Have winter fuel payments reduced excess winter mortality in England and Wales?
Conclusions Almost half of the reduction in EWM since 1999/2000 is attributable to WFPs. (Source: Journal of Public Health)
Source: Journal of Public Health - February 23, 2015 Category: Health Management Authors: Iparraguirre, J. Tags: Wider determinants Source Type: research

Time for a sugary drinks tax in the UK?
(Source: Journal of Public Health)
Source: Journal of Public Health - February 23, 2015 Category: Health Management Authors: Mytton, O. Tags: Wider determinants Source Type: research

Why fat taxes won't make us thin
Increasing prevalence of overweight and obesity has led policy-makers to consider health-related taxes to limit the consumption of unhealthy foods and beverages. Such taxes are currently already in place in countries in Europe (e.g. Hungary, France and Finland) and in various states in the USA. Although these taxes are possibly efficient in reducing by a small amount the consumption of targeted products if the tax is fully transmitted to the consumer, there is too little available evidence on what will be consumed instead and whether these food substitutions undermine the hoped-for health benefits of the tax. We also know ...
Source: Journal of Public Health - February 23, 2015 Category: Health Management Authors: Cornelsen, L., Green, R., Dangour, A., Smith, R. Tags: Wider determinants Source Type: research

What kinds of policies to reduce health inequalities in the UK do researchers support?
Conclusions When consulting researchers about health inequalities, policymakers need to consider whether they are seeking research-informed expertise or assessments of the available evidence; these questions are likely to yield different responses. (Source: Journal of Public Health)
Source: Journal of Public Health - February 23, 2015 Category: Health Management Authors: Smith, K. E., Kandlik Eltanani, M. Tags: Wider determinants Source Type: research

Start Well, Live Better--a manifesto for the public's health
(Source: Journal of Public Health)
Source: Journal of Public Health - February 23, 2015 Category: Health Management Authors: Stewart, L., Skinner, L., Weiss, M., Middleton, J. Tags: Guest Editorial Source Type: research

Health and politics for 2015 and beyond
(Source: Journal of Public Health)
Source: Journal of Public Health - February 23, 2015 Category: Health Management Authors: Schrecker, T., Milne, E. Tags: Editorial Source Type: research

Appropriateness of admission and hospital stay in obstetric wards: an Italian cross-sectional study comparing Sicilian settings
Abstract Aim Appropriateness is one of the main topics of health policy and should be estimable in order to analyze the efficacy of hospital services. The Review and Use of the Hospital Protocol (in Italian: Protocollo di Revisione dell’Uso dell’ Ospedale-PRUO) allowed us to evaluate the appropriateness of hospitalizations, starting from daily available clinical records in a selected hospital. Methods The cross-sectional study applied the PRUO method on a sample of medical records (N = 575; years: 2008–2010) related to ord...
Source: Journal of Public Health - February 9, 2015 Category: Health Management Source Type: research

Poor nutrition and substance use in a Swiss cohort of adults with spinal cord injury
Conclusion In this population with severe disability, age and sex differences in nutrition and substance use should be considered in health intervention planning. (Source: Journal of Public Health)
Source: Journal of Public Health - February 2, 2015 Category: Health Management Source Type: research

Identifying sociomedical risk factors during pregnancy: recommendations from international evidence-based guidelines
Conclusion Our research findings suggest that screening or assessment for the analysed risk factors is advisable. However, the assigned grades of recommendation reflect that the evidence base is limited. Further research should also concentrate on evaluating different screening methods, as there was little consensus on the ideal screening test. (Source: Journal of Public Health)
Source: Journal of Public Health - January 31, 2015 Category: Health Management Source Type: research

A prevalence study of typhoid fever and convalescent phase asymptomatic typhoid carriers among the schoolchildren in the northern part of Tamil Nadu
Conclusion This study highlights the prevalence of typhoid fever among the schoolchildren and a possible role of convalescent phase asymptomatic typhoid carriers as a risk factor for the spread of infection in this locality. (Source: Journal of Public Health)
Source: Journal of Public Health - January 31, 2015 Category: Health Management Source Type: research

The influence of psychological well-being on academic success
Conclusion The results of the present study are inconsistent and are only partly in conformity with the findings of previous empirical research on this topic, which rarely reported both negative and positive effects of well-being on academic success. (Source: Journal of Public Health)
Source: Journal of Public Health - January 29, 2015 Category: Health Management Source Type: research

Utilization of maternal health-care services by Muslim women in India, Bangladesh, and Pakistan, 2005–2007
Conclusion The programs and policies formulated for improving maternal health-care utilization need to be understood in depth across these countries. For example, factors associated with increasing uptake of maternal health care services among Muslim women in India may be understood in the context of strengthening the Health and Population Sector Program (HPSP) in Bangladesh, and intensification of maternal health care programs undertaken in Pakistan at the upzilla (sub-district) level. (Source: Journal of Public Health)
Source: Journal of Public Health - December 20, 2014 Category: Health Management Source Type: research

Barriers to cervical screening participation in high-risk women
Conclusion These data highlight poor knowledge of the recommended screening interval and purpose of cervical cancer screening in this high-risk group. As such, interventions that target these informational barriers might be most effective for increasing cervical screening uptake in this high-risk group. (Source: Journal of Public Health)
Source: Journal of Public Health - December 5, 2014 Category: Health Management Source Type: research

Effect of dental health education on the management of avulsed teeth by firefighters
Abstract Aim To evaluate the effect of a dental education program for firefighters addressing knowledge on the management of avulsed teeth. Subject and methods The intervention study involved the administration of a questionnaire for 90 firefighters. The questionnaire was administered before the lecture (T0), immediately after the lecture (T1), and 6 months after the lecture (T2). McNemar’s test was used to compare answers of the different evaluation times (p 
Source: Journal of Public Health - December 5, 2014 Category: Health Management Source Type: research

Completeness and usability of ethnicity data in UK-based primary care and hospital databases
Conclusions Using CPRD ethnicity from 2006 onwards maximizes completeness and comparability with the UK population. High concordance within and across NHS sources suggests these data are of high value when examining the continuum of care. Poor completeness and consistency of A&E and outpatient data render these sources unreliable. (Source: Journal of Public Health)
Source: Journal of Public Health - November 27, 2014 Category: Health Management Authors: Mathur, R., Bhaskaran, K., Chaturvedi, N., Leon, D. A., vanStaa, T., Grundy, E., Smeeth, L. Tags: Methods Source Type: research

Social and material deprivation and the cost-effectiveness of an intervention to promote physical activity: cohort study and Markov model
Conclusion Physical activity interventions may generate greater health benefits in deprived populations. When intervention effectiveness is attenuated in deprived groups, cost-effectiveness may sometimes still be similar to that in the most affluent groups. Even with favourable assumptions, evidence was insufficient to support wider use of presently available brief primary care interventions in a universal strategy for primary prevention. (Source: Journal of Public Health)
Source: Journal of Public Health - November 27, 2014 Category: Health Management Authors: Gulliford, M., Charlton, J., Bhattarai, N., Rudisill, C. Tags: Methods Source Type: research

Improving access to optometry services for people at risk of preventable sight loss: a qualitative study in five UK locations
Conclusion Addressing the disparity between the broader messages about eye health and the current perception of the function of optometry could help improve access to services. Uptake may be improved through the co-production of interventions that better resonate with local communities. Non-retail service delivery options should be explored. (Source: Journal of Public Health)
Source: Journal of Public Health - November 27, 2014 Category: Health Management Authors: Leamon, S., Hayden, C., Lee, H., Trudinger, D., Appelbee, E., Hurrell, D.- L., Richardson, I. Tags: Interventions (services) Source Type: research

Access, continuity of care and consultation quality: which best predicts urgent cancer referrals from general practice?
Conclusions Our analyses suggest that in the UK National Health Service, confidence and trust in the doctor may be more important in cancer detection than the ease of access or whether there is choice of doctor. (Source: Journal of Public Health)
Source: Journal of Public Health - November 27, 2014 Category: Health Management Authors: Rogers, S., Gildea, C., Meechan, D., Baker, R. Tags: Interventions (services) Source Type: research

Changes in health promotion practice in hospitals across England: the National Health Promotion in Hospital Audit 2009 and 2011
Background There is increasing focus on hospitals to provide health promotion (HP) to patients who smoke, misuse alcohol, are obese or physically inactive, yet there is little published literature on assessment and HP in English hospitals. Methods Thirty hospitals participated in national audits, both in 2009 and 2011, to assess HP in hospitalized patients. Random samples of 100 patients were selected per hospital per year. Results Between the 2009 and 2011 audit, assessment rates increased for smoking (82 versus 86%; P
Source: Journal of Public Health - November 27, 2014 Category: Health Management Authors: Lee, D. J., Knuckey, S., Cook, G. A. Tags: Interventions (services) Source Type: research

Comparison of uptake and predictors of adherence in primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease in a community-based cardiovascular prevention programme (MyAction Westminster)
This study examined rates and predictors of adherence amongst patients with cardiovascular disease (CVD) and those at high multifactorial risk (HRI) attending an innovative programme integrating primary and secondary prevention. Methods Comparison of rates of uptake and adherence and also predictors of adherence between 401 CVD patients and 483 HRI. The outcome was the number of sessions attended and predictor variables included clinical and psychosocial variables. Differences between groups were examined using t-tests and non-parametric tests. Multivariable regression analyses examined predictors of adherence. Results U...
Source: Journal of Public Health - November 27, 2014 Category: Health Management Authors: Murray, K. A., Murphy, D. J., Clements, S.-J., Brown, A., Connolly, S. B. Tags: Interventions (preventive) Source Type: research

Food for thought: pilot randomized controlled trial of lay health trainers supporting dietary change to reduce cardiovascular disease in deprived communities
Conclusions Our pilot demonstrated that an LHT’s RCT whilst feasible faces considerable challenges. However, to justify growing investment in LHTs, any behaviour changes and sustained impact on those at greatest need should be demonstrated in an independently evaluated, robust, fully powered RCT. (Source: Journal of Public Health)
Source: Journal of Public Health - November 27, 2014 Category: Health Management Authors: Goodall, M., Barton, G. R., Bower, P., Byrne, P., Cade, J. E., Capewell, S., Cleghorn, C. L., Kennedy, L. A., Martindale, A. M., Roberts, C., Woolf, S., Gabbay, M. B. Tags: Interventions (preventive) Source Type: research

The 'donations for decreased ALT (D4D)' prosocial behavior incentive scheme for NAFLD patients
Conclusions Promoting patients' intrinsic motivation by incorporating ‘D4D’ prosocial behavior incentive into conventional dietary and exercise intervention may provide a means to improve NAFLD. (Source: Journal of Public Health)
Source: Journal of Public Health - November 27, 2014 Category: Health Management Authors: Sumida, Y., Yoshikawa, T., Tanaka, S., Taketani, H., Kanemasa, K., Nishimura, T., Yamaguchi, K., Mitsuyoshi, H., Yasui, K., Minami, M., Naito, Y., Itoh, Y. Tags: Interventions (preventive) Source Type: research

Combating human trafficking in the sex trade: can sex workers do it better?
Conclusions With its universal surveillance of sex workers entering the profession, attention to rapid and confidential intervention and case management, and primary prevention of trafficking—including microcredit and educational programmes for children of sex workers—the SRB approach stands as a new model of success in anti-trafficking work. (Source: Journal of Public Health)
Source: Journal of Public Health - November 27, 2014 Category: Health Management Authors: Jana, S., Dey, B., Reza-Paul, S., Steen, R. Tags: Interventions (preventive) Source Type: research

Prevalence and correlates of lifetime waterpipe, cigarette, alcohol and drug use among secondary school students in Stoke-on-Trent, UK: a post hoc cross-sectional analysis
Conclusions Waterpipe smoking was correlated with different factors compared with other common forms of substance use. Detailed waterpipe questions should be added to routine national health surveys to understand its future epidemiological course in the UK. (Source: Journal of Public Health)
Source: Journal of Public Health - November 27, 2014 Category: Health Management Authors: Jawad, M., McIver, C., Iqbal, Z. Tags: Behavioural factors Source Type: research

Trends in screen time on week and weekend days in a representative sample of Southern Brazil students
Conclusions The decrease in TV watching after a decade appears to be compensated by the increase in computer/video game use, both in boys and girls. Interventions are needed to reduce the negative impact of technological improvements in the lifestyles of young people, especially on weekend days. (Source: Journal of Public Health)
Source: Journal of Public Health - November 27, 2014 Category: Health Management Authors: Lopes, A. S., Silva, K. S., Barbosa Filho, V. C., Bezerra, J., de Oliveira, E. S. A., Nahas, M. V. Tags: Behavioural factors Source Type: research

Physical activity and screen time in adolescents transitioning out of compulsory education: a prospective longitudinal study
Conclusions Findings reinforce the importance of reducing physical inactivity and sedentary behaviour during this transition. Factors associated with changes in physical inactivity and sedentary behaviour need further investigation. (Source: Journal of Public Health)
Source: Journal of Public Health - November 27, 2014 Category: Health Management Authors: Owens, C. S., Crone, D., De Ste Croix, M. B. A., Gidlow, C. J., James, D. V. B. Tags: Behavioural factors Source Type: research

The relationship between social fragmentation and sleep among adolescents living in Boston, Massachusetts
Conclusions Social fragmentation may be an important determinant of sleep among youth living in urban settings. (Source: Journal of Public Health)
Source: Journal of Public Health - November 27, 2014 Category: Health Management Authors: Pabayo, R., Molnar, B. E., Street, N., Kawachi, I. Tags: Life course [amp ] epidemiology Source Type: research

Chronic kidney disease, albuminuria and socioeconomic status in the Health Surveys for England 2009 and 2010
Conclusions CKD 3–5 and albuminuria were associated with low SES using several measures. For albuminuria this was not explained by known measured causal factors. (Source: Journal of Public Health)
Source: Journal of Public Health - November 27, 2014 Category: Health Management Authors: Fraser, S. D. S., Roderick, P. J., Aitken, G., Roth, M., Mindell, J. S., Moon, G., O'Donoghue, D. Tags: Life course [amp ] epidemiology Source Type: research

War experiences, general functioning and barriers to care among former child soldiers in Northern Uganda: the WAYS study
Conclusions Various war experiences affect functioning differently. A significant need for MHS exists amidst barriers to MHS. Nevertheless, FCS are interested in receiving MHS and believe it would benefit them. (Source: Journal of Public Health)
Source: Journal of Public Health - November 27, 2014 Category: Health Management Authors: Amone-P'Olak, K., Jones, P., Meiser-Stedman, R., Abbott, R., Ayella-Ataro, P. S., Amone, J., Ovuga, E. Tags: Life course [amp ] epidemiology Source Type: research

Mind the public health leadership gap: the opportunities and challenges of engaging high-profile individuals in the public health agenda
Conclusions Leaders from outside public health may have no understanding of what public health is nor consider their work as part of a wider public health agenda. It is important to understand why they become leaders for public health. This will inform a strategy for how others may be encouraged to collaborate for public health causes. Some key points for working with high-profile leaders for public health are identified. (Source: Journal of Public Health)
Source: Journal of Public Health - November 27, 2014 Category: Health Management Authors: Shickle, D., Day, M., Smith, K., Zakariasen, K., Moskol, J., Oliver, T. Tags: Special section: Public health leadership Source Type: research

Training public health superheroes: five talents for public health leadership
Conclusions Talent-based approaches have been effective for leadership development in other sectors. These talents are the first specific to the practice of public health and align with some aspects of existing frameworks. An increased focus on identifying and developing talents during public health training, as opposed to ‘competency’-based approaches, may be effective in strengthening public health leadership. Further research to understand the combination and intensity of talents across a larger sample of public health leaders is required. (Source: Journal of Public Health)
Source: Journal of Public Health - November 27, 2014 Category: Health Management Authors: Day, M., Shickle, D., Smith, K., Zakariasen, K., Moskol, J., Oliver, T. Tags: Special section: Public health leadership Source Type: research

Public health and English local government: historical perspectives on the impact of 'returning home'
This article uses history to stimulate reflection on the present opportunities and challenges for public health practice in English local government. Its motivation is the paradox that despite Department of Health policy-makers’ allusions to ‘a long and proud history’ and ‘returning public health home’ there has been no serious discussion of that past local government experience and what we might learn from it. The article begins with a short resumé of the achievements of Victorian public health in its municipal location, and then considers the extensive responsibilities that it develop...
Source: Journal of Public Health - November 27, 2014 Category: Health Management Authors: Gorsky, M., Lock, K., Hogarth, S. Tags: Special section: Public health leadership Source Type: research

A radical change in traffic law: effects on fatalities in the Czech Republic
Conclusions Tougher penalties have significant, but often short-lived effects. Weaker enforcement in the aftermath of such reforms may explain the absence of long-run effects. (Source: Journal of Public Health)
Source: Journal of Public Health - November 27, 2014 Category: Health Management Authors: Montag, J. Tags: Wider determinants Source Type: research

Commentary on trending now: future directions in digital media for the public health sector
(Source: Journal of Public Health)
Source: Journal of Public Health - November 27, 2014 Category: Health Management Authors: Oyebode, O. Tags: Wider determinants Source Type: research

Commentary on 'Trending now'
(Source: Journal of Public Health)
Source: Journal of Public Health - November 27, 2014 Category: Health Management Authors: Aspinall, P. J. Tags: Wider determinants Source Type: research

Trending now: future directions in digital media for the public health sector
Conclusions Digital media will continue to develop and move from being an add-on to existing activity to being the major vehicle for significant elements of research, data collection and advocacy. It is important that public health leaders fully understand and engage in its development and use. (Source: Journal of Public Health)
Source: Journal of Public Health - November 27, 2014 Category: Health Management Authors: Burke-Garcia, A., Scally, G. Tags: Wider determinants Source Type: research

The international Ebola response: heroes and bystanders in the chronicle of an epidemic foretold
(Source: Journal of Public Health)
Source: Journal of Public Health - November 27, 2014 Category: Health Management Authors: Martin-Moreno, J. M. Tags: Guest Editorial Source Type: research

The view from the Acropolis...
(Source: Journal of Public Health)
Source: Journal of Public Health - November 27, 2014 Category: Health Management Authors: Milne, E., Schrecker, T. Tags: Editorial Source Type: research

Relationship between screening plasma glucose concentrations and cancer- and all-cause mortality: the Jichi Medical School (JMS) cohort study
Abstract Aim Whether plasma glucose concentrations at the screening level in the public health care setting can predict mortality remains to be determined in Japanese people. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationships between screening plasma glucose concentrations and cause- and all-cause mortality in a general Japanese cohort. Subjects and methods The current study investigated 11,998 community-dwelling participants from 12 Japanese communities who had been registered in the Jichi Medical School Cohort Study (a population-based prospect...
Source: Journal of Public Health - November 10, 2014 Category: Health Management Source Type: research

Evaluation of different periodontal treatments modes for patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus
Conclusion When the types of periodontal therapy were compared, it was possible to observe that conventional periodontal treatment is more effective than one-stage full-mouth disinfection as regards glycemic control, periodontal parameters of bleeding on probing, the amount of gingival fluid, and variation in IL-1β expression, although no significant difference was found between the initial and final values in each group. (Source: Journal of Public Health)
Source: Journal of Public Health - October 30, 2014 Category: Health Management Source Type: research

Social inequalities in abdominal obesity in Brazilian women: a nationwide study
Conclusion Strategies to reduce such inequities can be useful not only for improving social indicators but also health indicators in the Brazilian population. (Source: Journal of Public Health)
Source: Journal of Public Health - October 29, 2014 Category: Health Management Source Type: research

Factors associated with health insurance coverage and health insurance knowledge among Congolese immigrants and African-Americans in Illinois
The objective of this study was to assess factors associated with health insurance status and health insurance knowledge among Congolese immigrants and African-Americans in a micro-urban area of the Midwest. Subjects and methods A cross-sectional survey of a community-based sample was conducted among Black residents (Congolese immigrants and African-Americans). A sample size of 109 people was obtained out of which fifty-five Congolese and fifty-four African-Americans were recruited. Results For Congolese, the length of stay in the US was statis...
Source: Journal of Public Health - October 22, 2014 Category: Health Management Source Type: research

School attendance and attitude to child labour: a comparison of in-school and out-of-school working children in southwest Nigeria
Conclusion Working children engaged in full-time education had a better perception of themselves compared to out-of-school children. School attendance may reduce the negative psychological outcomes of child labour. Therefore, programmes to control child labour should emphasize the importance of school attendance. Increased funding for education will reduce the economic burden on parents of sending their children to school. (Source: Journal of Public Health)
Source: Journal of Public Health - October 12, 2014 Category: Health Management Source Type: research

Towards a public health approach to parenting programmes for parents of adolescents
(Source: Journal of Public Health)
Source: Journal of Public Health - October 1, 2014 Category: Health Management Tags: Corrigendum Source Type: research

The benefits and challenges of conducting an overview of systematic reviews in public health: a focus on physical activity
(Source: Journal of Public Health)
Source: Journal of Public Health - October 1, 2014 Category: Health Management Authors: Baker, P. R. A., Costello, J. T., Dobbins, M., B. Waters, E. Tags: Update Source Type: research

Enabling patients with respiratory symptoms to access chest X-rays on demand: the experience of the walk-in service in Corby, UK
Conclusions The implementation of the service was associated with a significant increase in the numbers of clinically indicated CXRs in an area of high lung cancer incidence and mortality. The service attracted a clinically appropriate population. The numbers of cancers detected were in line with statistical expectations. (Source: Journal of Public Health)
Source: Journal of Public Health - October 1, 2014 Category: Health Management Authors: Campbell, J., Pyer, M., Rogers, S., Walter, D., Reddy, R. Tags: Interventions (services) Source Type: research

Estimating the health-care usage associated with osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis in an older adult population in Ireland
Conclusions Osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis present challenges to health-care services in the context of an ageing population. In the case of Ireland the burden falls predominantly on primary health-care and outpatient services. Within the context of changing health-care service provision in Ireland, the results of this study have implications for future planning of service delivery. (Source: Journal of Public Health)
Source: Journal of Public Health - October 1, 2014 Category: Health Management Authors: Doherty, E., O'Neill, C. Tags: Interventions (services) Source Type: research

Influence of surgical rate on patients' reported clinical need and outcomes in English NHS
Background To determine if higher rates of surgery are associated with lower levels of need (patients' pre-operative reports of their symptoms, functional status and quality of life) and with less benefit (patients' post-operative reports). Methods Patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) collected before and after joint replacement, hernia repair or varicose vein (VV) surgery in National Health Service (NHS)-funded patients (2009/11). Regression analysis for associations between 10% increase in rates and mean PROM score for Primary Care Trust (PCT) populations. Results National rate for hip and knee replacement increas...
Source: Journal of Public Health - October 1, 2014 Category: Health Management Authors: Black, N., Varagunam, M., Hutchings, A. Tags: Interventions (services) Source Type: research

Use of calorie information at fast-food and chain restaurants among US Adults, 2009
Background The aim of this study was to examine reading and use of calorie information at fast-food/chain restaurants. Methods A cross-sectional analysis was conducted on a sample of 4363 US adults using the 2009 HealthStyles survey. The outcome variable was reading calorie information when available while ordering at fast-food/chain restaurants. Among those who go to fast-food/chain restaurants, we conducted multivariable logistic regression to examine associations between sociodemographic variables and reading calorie information when available. Among those who report reading calorie information when available, we asses...
Source: Journal of Public Health - October 1, 2014 Category: Health Management Authors: Wethington, H., Maynard, L. M., Haltiwanger, C., Blanck, H. M. Tags: Interventions (preventive) Source Type: research

Parent-only interventions in the treatment of childhood obesity: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials
Conclusions Parent-only interventions appear to be as effective as parent–child interventions in the treatment of childhood overweight/obesity, and may be less expensive. Reasons for higher attrition rates in parent-only interventions need further investigation. (Source: Journal of Public Health)
Source: Journal of Public Health - October 1, 2014 Category: Health Management Authors: Ewald, H., Kirby, J., Rees, K., Robertson, W. Tags: Interventions (preventive) Source Type: research