Can lay health trainers increase uptake of NHS Health Checks in hard-to-reach populations? A mixed-method pilot evaluation
Conclusions A community-based, health trainer-led approach may add value by offering an acceptable alternative to health checks delivered in primary care settings. The service appeared to be particularly successful in engaging men and younger age groups. However, there exists the potential for intervention-generated inequalities. (Source: Journal of Public Health)
Source: Journal of Public Health - May 28, 2015 Category: Health Management Authors: Visram, S., Carr, S. M., Geddes, L. Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Reasons for (non)compliance with intervention following identification of 'high-risk' status in the NHS Health Check programme
Conclusions Attention needs to be paid to the way prophylactic medications are prescribed and explained to high-risk patients. Consistent provision of tailored lifestyle advice and access to appropriate services could facilitate sustained changes to factors that increase CVD risk. (Source: Journal of Public Health)
Source: Journal of Public Health - May 28, 2015 Category: Health Management Authors: McNaughton, R. J., Shucksmith, J. Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Views and experiences of the NHS Health Check provided by general medical practices: cross-sectional survey in high-risk patients
Conclusion Both attenders and non-attenders had positive views towards NHS Health Checks in general practice and resultant self-reported lifestyle change in attenders was high. Clearer written information and explanation of personal CVD risk are required. (Source: Journal of Public Health)
Source: Journal of Public Health - May 28, 2015 Category: Health Management Authors: Krska, J., du Plessis, R., Chellaswamy, H. Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

A process evaluation of the NHS Health Check care pathway in a primary care setting
Conclusions Disparities in uptake and implementation of the care pathway demonstrate inconsistencies in the application of processes and knowledge. There appears to be an overestimation of CVD risk by the Ready Reckoner tool likely to be attributable to a failure to adjust for existing local early identification efforts in primary care and prevention. (Source: Journal of Public Health)
Source: Journal of Public Health - May 28, 2015 Category: Health Management Authors: Baker, C., Loughren, E. A., Crone, D., Kallfa, N. Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Method of invitation and geographical proximity as predictors of NHS Health Check uptake
Background Uptake of NHS Health Checks remains below the national target. Better understanding of predictors of uptake can inform targeting and delivery. We explored invitation method and geographical proximity as predictors of uptake in deprived urban communities. Methods This observational cohort study used data from all 4855 individuals invited for an NHS Health Check (September 2010–February 2014) at five general practices in Stoke-on-Trent, UK. Attendance/non-attendance was the binary outcome variable. Predictor variables included the method of invitation, general practice, demographics, deprivation and distanc...
Source: Journal of Public Health - May 28, 2015 Category: Health Management Authors: Gidlow, C., Ellis, N., Randall, J., Cowap, L., Smith, G., Iqbal, Z., Kumar, J. Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Invited debate: Response to Capewell et al.
(Source: Journal of Public Health)
Source: Journal of Public Health - May 28, 2015 Category: Health Management Authors: Waterall, J., Greaves, F., Gresser, C., Kearney, M., Fenton, K. A. Tags: Special Section - Health Checks Source Type: research

Invited debate: NHS Health Checks--a naked emperor?
(Source: Journal of Public Health)
Source: Journal of Public Health - May 28, 2015 Category: Health Management Authors: Capewell, S., McCartney, M., Holland, W. Tags: Special Section - Health Checks Source Type: research

Invited debate: Response to Waterall et al.
(Source: Journal of Public Health)
Source: Journal of Public Health - May 28, 2015 Category: Health Management Authors: Capewell, S., McCartney, M., Holland, W. Tags: Special Section - Health Checks Source Type: research

Invited debate: NHS Health Check: an innovative component of local adult health improvement and well-being programmes in England
(Source: Journal of Public Health)
Source: Journal of Public Health - May 28, 2015 Category: Health Management Authors: Waterall, J., Greaves, F., Kearney, M., Fenton, K. A. Tags: Special Section - Health Checks Source Type: research

Seeing is not necessarily believing
(Source: Journal of Public Health)
Source: Journal of Public Health - May 28, 2015 Category: Health Management Authors: Milne, E., Schrecker, T. Tags: Editorial Source Type: research

The demographic impact on the demand for emergency medical services in the urban and rural regions of Bavaria, 2012–2032
Conclusion The substantial demographic impact in combination with strong urban–rural variations should be accounted for in regional long-term planning as well as age-group specific innovation in the emergency medical services. As demography is not the only significant demand factor, the identification and quantification of other factors remains a challenge for further research. (Source: Journal of Public Health)
Source: Journal of Public Health - May 26, 2015 Category: Health Management Source Type: research

Assessment of different detection methods of chronic kidney disease and their importance for an early diagnosis
Conclusions The CKD-EPI formula should be used to estimate the GFR, given that it exhibited the greatest correlation and agreement with creatinine clearance; thus, it is possible to implement low-cost activities focusing on early detection and diagnosis, as well as the prevention of CKD. (Source: Journal of Public Health)
Source: Journal of Public Health - May 18, 2015 Category: Health Management Source Type: research

Smoking motives among the Estonian university community and differences between the faculties
Conclusion The motives for smoking vary depending on the faculty, in different ways in men and women. We assume that distinct professional cultures and Estonia’s transition during the 1990s underlie the findings. The results are useful in targeting anti-smoking interventions. (Source: Journal of Public Health)
Source: Journal of Public Health - May 12, 2015 Category: Health Management Source Type: research

The supply side of volunteering in Austrian hospice services: determinants of sustainable voluntary engagement
Conclusions Our results create an understanding of voluntary labour supply in Austrian hospice services. These findings are helpful for the human resource management in hospices since they provide relevant information for the recruitment but also the retention of the volunteer workforce. (Source: Journal of Public Health)
Source: Journal of Public Health - May 6, 2015 Category: Health Management Source Type: research

Erratum to: “Not the years in themselves count”: the role of age for European citizens’ moral attitudes towards resource allocation in modern biomedicine
(Source: Journal of Public Health)
Source: Journal of Public Health - April 21, 2015 Category: Health Management Source Type: research

Labor migrants in St Petersburg: disease awareness, behavioral risks and counseling by health professionals in building up prevention against TB, HIV and associated infections
Conclusion Given their role as suppliers of health information, medical professionals should be encouraged to share advice with migrants. The respective shift in funding priorities to support medical professionals is advisable. Furthermore, official policies to promote voluntary health insurance, while being a positive initiative, have limited value in terms of prevention of communicable diseases as availability of insurance does not promote contacts between migrants and medical professionals. (Source: Journal of Public Health)
Source: Journal of Public Health - April 21, 2015 Category: Health Management Source Type: research

Role perception of public primary schoolteachers regarding the school health program in Oyo State, south-western Nigeria: a rural–urban comparative study
Abstract Aim Teachers have been identified as catalysts in the implementation of the school health program (SHP). However, their roles cannot be effectively implemented if they are ignorant of their part. No previous study has been conducted to assess the role perception of teachers concerning SHP in Nigeria. Therefore, this study was conducted to assess and compare the role perception of public primary schoolteachers regarding SHP in rural and urban public primary schools in Oyo State, south-western Nigeria. Subjects and methods A comparative cross-sect...
Source: Journal of Public Health - April 12, 2015 Category: Health Management Source Type: research

Alcohol consumption change of English, French and Chinese speaking immigrants in Ottawa and Gatineau, Canada
Conclusion The immigrants of different sub-groups in Canada experienced different drinking change. Mother tongue and gender were main impacting factors. Culture and acculturation were important contributing factors. Data of immigrant drinking change may provide evidence for drinking policy-making and policy-revising in Canada. (Source: Journal of Public Health)
Source: Journal of Public Health - April 3, 2015 Category: Health Management Source Type: research

Sleep duration differences between children of migrant and native origins
Conclusion Migrant background is associated with sleep duration. As children of migrant origin are, in general, at higher risk for overweight and obesity and sleep duration is regarded as a risk factor for overweight and obesity, further investigation of this association is needed. (Source: Journal of Public Health)
Source: Journal of Public Health - April 3, 2015 Category: Health Management Source Type: research

Health workers absenteeism: Indonesia urban public health centres
Conclusion This study determined the absenteeism pattern of the health workers at these institutions and the reasons for their absences. Most of the recorded absences occurred at certain times of the day during similar periods, the highest level of absenteeism occurring on the weekend during the Saturday work period. It was also found that on most workdays many of the health workers were leaving the community health centres around 10:30 AM just before the closing time of the patient registration desk at 11:00 AM, even though the official closing time of is actually 1:30 PM. Additionally, on another...
Source: Journal of Public Health - March 27, 2015 Category: Health Management Source Type: research

Public preferences regarding therapeutic benefit, costs of a medical treatment and evidence-based medicine as prioritization criteria
Conclusion Under certain circumstances, the general public seems to accept therapeutic benefit, costs, and EBM as possible prioritization and seems to be guided by general responsibility rather than self-interest. (Source: Journal of Public Health)
Source: Journal of Public Health - March 14, 2015 Category: Health Management Source Type: research

“Not the years in themselves count”: the role of age for European citizens’ moral attitudes towards resource allocation in modern biomedicine
Conclusion Participants introduce a biographical outlook on medical decision making while at the same time articulating different conceptions of aging and the life course. Public health ethics needs to find ways to incorporate this plurality of temporal perspectives on the good life. (Source: Journal of Public Health)
Source: Journal of Public Health - March 14, 2015 Category: Health Management Source Type: research

Socio-economic patterning of cardiometabolic risk factors in rural and peri-urban India: Andhra Pradesh children and parents study (APCAPS)
Abstract Aim To assess the prevalence of cardiometabolic risk factors by socio-economic position (SEP) in rural and peri-urban Indian population. Subjects and methods Cross-sectional survey of 3,948 adults (1,154 households) from Telangana (2010–2012) was conducted to collect questionnaire-based data, physical measurements and fasting blood samples. We compared the prevalence of risk factors and their clustering by SEP adjusting for age using the Mantel Hansel test. Results Men and women with no education had...
Source: Journal of Public Health - March 11, 2015 Category: Health Management Source Type: research

Challenges in finding and measuring behavioural determinants of childhood obesity in Europe
Conclusion There is a lack of consistent data collection on upstream influences on obesity. The true causes of the childhood obesity epidemic remain undiscovered, and the ability of research to identify effective prevention and treatment methods is compromised. (Source: Journal of Public Health)
Source: Journal of Public Health - February 28, 2015 Category: Health Management Source Type: research

To be or not to be a doctor, that is the question: a review of serious incidents of violence against doctors in China from 2003–2013
Conclusion Doctor-patient relationships are fragile in China, and medical staffs are at risk of harm at work, even today. To secure the safety of medical practitioners and ensure the welfare of Chinese doctors, measures must be taken by the Chinese government. Public hospital reform is an urgent necessity. (Source: Journal of Public Health)
Source: Journal of Public Health - February 28, 2015 Category: Health Management Source Type: research

Predictors of decision making about childbirth setting in the southeast of Iran: home or hospital
Conclusion Decision making about childbirth setting among women depends on their socio-economic status and perceived quality of care. Overall, suitable and available childbirth services with the women’s perceived quality of care and a comprehensive understanding of how to decide about childbirth setting, which is made at a local level, can lead to more appropriate services and utilization of available childbirth services. (Source: Journal of Public Health)
Source: Journal of Public Health - February 27, 2015 Category: Health Management Source Type: research

Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in German hospitals: individual- and regional-level predictors
Conclusion The identified predictors related to MRSA will perhaps have an effect on the German health system in the future. Due to demographic changes, an increasing average age in the population may lead to a higher number of MRSA cases. Consequently, the financial burden on the insurance system will rise. Hence, MRSA prevention strategies and legal regulations should be taken more seriously in the next years. (Source: Journal of Public Health)
Source: Journal of Public Health - February 24, 2015 Category: Health Management Source Type: research

A child health information website developed by physicians: the impact of use on perceived parental anxiety and competence of Norwegian mothers
Conclusion Regular usage of a child health website developed by physicians increased the self-efficacy and knowledge and reduced anxiety among Norwegian mothers of young children. (Source: Journal of Public Health)
Source: Journal of Public Health - February 24, 2015 Category: Health Management Source Type: research

Supporting the needs of public health decision-makers and review authors in the UK
(Source: Journal of Public Health)
Source: Journal of Public Health - February 23, 2015 Category: Health Management Authors: Francis, D., Turley, R., Thomson, H., Weightman, A., Waters, E., Moore, L. Tags: Cochrane update Source Type: research

The appraisal of public health interventions: the use of theory
Conclusions When knowledge and theoretical understanding are unable sufficiently to reduce doubt about the direction of effect from an intervention, decisions should be made using evidence-based medicine approaches. There are, however, many cases where the combination of robust theory, causal understanding and observation are able to provide sufficient evidence of the direction of effect from an intervention that current practice should be altered. (Source: Journal of Public Health)
Source: Journal of Public Health - February 23, 2015 Category: Health Management Authors: Threlfall, A. G., Meah, S., Fischer, A. J., Cookson, R., Rutter, H., Kelly, M. P. Tags: Methods Source Type: research

Factors influencing coroners' verdicts: an analysis of verdicts given in 12 coroners' districts to researcher-defined suicides in England in 2005
Conclusion Coroners vary considerably in the verdicts they give to individuals who probably died by suicide. This may compromise the usefulness of suicide statistics for assessing area differences in rates for public health surveillance. (Source: Journal of Public Health)
Source: Journal of Public Health - February 23, 2015 Category: Health Management Authors: Palmer, B. S., Bennewith, O., Simkin, S., Cooper, J., Hawton, K., Kapur, N., Gunnell, D. Tags: Methods Source Type: research

An audit of hepatitis C service provision in a representative sample of prisons in England
Conclusions This audit found that while there were many areas of good practice, the quality and content of hepatitis C service provision varied. It highlighted the need to provide appropriate guidance for prisons in delivering a high-quality service, ensuring that relevant training is available for different staff and that adequate psychosocial support is provided to patients. (Source: Journal of Public Health)
Source: Journal of Public Health - February 23, 2015 Category: Health Management Authors: Humphreys, C., Railton, C., O'Moore, E., Lombard, M., Newton, A. Tags: Interventions (services) Source Type: research

Arts on referral interventions: a mixed-methods study investigating factors associated with differential changes in mental well-being
Background Art interventions may provide a cost-effective approach to improving mental well-being. Most evaluations concentrate on intervention characteristics and little is known about other factors which might contribute to successful outcomes. Methods This pre-and-post intervention mixed-methods study explored influences on differential changes in measured well-being among participants of an Arts on Referral (AoR) scheme in the UK. Measured well-being scores of 44 volunteers and findings from six semi-structured interviews were triangulated. Results Mean well-being scores improved by 8.0 (95% CI 4.8–11.3, P
Source: Journal of Public Health - February 23, 2015 Category: Health Management Authors: van de Venter, E., Buller, A. Tags: Interventions (services) Source Type: research

Better health at work? An evaluation of the effects and cost-benefits of a structured workplace health improvement programme in reducing sickness absence
Conclusions These results suggest that the Better Health at Work Award could be a cost-effective way of improving health and reducing sickness absence particularly in the public sector. However, controlled evaluations of future interventions are needed. (Source: Journal of Public Health)
Source: Journal of Public Health - February 23, 2015 Category: Health Management Authors: Braun, T., Bambra, C., Booth, M., Adetayo, K., Milne, E. Tags: Interventions (preventive) Source Type: research

Promoting resilience in adults with experience of intimate partner violence or child maltreatment: a narrative synthesis of evidence across settings
Conclusions The topic has been little studied despite high needs for public health interventions in countries of all types. Interventions and research studies that use specific resilience measures are likely to help measure and integrate what is currently a disparate area. Implications The participation of people with IPV or CM history in program and research design and implementation is indicated to support advocacy, innovation and sustainable interventions. This is especially pertinent for interventions in LAMIC and indigenous settings where continuing programs are sorely needed. (Source: Journal of Public Health)
Source: Journal of Public Health - February 23, 2015 Category: Health Management Authors: Moeller-Saxone, K., Davis, E., Stewart, D. E., Diaz-Granados, N., Herrman, H. Tags: Interventions (preventive) Source Type: research

Concession stand makeovers: a pilot study of offering healthy foods at high school concession stands
Background Concession stands at high school events are exempt from the US Department of Agriculture regulations for school foods. Concessions are generally stocked with unhealthy foods since healthy foods are believed to have lower sales and profit margins. Methods Concession stand sales for two seasons of high school fall sports in Muscatine, Iowa were compared. In between seasons, two types of changes were made: (i) addition of new healthier concession options and (ii) substitution of healthier ingredients (less saturated fat, no trans fat). Satisfaction surveys of students and parents were conducted before and after th...
Source: Journal of Public Health - February 23, 2015 Category: Health Management Authors: Laroche, H. H., Ford, C., Hansen, K., Cai, X., Just, D. R., Hanks, A. S., Wansink, B. Tags: Interventions (preventive) Source Type: research

Geographic and socioeconomic variations in adolescent toothbrushing: a multilevel cross-sectional study of 15 year olds in Scotland
Conclusion The findings are at odds with the results of a previous study which showed lower caries prevalence among children living in rural Scotland. A further study concluded that adolescents have a better diet in rural Scotland. In total, these studies highlight the need for an examination into the relative importance of diet and oral health on caries, as increases are observed in population obesity and consumption of sugars. (Source: Journal of Public Health)
Source: Journal of Public Health - February 23, 2015 Category: Health Management Authors: Levin, K. A., Nicholls, N., Macdonald, S., Dundas, R., Douglas, G. V. A. Tags: Behavioural factors Source Type: research

Determinants of multiple sexual partnerships in South Africa
Background This paper aims to examine determinants of multiple sexual partnerships (MSPs) among South African men and women using a nationally representative sample. Methods Quantitative and qualitative data from a 2008 population-based cross-sectional survey were used. The analysis focused on the 6990 (33.6% of total sample) who were 15 years and older and reported sexual activity in the prior 12 months. The qualitative component consisted of 15 focus group interviews investigating values underlying MSP behaviors. Results Predictors of MSP common across gender were race, having a history of STI, being in a short relationships (
Source: Journal of Public Health - February 23, 2015 Category: Health Management Authors: Onoya, D., Zuma, K., Zungu, N., Shisana, O., Mehlomakhulu, V. Tags: Behavioural factors Source Type: research

Evaluation of implementation, compliance and acceptance of partial smoking bans among hospitality workers before and after the Swiss Tobacco Control Act
Conclusions Tobacco bans in Swiss hospitality venues are still in a period of consolidation. The incomplete nature of the law may also have had a negative impact on the development of greater acceptance. (Source: Journal of Public Health)
Source: Journal of Public Health - February 23, 2015 Category: Health Management Authors: Rajkumar, S., Hoffmann, S., Roosli, M., Bauer, G. F. Tags: Behavioural factors Source Type: research

Smoking patterns in Great Britain: the rise of cheap cigarette brands and roll your own (RYO) tobacco
Conclusions This paper demonstrates that cheap tobacco use is increasing among young and disadvantaged smokers compromising declines in population smoking prevalence. Thus, tobacco industry pricing appears to play a key role in explaining smoking patterns and inequalities in smoking. (Source: Journal of Public Health)
Source: Journal of Public Health - February 23, 2015 Category: Health Management Authors: Gilmore, A. B., Tavakoly, B., Hiscock, R., Taylor, G. Tags: Behavioural factors Source Type: research

External-cause mortality among adolescents and young adults in Greece over the millennium's first decade 2000-09
Background Several important socio-behavioral public health problems that either peak or start during the second decade of life contribute to young people's mortality. The aim of this study was to explore patterns, rates, trends and regional variations of external-cause (due to environmental events/circumstances) mortality among young people aged 10–24 years in Greece, over the decade 2000–09. Methods Data were electronically derived from the database of the Hellenic Statistical Authority to study general and specific mortality rates by major causes of death. Results Road traffic crashes (RTCs), illicit drug ...
Source: Journal of Public Health - February 23, 2015 Category: Health Management Authors: Bacopoulou, F., Petridou, E., Korpa, T. N., Deligeoroglou, E., Chrousos, G. P. Tags: Life course [amp ] epidemiology Source Type: research

Prison and community outbreak of severe respiratory infection due to adenovirus type 14p1 in Tayside, UK
Conclusions We advise that surveillance measures for adenovirus infection and guidelines for the management of critically ill patients should be developed in order to identify outbreaks at an early stage and allow patients to receive appropriate treatment. Adenovirus infection should be borne in mind as a cause of severe pneumonia in closed settings such as prisons. (Source: Journal of Public Health)
Source: Journal of Public Health - February 23, 2015 Category: Health Management Authors: Parcell, B. J., McIntyre, P. G., Yirrell, D. L., Fraser, A., Quinn, M., Templeton, K., Christie, S., Romanes, F. Tags: Life course [amp ] epidemiology Source Type: research

Neural tube defects in the Republic of Ireland in 2009-11
CONCLUSION The incidence of NTDs in the Republic of Ireland appears to be increasing. Renewed public health interventions, including mandatory folic acid food fortification, must be considered to reduce the incidence of NTD. (Source: Journal of Public Health)
Source: Journal of Public Health - February 23, 2015 Category: Health Management Authors: McDonnell, R., Delany, V., O'Mahony, M. T., Mullaney, C., Lee, B., Turner, M. J. Tags: Life course [amp ] epidemiology Source Type: research

No lasting legacy: no change in reporting of women's sports in the British print media with the London 2012 Olympics and Paralympics
Conclusions We found a continuing bias towards men's sport in the media analysed and no evidence of improvement either before or after the 2012 Olympics and Paralympics. Increased support of women's sport in the print media could benefit individuals and influence the health of the population. (Source: Journal of Public Health)
Source: Journal of Public Health - February 23, 2015 Category: Health Management Authors: Packer, C., Geh, D. J., Goulden, O. W., Jordan, A. M., Withers, G. K., Wagstaff, A. J., Bellwood, R. A., Binmore, C. L., Webster, C. L. Tags: Wider determinants Source Type: research

Representations of minimum unit pricing for alcohol in UK newspapers: a case study of a public health policy debate
Conclusion Emphases on efficacy, evidence and experts are positive signs for evidence-based policymaking. The high profile of MUP, along with growing support within articles, could reflect growing appetite for action on the alcohol problem. Representations of the problem as structurally driven might engender support for legislative solutions, although cultural explanations remain common. (Source: Journal of Public Health)
Source: Journal of Public Health - February 23, 2015 Category: Health Management Authors: Patterson, C., Katikireddi, S. V., Wood, K., Hilton, S. Tags: Wider determinants Source Type: research

Grim up North or Northern grit? Recessions and the English spatial health divide (1991-2010)
Conclusion This study is evidence of spatial variations in the health effects of recessions within England and the North-South divide appears to slightly reduce during recessions. Health in the North remains worse than the South. (Source: Journal of Public Health)
Source: Journal of Public Health - February 23, 2015 Category: Health Management Authors: Copeland, A., Kasim, A., Bambra, C. Tags: Wider determinants Source Type: research

Have winter fuel payments reduced excess winter mortality in England and Wales?
Conclusions Almost half of the reduction in EWM since 1999/2000 is attributable to WFPs. (Source: Journal of Public Health)
Source: Journal of Public Health - February 23, 2015 Category: Health Management Authors: Iparraguirre, J. Tags: Wider determinants Source Type: research

Time for a sugary drinks tax in the UK?
(Source: Journal of Public Health)
Source: Journal of Public Health - February 23, 2015 Category: Health Management Authors: Mytton, O. Tags: Wider determinants Source Type: research

Why fat taxes won't make us thin
Increasing prevalence of overweight and obesity has led policy-makers to consider health-related taxes to limit the consumption of unhealthy foods and beverages. Such taxes are currently already in place in countries in Europe (e.g. Hungary, France and Finland) and in various states in the USA. Although these taxes are possibly efficient in reducing by a small amount the consumption of targeted products if the tax is fully transmitted to the consumer, there is too little available evidence on what will be consumed instead and whether these food substitutions undermine the hoped-for health benefits of the tax. We also know ...
Source: Journal of Public Health - February 23, 2015 Category: Health Management Authors: Cornelsen, L., Green, R., Dangour, A., Smith, R. Tags: Wider determinants Source Type: research

What kinds of policies to reduce health inequalities in the UK do researchers support?
Conclusions When consulting researchers about health inequalities, policymakers need to consider whether they are seeking research-informed expertise or assessments of the available evidence; these questions are likely to yield different responses. (Source: Journal of Public Health)
Source: Journal of Public Health - February 23, 2015 Category: Health Management Authors: Smith, K. E., Kandlik Eltanani, M. Tags: Wider determinants Source Type: research