Diabetes and COVID-19: The Past, The Present, and The Future
Diabetes, one of the most prevalent chronic diseases in the world, is strongly associated with a poor prognosis in COVID-19. Scrupulous blood sugar management is crucial, since the worse outcomes are closely associated with higher blood sugar levels in COVID-19 infection. Although recent observational studies showed that insulin was associated with mortality, it should not deter insulin use in hospitalized patients requiring tight glucose control. Back and forth dilemma in the past with regards to continue/discontinue certain medications used in diabetes have been mostly resolved. (Source: Metabolism - Clinical and Experimental)
Source: Metabolism - Clinical and Experimental - June 10, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Raymond Pranata, Joshua Henrina, Wilson Matthew Raffaello, Sherly Lawrensia, Ian Huang Source Type: research

Four-and-a-half LIM domain protein 2 (FHL2) deficiency protects mice from diet-induced obesity and high FHL2 expression marks human obesity
Four-and-a-Half-LIM-domain-protein 2 (FHL2) modulates multiple signal transduction pathways but has not been implicated in obesity or energy metabolism. In humans, methylation and expression of the FHL2 gene increases with age, and high FHL2 expression is associated with increased body weight in humans and mice. This led us to hypothesize that FHL2 is a determinant of diet-induced obesity. (Source: Metabolism - Clinical and Experimental)
Source: Metabolism - Clinical and Experimental - June 10, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Maria P. Clemente-Olivo, Jayron J. Habibe, Mariska Vos, Roelof Ottenhoff, Aldo Jongejan, Hilde Herrema, Noam Zelcer, Sander Kooijman, Patrick C.N. Rensen, Dani ël H. van Raalte, Max Nieuwdorp, Etto C. Eringa, Carlie J. de Vries Source Type: research

Lipids activate skeletal muscle mitochondrial fission and quality control networks to induce insulin resistance in humans
A diminution in skeletal muscle mitochondrial function due to ectopic lipid accumulation and excess nutrient intake is thought to contribute to insulin resistance and the development of type 2 diabetes. However, the functional integrity of mitochondria in insulin-resistant skeletal muscle remains highly controversial. (Source: Metabolism - Clinical and Experimental)
Source: Metabolism - Clinical and Experimental - June 3, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Christopher L. Axelrod, Ciaran E. Fealy, Melissa L. Erickson, Gangarao Davuluri, Hisashi Fujioka, Wagner S. Dantas, Emily Huang, Kathryn Pergola, Jacob T. Mey, William T. King, Anny Mulya, Daniel Hsia, Bartolome Burguera, Bernard Tandler, Charles L. Hoppe Source Type: research

The IL-8-CXCR1/2 axis contributes to diabetic kidney disease
Inflammation has a major role in diabetic kidney disease. We thus investigated the role of the IL-8-CXCR1/2 axis in favoring kidney damage in diabetes. (Source: Metabolism - Clinical and Experimental)
Source: Metabolism - Clinical and Experimental - June 3, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Cristian Loretelli, Francesca Rocchio, Francesca D ’Addio, Moufida Ben Nasr, Eduardo Castillo-Leon, Sergio Dellepiane, Andrea Vergani, Ahmed Abdelsalam, Emma Assi, Anna Maestroni, Vera Usuelli, Roberto Bassi, Ida Pastore, Jun Yang, Basset El Essawy, Kha Source Type: research

Molecular mechanisms underlying hepatitis C virus infection-related diabetes
Diabetes is a noncommunicable widespread disease that poses the risk of severe complications in patients, with certain complications being life-threatening. Hepatitis C is an infectious disease that mainly causes liver damage, which is also a profound threat to human health. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection has many extrahepatic manifestations, including diabetes. Multiple mechanisms facilitate the strong association between HCV and diabetes. HCV infection can affect the insulin signaling pathway in liver and pancreatic tissue and change the profiles of circulating microRNAs, which may further influence the occurrence and...
Source: Metabolism - Clinical and Experimental - June 3, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Yujin Ding, Guangdi Li, Zhiguang Zhou, Tuo Deng Source Type: research

Regulation of hepatic fibrosis by Carcinoembryonic Antigen-related Cell Adhesion Molecule 1
NAFLD is a complex disease marked by cellular abnormalities leading to NASH. NAFLD patients manifest low hepatic levels of CEACAM1, a promoter of insulin clearance. Consistently, Cc1 –/– null mice displayed spontaneous hyperinsulinemia/insulin resistance and steatohepatitis. Liver-specific reconstitution of Ceacam1 reversed these metabolic anomalies in 8-month-old Cc1–/–xliver+ mice fed a regular chow diet. The current study examined whether it would also reverse progres sive hepatic fibrosis in mice fed a high-fat (HF) diet. (Source: Metabolism - Clinical and Experimental)
Source: Metabolism - Clinical and Experimental - May 27, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Raghd Abu Helal, Lucia Russo, Hilda E. Ghadieh, Harrison T. Muturi, Suman Asalla, Abraham D. Lee, Cara Gatto-Weis, Sonia M. Najjar Source Type: research

Lipid metabolism and lipid-laden DCs downregulate NK cells
Apolipoprotein C-III (Apoc3) is a key component of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins (TRL). The Apoc3-transgenic mice are characterized by high levels of plasma triglyceride and free fatty acids (FFAs). Apoc3 stimulates human monocytes via activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome. Considering the NK cell downregulation in obese individuals and the possible stimulatory-effects of macrophages, variations of NK cell functions and underlying mechanisms were investigated in mice with Apoc3-induced hyperlipidemia. (Source: Metabolism - Clinical and Experimental)
Source: Metabolism - Clinical and Experimental - May 26, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Xiangyu Hu, Xiaoqin Jia, Cong Xu, Yingying Wei, Zhengbing Wang, George Liu, Qiang You, Guotao Lu, Weijuan Gong Source Type: research

Diabetes and kidney disease: emphasis on treatment with SGLT-2 inhibitors and GLP-1 receptor agonists
Kidney disease is a frequent microvascular complication of both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Historic trials have demonstrated that a tight glycaemic control is the most powerful approach to decrease the chances of developing diabetic nephropathy. However, having an HbA1c   (Source: Metabolism - Clinical and Experimental)
Source: Metabolism - Clinical and Experimental - May 21, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Francesco Prattichizzo, Paola de Candia, Antonio Ceriello Source Type: research

Editorial Board
(Source: Metabolism - Clinical and Experimental)
Source: Metabolism - Clinical and Experimental - May 11, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Long-term statin treatment for hepatic fibrosis in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: is it time to give the emperor a statin robe?
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is increasingly being recognized as a major health epidemic. It is the most common chronic liver disease worldwide with a prevalence of 25% in the general population [1]. Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a major risk factor for the development of NAFLD being prevalent in over 55% of those with T2D globally [2]. Cardiovascular (CV) disease (CVD) and cirrhosis/fibrosis are major causes of morbidity and mortality in NAFLD. Those with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) are among those at the highest risk of CVD and mortality, with the presence of fibrosis being a key histologic prognostic fact...
Source: Metabolism - Clinical and Experimental - May 11, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Christopher M. Tessier, Stergios A. Polyzos, Vasilios G. Athyros, Christos S. Mantzoros Source Type: research

Fenofibrate, a PPAR α agonist, reduces hepatic fat accumulation through the upregulation of TFEB-mediated lipophagy
Recent studies have shown that dysregulation of autophagy is involved in the development of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Transcription factors E3 (TFE3) and EB (TFEB) are master regulators of the transcriptional response of basic cellular processes such as lysosomal biogenesis and autophagy. Here, we investigated the role of fenofibrate, a PPAR α agonist, in promotion of intracellular lipid clearance by upregulation of TFEB/TFE3. (Source: Metabolism - Clinical and Experimental)
Source: Metabolism - Clinical and Experimental - May 10, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Jin Yoo, In-Kyung Jeong, Kyu Jeung Ahn, Ho Yeon Chung, You-Cheol Hwang Source Type: research

A new mechanism of obeticholic acid on NASH treatment by inhibiting NLRP3 inflammasome activation in macrophage
Obeticholic acid (OCA) has been proved to play potential therapeutic effect on nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Up to now, the study of OCA on NLRP3 inflammasome activation in macrophage is still blank and merits great attention. Here, we aimed to better characterize the role and mechanism of OCA on NASH treatment focusing on NLRP3 inflammasome activation in macrophages. (Source: Metabolism - Clinical and Experimental)
Source: Metabolism - Clinical and Experimental - May 10, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Suling Huang, Yanwei Wu, Zhuohui Zhao, Bing Wu, Kai Sun, Haoyu Wang, Li Qin, Fang Bai, Ying Leng, Wei Tang Source Type: research

A longitudinal analysis of arterial stiffness and wave reflection in preeclampsia: identification of Changepoints
Preeclampsia (PrE) is a leading complication of pregnancy characterized by vascular dysfunction. Characterizing the longitudinal changes in vascular function prior to PrE onset is critical to the identification of optimal timepoints for vascular assessment and the development of effective early screening strategies. (Source: Metabolism - Clinical and Experimental)
Source: Metabolism - Clinical and Experimental - May 7, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Kim Phan, Ian Schiller, Nandini Dendukuri, Yessica-Haydee Gomez, Jessica Gorgui, Amira El-Messidi, Robert Gagnon, Stella S. Daskalopoulou Source Type: research

Understanding the increased risk of infections in diabetes: innate and adaptive immune responses in type 1 diabetes
Patients with diabetes have a higher incidence of infections with Candida albicans, Staphylococcus aureus and Mycobacterium tuberculosis, yet factors contributing to this increased risk are largely unknown. We hypothesize that altered innate and adaptive immune responses during diabetes contribute to an increased susceptibility to infections. (Source: Metabolism - Clinical and Experimental)
Source: Metabolism - Clinical and Experimental - May 7, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Anna W.M. Janssen, Rinke Stienstra, Martin Jaeger, Alain J. van Gool, Leo A.B. Joosten, Mihai G. Netea, Niels P. Riksen, Cees J. Tack Source Type: research

Glutamine metabolism: From proliferating cells to cardiomyocytes
Glutamine is a major energy source for rapidly dividing cells, such as hematopoietic stem cells and cancer cells. Reliance on glutamine is therefore regarded as a metabolic hallmark of proliferating cells. Moreover, reprogramming glutamine metabolism by various factors, including tissue type, microenvironment, pro-oncogenes, and tumor suppressor genes, can facilitate stem cell fate decisions, tumor recurrence, and drug resistance. However, the significance of glutamine metabolism in cardiomyocytes, an end-differentiated cell type, is not fully understood. (Source: Metabolism - Clinical and Experimental)
Source: Metabolism - Clinical and Experimental - April 23, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Yimin Shen, Yuhao Zhang, Wudi Li, Kaijie Chen, Meixiang Xiang, Hong Ma Source Type: research

Addressing the epidemic of fatty liver disease: A call to action, a call to collaboration, a call to moving the field forward
Not required for Commentaries. (Source: Metabolism - Clinical and Experimental)
Source: Metabolism - Clinical and Experimental - April 23, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Chrysoula Boutari, Stergios A. Polyzos, Christos S. Mantzoros Source Type: research

The Progression and Regression of Metabolic Dysfunction-associated Fatty Liver Disease are Associated with the Development of Subclinical Atherosclerosis: A Prospective Analysis
Metabolic dysfunction-associated fatty liver disease (MAFLD) has been proposed and diagnosed based on modified criteria. However, evidence for the risks of developing subclinical atherosclerosis with MAFLD transitions according to its new definition has never been reported. (Source: Metabolism - Clinical and Experimental)
Source: Metabolism - Clinical and Experimental - April 22, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Shanshan Liu, Jialu Wang, Shujing Wu, Jingya Niu, Ruizhi Zheng, Lizhan Bie, Zhuojun Xin, Shuangyuan Wang, Hong Lin, Zhiyun Zhao, Tiange Wang, Min Xu, Jieli Lu, Yuhong Chen, Yiping Xu, Weiqing Wang, Guang Ning, Yufang Bi, Mian Li, Yu Xu Tags: Declaration of interest: none. Source Type: research

Thiazolidinediones, alpha-glucosidase inhibitors, Meglitinides, sulfonylureas, and hepatocellular carcinoma risk: a meta-analysis
This study evaluated associations between sulfonylureas, thiazolidinediones, meglitinides and alpha-glucosidase inhibitors, and incident HCC risk. (Source: Metabolism - Clinical and Experimental)
Source: Metabolism - Clinical and Experimental - April 20, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Ashwini Arvind, Zoe N. Memel, Lisa L. Philpotts, Hui Zheng, Kathleen E. Corey, Tracey G. Simon Source Type: research

Corrigendum to “Synergistic effects of fructose and glucose on lipoprotein risk factors for cardiovascular disease in young adults” [Metab Clin Exp 112 (2020) 154356]
The authors regret that the baseline BMI for one group (Fructose 17.5) was printed incorrectly in Table 1. The mean baseline BMI for the group consuming 17.5% Fructose is 25.2  ± 4.4 kg/m2 and not as printed previously 24.8 ± 4,4 kg/m2. (Source: Metabolism - Clinical and Experimental)
Source: Metabolism - Clinical and Experimental - April 15, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Bettina Hieronimus, Valentina Medici, Andrew A. Bremer, Vivien Lee, Marinelle V. Nunez, Desiree M. Sigala, Nancy L. Keim, Peter J. Havel, Kimber L. Stanhope Tags: Corrigendum Source Type: research

Collagen β(1-O) galactosyltransferase 2 deficiency contributes to lipodystrophy and aggravates NAFLD related to HMW adiponectin in mice
This study aimed to elucidate the role of Collagen β(1-O) galactosyltransferase 2 (Colgalt2) in the pathogenesis of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). (Source: Metabolism - Clinical and Experimental)
Source: Metabolism - Clinical and Experimental - April 15, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Junru Yang, Lingling He, Meixin Gao, Fan Xiao, Fuyang Zhang, Shiwei Wang, Yang Shu, Xiaohui Ye, Wenzheng Qu, Liying Li, Hongshan Wei Source Type: research

Editorial Board
(Source: Metabolism - Clinical and Experimental)
Source: Metabolism - Clinical and Experimental - April 13, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease, Insulin Resistance, Metabolic Syndrome and their Association with Vascular Risk
The prevalence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), one of the most common liver diseases, is rising. About 25% of adults worldwide are probably affected by NAFLD. Insulin resistance (IR) and fat accumulation in the liver are strongly related. The association between NAFLD, metabolic syndrome (MetS) and IR is established, but an independent impact of NAFLD on vascular risk and progression of cardiovascular (CV) disease (CVD) still needs to be confirmed. This narrative review considers the evidence regarding the link between NAFLD, IR and CVD risk. (Source: Metabolism - Clinical and Experimental)
Source: Metabolism - Clinical and Experimental - April 13, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Emir Muzurovi ć, Dimitri P. Mikhailidis, Christos Mantzoros Source Type: research

Determinants of hepatic insulin clearance – results from a Mendelian Randomization study
Besides insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes associates with decreased hepatic insulin clearance (HIC). We now tested for causal relationship of HIC to liver fat accumulation or features of the metabolic syndrome. (Source: Metabolism - Clinical and Experimental)
Source: Metabolism - Clinical and Experimental - April 13, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Apostolia Lamprinou, Caroline Willmann, J ürgen Machann, Fritz Schick, Sabine S. Eckstein, Chiara Dalla Man, Roberto Visentin, Andreas L. Birkenfeld, Andreas Peter, Norbert Stefan, Hans-Ulrich Häring, Andreas Fritsche, Martin Heni, Robert Wagner Source Type: research

Laminins in metabolic tissues
Laminins are extracellular matrix proteins that reside in the basement membrane and provide structural support in addition to promoting cellular adhesion and migration. Through interactions with cell surface receptors, laminins stimulate intracellular signaling cascades which direct specific survival and differentiation outcomes. In metabolic tissues such as the pancreas, adipose, muscle, and liver, laminin isoforms are expressed in discrete temporal and spatial patterns suggesting that certain isoforms may support the development and function of particular metabolic cell types. (Source: Metabolism - Clinical and Experimental)
Source: Metabolism - Clinical and Experimental - April 11, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Anna Goddi, Liesl Schroedl, Eric M. Brey, Ronald N. Cohen Source Type: research

Diabetes in pregnancy 100  years after the discovery of insulin: Hot topics and open questions to be addressed in the coming years
By making it possible for women with diabetes to achieve their family planning goals, the discovery of insulin ushered in the field of diabetes in pregnancy. The ensuing century has witnessed tremendous advances, with clinical focus on preconception planning and maternal glycemic control making successful pregnancy an achievable goal. Currently, the global epidemic of overweight/obesity has led to maternal hyperglycemia now affecting one in every six pregnancies worldwide, prompting intense research interest. (Source: Metabolism - Clinical and Experimental)
Source: Metabolism - Clinical and Experimental - April 7, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Ravi Retnakaran Source Type: research

Diabetes in Pregnancy 100 Years after the Discovery of Insulin: Hot Topics and Open Questions to be Addressed in the Coming Years
By making it possible for women with diabetes to achieve their family planning goals, the discovery of insulin ushered in the field of diabetes in pregnancy. The ensuing century has witnessed tremendous advances, with clinical focus on preconception planning and maternal glycemic control making successful pregnancy an achievable goal. Currently, the global epidemic of overweight/obesity has led to maternal hyperglycemia now affecting one in every six pregnancies worldwide, prompting intense research interest. (Source: Metabolism - Clinical and Experimental)
Source: Metabolism - Clinical and Experimental - April 7, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Ravi Retnakaran Source Type: research

Early benefits of bariatric surgery on subclinical cardiac function: contribution of visceral fat mobilization
We explored the early effects of bariatric surgery on subclinical myocardial function in individuals with severe obesity and preserved left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction. (Source: Metabolism - Clinical and Experimental)
Source: Metabolism - Clinical and Experimental - April 7, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Marie-Eve Pich é, Marie-Annick Clavel, Audrey Auclair, Marcela Rodríguez-Flores, Kim O’Connor, Patrick Garceau, Harry Rakowski, Paul Poirier Source Type: research

Mebhydrolin ameliorates glucose homeostasis in type 2 diabetic mice by functioning as a selective FXR antagonist
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a chronic disease with hallmarks of hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia. Long-term hyperglycemia damages the functions of multiple tissues and organs leading to a series of complications and disability or even death. Nuclear receptor farnesoid X receptor (FXR) antagonism has been recently discovered to exhibit beneficial effect on glucose metabolism in T2DM mice, although the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Here, we performed the study on the discovery of new FXR antagonist and investigated the mechanism underlying the amelioration of FXR antagonism on glucose homeostasis in T2DM mice ...
Source: Metabolism - Clinical and Experimental - April 4, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Tong Zhao, Jie Wang, Anxu He, Shan Wang, Yidi Chen, Jian Lu, Jianlu Lv, Shiliang Li, Jiaying Wang, Minyi Qian, Honglin Li, Xu Shen Tags: Basic Science Source Type: research

Antiallergic drug Mebhydrolin ameliorates glucose homeostasis in type 2 diabetic mice by functioning as a selective FXR antagonist
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a chronic disease with hallmarks of hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia. Long-term hyperglycemia damages the functions of multiple tissues and organs leading to a series of complications and disability or even death. Nuclear receptor farnesoid X receptor (FXR) antagonism has been recently discovered to exhibit beneficial effect on glucose metabolism in T2DM mice, although the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Here, we performed the study on the discovery of new FXR antagonist and investigated the mechanism underlying the amelioration of FXR antagonism on glucose homeostasis in T2DM mice ...
Source: Metabolism - Clinical and Experimental - April 4, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Tong Zhao, Jie Wang, Yidi Chen, Shan Wang, Jian Lu, Jianlu Lv, Shiliang Li, Jiaying Wang, Minyi Qian, Honglin Li, Xu Shen Source Type: research

COVID-19 editorial: mechanistic links and therapeutic challenges for metabolic diseases one year into the COVID-19 pandemic
Accumulating evidence has clearly suggested that cardiometabolic risk factors such as obesity, hypertension, dyslipidemia and diabetes mellitus (DM) are associated with a more severe disease course and worse clinical outcomes of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) [1]. (Source: Metabolism - Clinical and Experimental)
Source: Metabolism - Clinical and Experimental - March 25, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Christopher M. Tessier, Alexander Kokkinos, Geltrude Mingrone, Chrysi Koliaki, Juleen R. Zierath, Christos S. Mantzoros Tags: COVID-19 in Metabolism Source Type: research

COVID-19 Editorial: Mechanistic Links and Daunting Therapeutic Challenges for Metabolic Diseases One Year after The Beginning of The COVID-19 Pandemic
Accumulating evidence has clearly suggested that cardiometabolic risk factors such as obesity, hypertension, dyslipidemia and diabetes mellitus (DM) are associated with a more severe disease course and worse clinical outcomes of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) [1]. (Source: Metabolism - Clinical and Experimental)
Source: Metabolism - Clinical and Experimental - March 25, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Christopher M. Tessier, Alexander Kokkinos, Geltrude Mingrone, Chrysi Koliaki, Juleen R. Zierath, Christos S. Mantzoros Tags: Commentary Source Type: research

MiR-337-3p lowers serum LDL-C level through targeting PCSK9 in hyperlipidemic mice
Reducing serum low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) in hyperlipemia is recognized as an effective strategy to minimize the risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD). MiR-337-3p has already been discovered to play regulatory roles in tumor proliferation and metastasis, adipocyte browning and ischemic brain injury, etc. However, the association between miR-337-3p and LDL-C is unknown. (Source: Metabolism - Clinical and Experimental)
Source: Metabolism - Clinical and Experimental - March 25, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Xiaoding Xu, Yunxia Dong, Ningning Ma, Weiwen Kong, Chuwei Yu, Likun Gong, Jing Chen, Jin Ren Source Type: research

The link between COVID-19 and VItamin D (VIVID): a systematic review and meta-analysis
Disease severity and mortality rates due to COVID-19 infection are greater in the elderly and chronically ill patients, populations at high risk for vitamin D deficiency. Vitamin D plays an important role in immune function and inflammation. This systematic review and meta-analysis assesses the impact of vitamin D status and supplementation on COVID-19 related mortality and health outcomes. (Source: Metabolism - Clinical and Experimental)
Source: Metabolism - Clinical and Experimental - March 24, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Aya Bassatne, Maya Basbous, Marlene Chakhtoura, Ola El Zein, Maya Rahme, Ghada El-Hajj Fuleihan Source Type: research

Insulin resistance, cardiovascular stiffening and cardiovascular disease
The cardiometabolic syndrome (CMS) and obesity are typically characterized by a state of metabolic insulin resistance. As global and US rates of obesity increase there is an acceleration of the incidence and prevalence of insulin resistance along with associated cardiovascular disease (CVD). Under physiological conditions insulin regulates glucose homeostasis by enhancing glucose disposal in insulin sensitive tissues while also regulating delivery of nutrients through its vasodilation actions on small feed arteries. (Source: Metabolism - Clinical and Experimental)
Source: Metabolism - Clinical and Experimental - March 22, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Michael A. Hill, Yan Yang, Liping Zhang, Zhe Sun, Guanghong Jia, Alan R. Parrish, James R. Sowers Source Type: research

FOS/GOS attenuates high-fat diet induced bone loss via reversing microbiota dysbiosis, high intestinal permeability and systemic inflammation in mice
Obesity and osteoporosis frequently coexist, and might have a causal relationship. Gut microbiota, associated with both lipid and bone metabolism, plays an important role in the pathogenesis of excessive fat accumulation and bone loss. The improvement of intestinal flora by prebiotics was a promising strategy for ameliorating obesity-related bone loss. (Source: Metabolism - Clinical and Experimental)
Source: Metabolism - Clinical and Experimental - March 19, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Zheng Zhang, Tao Lin, Yichen Meng, Miao Hu, Lun Shu, Heng Jiang, Rui Gao, Jun Ma, Ce Wang, Xuhui Zhou Source Type: research

Addressing the role of 11 β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 in the development of polycystic ovary syndrome and the putative therapeutic effects of its selective inhibition in a preclinical model
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common metabolic and endocrine disorder among reproductive-age women, and the leading cause of anovulatory infertility. 11 β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases-1 (11β-HSD1) catalysing the conversion of inactive cortisone to active cortisol plays a crucial role in various metabolic diseases. However, whether 11β-HSD1 is associated with the pathogenesis of PCOS and whether 11β-HSD1 can be a treating target of PCOS remain u nknown. (Source: Metabolism - Clinical and Experimental)
Source: Metabolism - Clinical and Experimental - March 11, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Xinyu Li, Shuanggang Hu, Qinling Zhu, Guangxin Yao, Jufang Yao, Jiaxing Li, Yuan Wang, Ying Ding, Jia Qi, Rui Xu, Hanting Zhao, Zhenyi Zhu, Yanzhi Du, Kang Sun, Yun Sun Source Type: research

Statin use is associated with lower prevalence of advanced liver fibrosis in patients with type 2 diabetes
Patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) are at increased risk of both cardiovascular disease (CVD) and advanced liver fibrosis related to non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Statin use is known to reduce the incidence of CVD while evidence on an effect on NAFLD severity is limited. (Source: Metabolism - Clinical and Experimental)
Source: Metabolism - Clinical and Experimental - March 11, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Stefano Ciardullo, Gianluca Perseghin Source Type: research

Editorial Board
(Source: Metabolism - Clinical and Experimental)
Source: Metabolism - Clinical and Experimental - March 10, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Acknowledgement to reviewers
(Source: Metabolism - Clinical and Experimental)
Source: Metabolism - Clinical and Experimental - March 10, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Acknowledging all reviewers who served Metabolism, Clinical and Experimental, in 2020 Source Type: research

Inhibition of NLRP3 inflammasome ameliorates podocyte damage by suppressing lipid accumulation in diabetic nephropathy
This study was to investigate the effect of NLRP3 inflammasome on podocyte injury and the underlying mechanism in diabetic nephropathy. (Source: Metabolism - Clinical and Experimental)
Source: Metabolism - Clinical and Experimental - March 3, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Ming Wu, Zhifen Yang, Chengyu Zhang, Yu Shi, Weixia Han, Shan Song, Lin Mu, Chunyang Du, Yonghong Shi Source Type: research

The serum metabolome of COVID-19 patients is distinctive and predictive
Metabolism is critical for sustaining life, immunity and infection, but its role in COVID-19 is not fully understood. (Source: Metabolism - Clinical and Experimental)
Source: Metabolism - Clinical and Experimental - March 1, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Ding Shi, Ren Yan, Longxian Lv, Huiyong Jiang, Yingfeng Lu, Jifang Sheng, Jiaojiao Xie, Wenrui Wu, Jiafeng Xia, Kaijin Xu, Silan Gu, Yanfei Chen, Chenjie Huang, Jing Guo, Yiling Du, Lanjuan Li Source Type: research

Apolipoprotein C3 aggravates diabetic nephropathy in type 1 diabetes by activating the renal TLR2/NF- κB pathway
Apolipoprotein C3 (ApoC3) is a regulator of triglyceride metabolism and inflammation, and its plasma levels are positively correlated with the progression of diabetic nephropathy (DN) in patients. However, the role and underlying mechanism of ApoC3 in DN remain unclear. (Source: Metabolism - Clinical and Experimental)
Source: Metabolism - Clinical and Experimental - February 24, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Huan Wang, Xiaomin Huang, Pengfei Xu, Xuejing Liu, Zihao Zhou, Fuhua Wang, Jingyi Li, Yuhui Wang, Xunde Xian, George Liu, Wei Huang Source Type: research

Potential impact of Helicobacter pylori-related metabolic syndrome and Galectin-3 on liver, chronic kidney and brain disorders
Dear Editor, (Source: Metabolism - Clinical and Experimental)
Source: Metabolism - Clinical and Experimental - February 23, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Marina Boziki, Stergios A. Polyzos, Apostolis Papaefthymiou, Michael Doulberis, Christos Bakirtzis, Styliani-Aggeliki Sintila, Maria Touloumtzi, Nikolaos Grigoriadis, Jannis Kountouras Source Type: research

Global deletion of NTPDase3 protects against diet-induced obesity by increasing basal energy metabolism
This study aims to determine the impact of NTPDase3 in diet-induced obesity (DIO) and metabolism in vivo. (Source: Metabolism - Clinical and Experimental)
Source: Metabolism - Clinical and Experimental - February 22, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Bynvant Sandhu, Maria C. Perez Matos, Stephanie Tran, Garima Singhal, Ismail Syed, Linda Feldbr ügge, Shuji Mitsuhashi, Julie Pelletier, Jinhe Huang, Yusuf Yalcin, Eva Csizmadia, Shilpa Tiwari-Heckler, Keiichi Enjyoji, Jean Sévigny, Eleftheria Maratos-F Source Type: research

Impact of body composition on COVID-19 susceptibility and severity: a two-sample multivariable Mendelian randomization study
Recent studies suggested obesity to be a possible risk factor for COVID-19 disease in the wake of the coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) infection. However, the causality and especially the role of body fat distribution in this context is still unclear. Thus, using a univariable as well as multivariable two-sample Mendelian randomization (MR) approach, we investigated for the first time the causal impact of body composition on the susceptibility and severity of COVID-19. (Source: Metabolism - Clinical and Experimental)
Source: Metabolism - Clinical and Experimental - February 22, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Dennis Freuer, Jakob Linseisen, Christa Meisinger Tags: none Source Type: research

Beyond mitochondria: alternative energy-producing pathways from all strata of life
It is well-established that mitochondria are the powerhouses of the cell, producing adenosine triphosphate (ATP), the universal energy currency. However, the most significant strengths of the electron transport chain (ETC), its intricacy and efficiency, are also its greatest downfalls. A reliance on metal complexes (FeS clusters, hemes), lipid moities such as cardiolipin, and cofactors including alpha-lipoic acid and quinones render oxidative phosphorylation vulnerable to environmental toxins, intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and fluctuations in diet. (Source: Metabolism - Clinical and Experimental)
Source: Metabolism - Clinical and Experimental - February 22, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Christopher Auger, Roohi Vinaik, Vasu D. Appanna, Marc G. Jeschke Source Type: research

The MafA-target gene PPP1R1A regulates GLP1R-mediated amplification of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in β-cells.
The amplification of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) through incretin signaling is critical for maintaining physiological glucose levels. Incretins, like glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP1), are a target of type 2 diabetes drugs aiming to enhance insulin secretion.Here we show that the protein phosphatase 1 inhibitor protein 1A (PPP1R1A), is expressed in β-cells and that its expression is reduced in dysfunctional β-cells lacking MafA and upon acute MafA knock down. MafA is a central regulator of GSIS and β-cell function. (Source: Metabolism - Clinical and Experimental)
Source: Metabolism - Clinical and Experimental - February 22, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Luis Rodrigo Cataldo, Neelanjan Vishnu, Tania Singh, Ludivine Bertonnier-Brouty, Sara Bsharat, Cheng Luan, Erik Renstr öm, Rashmi B. Prasad, Malin Fex, Hindrik Mulder, Isabella Artner Source Type: research

Loss of postprandial insulin clearance control by Insulin-Degrading Enzyme drives dysmetabolism traits
Systemic insulin availability is determined by a balance between beta-cell secretion capacity and insulin clearance (IC). Insulin-degrading enzyme (IDE) is involved in the intracellular mechanisms underlying IC. The liver is a major player in IC control yet the role of hepatic IDE in glucose and lipid homeostasis remains unexplored.We hypothesized that IDE governs postprandial IC and hepatic IDE dysfunction amplifies dysmetabolic responses and prediabetes traits such as hepatic steatosis.In a European/Portuguese population-based cohort, IDE SNPs were strongly associated with postprandial IC in normoglycemic men but to a co...
Source: Metabolism - Clinical and Experimental - February 22, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Diego O. Borges, Rita S. Patarr ão, Rogério T. Ribeiro, Rita Machado de Oliveira, Nádia Duarte, Getachew Debas Belew, Madalena Martins, Rita Andrade, João Costa, Isabel Correia, José Manuel Boavida, Rui Duarte, Luís Gardete-Correia, José Luís Medi Source Type: research

FGF21 and Chronic Kidney Disease
The global nephrology community recognizes the increasing burden of kidney disease and its poor health outcomes in the general population. Given this, strategies to establish early diagnosis, improve understanding of the natural course and develop novel therapeutic interventions to slow progression and reduce complications are encouraged. Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21), a member of the endocrine FGF subfamily, has emerged as a master homeostasis regulator of local and systemic lipid, glucose and energy metabolism. (Source: Metabolism - Clinical and Experimental)
Source: Metabolism - Clinical and Experimental - February 19, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Jo ão Victor Salgado, Miguel Angelo Goes, Natalino Salgado Filho Source Type: research

Diabetes mellitus: 100  years since the discovery of insulin
The year 2021 marks the 100th anniversary of the discovery of insulin, which radically changed our understanding of the physiology, and most importantly the diagnosis and treatment of diabetes mellitus. The discovery of insulin was a true milestone for medicine. Before the discovery of insulin, diabetes was associated with severe morbidity, and early mortality, the latter being more pronounced in type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). Patients were advised to follow very low calorie diets with minimal carbohydrates, which were difficult to sustain in the long-term and thus starvation was added to the other factors contributing t...
Source: Metabolism - Clinical and Experimental - February 17, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Stergios A. Polyzos, Christos S. Mantzoros Tags: Articles from the Diabetes: State-of-the-art 100 years after the discovery of insulin Special Issue, Edited by Stergios Polyzos and Christos Mantzoros Source Type: research