Li, Jiequn Li, Xianhua Ma, Weiping Zhang, Zhiguang Zhou, Feng Liu, Jingjing Zhang Source Type: research

Ovarian insufficiency impairs glucose-stimulated insulin secretion through activation of hypothalamic de novo ceramide synthesis
Oestrogens regulate body weight through their action on hypothalamus to modulate food intake and energy expenditure. Hypothalamic de novo ceramide synthesis play a central role on obesity induced by oestrogen deficiency. Depletion in oestrogens is also known to be associated with glucose intolerance, which favours type 2 diabetes (T2D). However, the implication of hypothalamic ceramide in the regulation of glucose homeostasis by oestrogen is unknown. Here, we studied glucose homeostasis and insulin secretion in ovariectomized (OVX) female rats. (Source: Metabolism - Clinical and Experimental)
Source: Metabolism - Clinical and Experimental - August 6, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Kelly Meneyrol, Ánxela Estévez-Salguero, Ismael González-García, Jeanne Guitton, Mohammed Taouis, Yacir Benomar, Christophe Magnan, Miguel López, Hervé Le Stunff Source Type: research

Pharmacological inhibition of acyl-coenzyme A:cholesterol acyltransferase alleviates obesity and insulin resistance in diet-induced obese mice by regulating food intake
Acyl-coenzyme A:cholesterol acyltransferases (ACATs) catalyze the formation of cholesteryl ester (CE) from free cholesterol to regulate intracellular cholesterol homeostasis. Despite the well-documented role of ACATs in hypercholesterolemia and their emerging role in cancer and Alzheimer's disease, the role of ACATs in adipose lipid metabolism and obesity is poorly understood. Herein, we investigated the therapeutic potential of pharmacological inhibition of ACATs in obesity. (Source: Metabolism - Clinical and Experimental)
Source: Metabolism - Clinical and Experimental - August 6, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Yuyan Zhu, Sora Q. Kim, Yuan Zhang, Qing Liu, Kee-Hong Kim Source Type: research

Atypical antipsychotic drugs deregulate the cholesterol metabolism of macrophage-foam cells by activating NOX-ROS-PPAR γ-CD36 signaling pathway
Clinical reports indicate that schizophrenia patients taking atypical antipsychotic drugs suffer from metabolism diseases including atherosclerosis. However, the mechanisms underlying the detrimental effect of atypical antipsychotic drugs on atherosclerosis remain to be explored. (Source: Metabolism - Clinical and Experimental)
Source: Metabolism - Clinical and Experimental - August 5, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Chia-Hui Chen, Shr-Jeng Jim Leu, Chiao-Po Hsu, Ching-Chian Pan, Song-Kun Shyue, Tzong-Shyuan Lee Tags: Basic Science Source Type: research

Association of prediabetes, diabetes, and diabetes duration with biliary tract cancer risk: A nationwide cohort study
Population-based evidence of the association between diabetes and biliary tract cancer (BTC) risk is lacking. We aimed to evaluate the association of prediabetes, diabetes, and diabetes duration with subsequent risk of BTC, including cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) and gallbladder cancer (GBC), in the Korean general population. (Source: Metabolism - Clinical and Experimental)
Source: Metabolism - Clinical and Experimental - August 5, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Joo-Hyun Park, Jung Yong Hong, Young Suk Park, Gunseog Kang, Kyungdo Han, Joon Oh Park Tags: Clinical Science Source Type: research

Glycemic status and biliary tract cancer
Background& aims.Population-based evidence of the association between diabetes and biliary tract cancer (BTC) risk is lacking. We aimed to evaluate the association of prediabetes, diabetes, and diabetes duration with subsequent risk of BTC, including cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) and gallbladder cancer (GBC), in the Korean general population. (Source: Metabolism - Clinical and Experimental)
Source: Metabolism - Clinical and Experimental - August 5, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Joo-Hyun Park, Jung Yong Hong, Young Suk Park, Gunseog Kang, Kyungdo Han, Joon Oh. Park Source Type: research

Thromboembolism risk among patients with diabetes/stress hyperglycemia and COVID-19
Individuals with diabetes/stress hyperglycemia carry an increased risk for adverse clinical outcome in case of SARS-CoV-2 infection. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether this risk is, at least in part, modulated by an increase of thromboembolic complications. (Source: Metabolism - Clinical and Experimental)
Source: Metabolism - Clinical and Experimental - August 5, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Stefania L. Calvisi, Giuseppe A. Ramirez, Marina Scavini, Valentina Da Prat, Giuseppe Di Lucca, Andrea Laurenzi, Gabriele Gallina, Ludovica Cavallo, Giorgia Borio, Federica Farolfi, Maria Pascali, Jacopo Castellani, Vito Lampasona, Armando D'Angelo, Giova Source Type: research

Atypical antipsychotics and CD36 pathway
Clinical reports indicate that schizophrenia patients taking atypical antipsychotic drugs suffer from metabolism diseases including atherosclerosis. However, the mechanisms underlying the detrimental effect of atypical antipsychotic drugs on atherosclerosis remain to be explored. (Source: Metabolism - Clinical and Experimental)
Source: Metabolism - Clinical and Experimental - August 5, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Chia-Hui Chen, Shr-Jeng Jim Leu, Chiao-Po Hsu, Ching-Chian Pan, Song-Kun Shyue, Tzong-Shyuan Lee Source Type: research

Intestine-liver crosstalk in Type 2 Diabetes and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease
Type 2 diabetes (T2D) and Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD) are pathologies whose prevalence continues to increase worldwide. Both diseases are precipitated by an excessive caloric intake, which promotes insulin resistance and fatty liver. The role of the intestine and its crosstalk with the liver in the development of these metabolic diseases is receiving increasing attention. Alterations in diet-intestinal microbiota interactions lead to the dysregulation of intestinal functions, resulting in altered metabolite and energy substrate production and increased intestinal permeability. (Source: Metabolism - Clinical and Experimental)
Source: Metabolism - Clinical and Experimental - August 2, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Margaux Nawrot, Simon Peschard, Sophie Lestavel, Bart Staels Tags: Article from the Diabetes: State-of-the-art 100 years after the discovery of insulin Special Issue, Edited by Stergios Polyzos and Christos Mantzoros Source Type: research

Diabetic ketoacidosis in pediatric patients with type 1- and type 2 diabetes during the COVID-19 pandemic
COVID-19 pandemic caused families to stay home and cancel everyday activities. Hospital admissions decreased, affecting changes in diagnoses and management of chronic disease in children. (Source: Metabolism - Clinical and Experimental)
Source: Metabolism - Clinical and Experimental - August 2, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Charlotte Loh, Paul Weihe, Nicole Kuplin, Kerstin Placzek, Susann Weihrauch-Bl üher Tags: COVID-19 in Metabolism Source Type: research

Diabetic ketoacidosis in pediatric patients with type1- and type2 diabetes during the COVID-19 pandemic
COVID-19 pandemic caused families to stay home and cancel everyday activities. Hospital admissions decreased, affecting changes in diagnoses and management of chronic disease in children. (Source: Metabolism - Clinical and Experimental)
Source: Metabolism - Clinical and Experimental - August 2, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Charlotte Loh, Paul Weihe, Nicole Kuplin, Kerstin Placzek, Susann Weihrauch-Bl üher Source Type: research

Intestine-Liver Cross-talk in Type 2 Diabetes and Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease
Type 2 diabetes (T2D) and Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD) are pathologies whose prevalence continues to increase worldwide. Both diseases are precipitated by an excessive caloric intake, which promotes insulin resistance and fatty liver. The role of the intestine and its crosstalk with the liver in the development of these metabolic diseases is receiving increasing attention. Alterations in diet-intestinal microbiota interactions lead to the dysregulation of intestinal functions, resulting in altered metabolite and energy substrate production and increased intestinal permeability. (Source: Metabolism - Clinical and Experimental)
Source: Metabolism - Clinical and Experimental - August 2, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Margaux NAWROT, Simon PESCHARD, Sophie LESTAVEL, Bart STAELS Source Type: research

Current trends in epidemiology of cardiovascular disease and cardiovascular risk management in type 2 diabetes
With the advances in diabetes care, the trend of incident cardiovascular disease (CVD) in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) has been decreasing over past decades. However, given that CVD is still a major cause of death in patients with diabetes and that the risk of CVD in patients with T2DM is more than twice that in those without DM, there are still considerable challenges to the prevention of CVD in diabetes. Accordingly, there have been several research efforts to decrease cardiovascular (CV) risk in T2DM. (Source: Metabolism - Clinical and Experimental)
Source: Metabolism - Clinical and Experimental - July 29, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Jae-Seung Yun, Seung-Hyun Ko Source Type: research

Hearing loss in inherited metabolic disorders: a systematic review
Inherited metabolic disorders (IMDs) have been observed in individuals with hearing loss (HL), but IMDs are rarely the cause of syndromic HL. With early diagnosis, management of HL is more effective and cortical reorganization is possible with hearing aids or cochlear implants. This review describes relationships between IMDs and HL in terms of incidence, etiology of HL, pathophysiology, and treatment. Forty types of IMDs are described in the literature, mainly in case reports. Management and prognosis are noted where existing. (Source: Metabolism - Clinical and Experimental)
Source: Metabolism - Clinical and Experimental - July 29, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: T.-T. Trinh, H. Blasco, F. Maillot, D. Bakhos Source Type: research

Incretin-based therapies in 2021 – current status and perspectives for the future
(See Fig. 1.) (Source: Metabolism - Clinical and Experimental)
Source: Metabolism - Clinical and Experimental - July 29, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Manfredi Rizzo, Michael A. Nauck, Christos S. Mantzoros Source Type: research

Bone morphogenetic Proteins (BMPs) in the central regulation of energy balance and adult neural plasticity
Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are multi-functional growth factors belonging to the Transforming Growth Factor- β (TGF-β) superfamily [1]. BMPs were first discovered in the 1960's, and while initially believed to only be involved in bone formation, BMPs are now understood to be involved in numerous cell regulatory processes. These include cell growth, proliferation, differentiation, migration, and apoptosis , as well as the development and life-long function of various tissues and organs such as the brain [2–5]. (Source: Metabolism - Clinical and Experimental)
Source: Metabolism - Clinical and Experimental - July 28, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Gabriel S. Jensen, Noelle E. Leon-Palmer, Kristy L. Townsend Source Type: research

The response to prolonged fasting in hypothalamic serotonin transporter availability is blunted in obesity
Serotonergic and dopaminergic systems in the brain are essential for homeostatic and reward-associated regulation of food intake and systemic energy metabolism. It is largely unknown how fasting influences these systems or if such effects are altered in humans with obesity. We therefore aimed to evaluate the effects of fasting on hypothalamic/thalamic serotonin transporter (SERT) and striatal dopamine transporter (DAT) availability in lean subjects and subjects with obesity. (Source: Metabolism - Clinical and Experimental)
Source: Metabolism - Clinical and Experimental - July 28, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Katy A. van Galen, Jan Booij, Anouk Schrantee, Sofie M. Adriaanse, Unga A. Unmehopa, Eric Fliers, Gary J. Schwartz, Ralph J. DiLeone, Kasper W. ter Horst, Susanne E. la Fleur, Mireille J. Serlie Source Type: research

FUNDC1 Insufficiency Sensitizes High Fat Diet Intake-Induced Cardiac Remodeling and Contractile Anomaly through ACSL4-Mediated Ferroptosis
Ferroptosis is indicated in cardiovascular diseases. Given the prominent role of mitophagy in the governance of ferroptosis and our recent finding for FUN14 domain containing 1 (FUNDC1) in obesity anomalies, this study evaluated the impact of FUNDC1 deficiency in high fat diet (HFD)-induced cardiac anomalies. (Source: Metabolism - Clinical and Experimental)
Source: Metabolism - Clinical and Experimental - July 28, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Zhaohui Pei, Yandong Liu, Suqin Liu, Wei Jin, Yuanfei Luo, Mingming Sun, Yu Duan, Amir Ajoolabady, James R. Sowers, Yan Fang, Feng Cao, Haixia Xu, Yaguang Bi, Shuyi Wang, Jun Ren Source Type: research

TEMPORARY REMOVAL: Preparing for the NASH epidemic: A call to action
The publisher regrets that this article has been temporarily removed. A replacement will appear as soon as possible in which the reason for the removal of the article will be specified, or the article will be reinstated.The full Elsevier Policy on Article Withdrawal can be found at https://www.elsevier.com/about/our-business/policies/article-withdrawal. (Source: Metabolism - Clinical and Experimental)
Source: Metabolism - Clinical and Experimental - July 18, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Fasiha Kanwal, Jay H. Shubrook, Zobair Younossi, Yamini Natarajan, Elisabetta Bugianesi, Mary E. Rinella, Stephen A. Harrison, Christos Mantzoros, Kim Pfotenhauer, Samuel Klein, Robert H. Eckel, Davida Kruger, Hashem El-Serag, Kenneth Cusi Source Type: research

Preparing for the NASH epidemic: A call to action
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) are common conditions with a rising burden. Yet there are significant management gaps between clinical guidelines and practice in patients with NAFLD and NASH. Further, there is no single global guiding strategy for the management of NAFLD and NASH. The American Gastroenterological Association, in collaboration with 7 professional associations, convened an international conference comprising 32 experts in gastroenterology, hepatology, endocrinology, and primary care providers from the United States, Europe, Asia, and Australia. (Source: Metabo...
Source: Metabolism - Clinical and Experimental - July 18, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Fasiha Kanwal, Jay H. Shubrook, Zobair Younossi, Yamini Natarajan, Elisabetta Bugianesi, Mary E. Rinella, Stephen A. Harrison, Christos Mantzoros, Kim Pfotenhauer, Samuel Klein, Robert H. Eckel, Davida Kruger, Hashem El-Serag, Kenneth Cusi Tags: Brief Report Source Type: research

Editorial Board
(Source: Metabolism - Clinical and Experimental)
Source: Metabolism - Clinical and Experimental - July 8, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Exosomes: advances, development and potential therapeutic strategies in diabetic nephropathy
Exosomes, a major type of extracellular vesicles (EVs), are nanoscale vesicles excreted by almost all cell types via invagination of the endosomal membrane pathway. Exosomes play a crucial role in the mediation of intercellular communication both in health and disease, which can be ascribed to their capacity to be transported to neighboring or distant cells, thus regulating the biological function of recipient cells through cargos such as DNA, mRNA, proteins and microRNA. Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is a serious microvascular complication associated with diabetes mellitus as well as a significant cause of end-stage renal dis...
Source: Metabolism - Clinical and Experimental - July 1, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Jingfang Chen, Qing Zhang, Dongwei Liu, Zhangsuo Liu Source Type: research

Suppressor of cytokine signalling-2 controls hepatic gluconeogenesis and hyperglycemia by modulating JAK2/STAT5 Signalling pathway
Hepatic gluconeogenesis plays a crucial role in maintaining blood glucose homeostasis in mammals. Globe knockout of suppressor of cytokine signalling-2 (SOCS2), a feedback inhibitor of cytokine signalling, has been shown resistant to high-fat-diet (HFD)-induced hepatic steatosis with impaired glucose tolerance in mice. However, the underlying mechanism of SOCS2 regulates hepatic glucose homeostasis still undefined. In the present study, we demonstrated that the hepatic SOCS2 expression is markedly reduced in fasted C57BL/6  J mice or db/db mice. (Source: Metabolism - Clinical and Experimental)
Source: Metabolism - Clinical and Experimental - June 28, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Xu ZHANG, Yuan ZHUANG, Tian QIN, Meijia CHANG, J.I. Xuetao, Ning WANG, Zhilei ZHANG, Hongwen ZHOU, Qian WANG, L.I. John Zhong Source Type: research

Non-glucose modulators of insulin secretion in healthy humans: (dis)similarities between islet and in vivo studies
Optimal metabolic homeostasis requires precise temporal and quantitative control of insulin secretion. Both in vivo and in vitro studies have often focused on the regulation by glucose although many additional factors including other nutrients, neurotransmitters, hormones and drugs, modulate the secretory function of pancreatic β-cells. This review is based on the analysis of clinical investigations characterizing the effects of non-glucose modulators of insulin secretion in healthy subjects, and of experimental studies testing the same modulators in islets isolated from normal human donors. (Source: Metabolism - Clin...
Source: Metabolism - Clinical and Experimental - June 23, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Jean-Claude Henquin Tags: Review for special issue “An insulin centennial” Source Type: research

An updated meta-analysis on the relationship between obesity and COVID-19 mortality
This study was greatly interesting, but had limited sample sizes. In addition, several eligible studies [2–5] published before August 10, 2020 were not included. (Source: Metabolism - Clinical and Experimental)
Source: Metabolism - Clinical and Experimental - June 22, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Yadong Wang, Jie Xu, Ying Wang, Hongjie Hou, Huifen Feng, Haiyan Yang Tags: Correspondence Source Type: research

Obesity and COVID-19 mortality
Conflicts of interest: All authors report that they have no potential conflicts of interest. (Source: Metabolism - Clinical and Experimental)
Source: Metabolism - Clinical and Experimental - June 22, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Yadong Wang, Jie Xu, Ying Wang, Hongjie Hou, Huifen Feng, Haiyan Yang Source Type: research

Circulating α-klotho regulates metabolism via distinct central and peripheral mechanisms
Emerging evidence implicates the circulating α-klotho protein as a prominent regulator of energy balance and substrate metabolism, with diverse, tissue-specific functions. Despite its well-documented ubiquitous role inhibiting insulin signaling, α-klotho elicits potent antidiabetic and anti-obesogenic effects. α-Klotho facilitates insulin r elease and promotes β cell health in the pancreas, stimulates lipid oxidation in liver and adipose tissue, attenuates hepatic gluconeogenesis, and increases whole-body energy expenditure. (Source: Metabolism - Clinical and Experimental)
Source: Metabolism - Clinical and Experimental - June 18, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Taylor Landry, Daniel Shookster, Hu Huang Source Type: research

Irisin in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: need for an updated meta-analysis
Not required for Letters. (Source: Metabolism - Clinical and Experimental)
Source: Metabolism - Clinical and Experimental - June 18, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Stergios A. Polyzos, Jannis Kountouras, Athanasios D. Anastasilakis Source Type: research