Body mass index relates weight to height differently in women and older adults: serial cross-sectional surveys in England (1992-2011)
Background Body mass index (BMI) tends to be higher among shorter adults, especially women. The dependence of BMI–height correlation on age and calendar time may inform us about temporal determinants of BMI. Methods Series of cross-sectional surveys: Health Survey for England, 1992–2011. We study the Benn Index, which is the coefficient in a regression of log(weight) on log(height). This is adjusted for age, gender and calendar time, allowing for non-linear terms and interactions. Results By height quartile, mean BMI decreased with increasing height, more so in women than in men (P
Source: Journal of Public Health - October 19, 2016 Category: Health Management Authors: Sperrin, M., Marshall, A. D., Higgins, V., Renehan, A. G., Buchan, I. E. Tags: Original article Source Type: research

A review of 1000 referrals to Walsall's hospital eye service
Conclusions In view of findings from this study, it is important for commissioners in the new reconfigured National Health Service to ensure that enhanced ophthalmic services are commissioned only on the basis of hard evidence sourced from local data rather than opinion or on data from another geographical area. (Source: Journal of Public Health)
Source: Journal of Public Health - October 19, 2016 Category: Health Management Authors: Fung, M., Myers, P., Wasala, P., Hirji, N. Tags: Original article Source Type: research

Promoting early presentation of breast cancer in women over 70 years old in general practice
Conclusion Delivery of the PEP intervention in general practice was very effective at raising the awareness of breast cancer among older women. Primary care settings are well placed to enhance the reach of this kind of intervention to at-risk women. (Source: Journal of Public Health)
Source: Journal of Public Health - October 19, 2016 Category: Health Management Authors: Campbell, J., Pyer, M., Rogers, S., Jones, J., Ramirez, A. J., Forbes, L. J. L. Tags: Original article Source Type: research

Attitudes towards HIV testing via home-sampling kits ordered online (RUClear pilots 2011-12)
Conclusion Testing via home-sampling kits ordered online (dry-blood-spot testing) was felt to be an acceptable and convenient method for accessing a HIV test. Many individuals undertook HIV testing where they would otherwise not have been tested at all. Expansion of similar services may increase the uptake of HIV testing. (Source: Journal of Public Health)
Source: Journal of Public Health - October 19, 2016 Category: Health Management Authors: Ahmed-Little, Y., Bothra, V., Cordwell, D., Freeman Powell, D., Ellis, D., Klapper, P., Scanlon, S., Higgins, S., Vivancos, R. Tags: Original article Source Type: research

A quantitative review of healthcare professionals' questions to a local immunization advice service: 4299 enquiries from 3 years
Conclusions The content of enquiries to VACCSline is broad, confirming the need for immunizers to have a wide knowledge base and access to specialist advice to assist with complex scenarios. Systematic data capture provided intelligence to guide training and materials to support immunizers. A wider networked application of this approach could improve support for immunizers. (Source: Journal of Public Health)
Source: Journal of Public Health - October 19, 2016 Category: Health Management Authors: Ford, K. J., Lang, S., Pollard, A. J., McCarthy, N. D. Tags: Original article Source Type: research

Barriers and facilitators to uptake of the school-based HPV vaccination programme in an ethnically diverse group of young women
Conclusions The school-based HPV vaccination programme successfully reaches the majority of young women. However, responsibility for key aspects remain unresolved which can affect delivery and prevent uptake for some groups. A multi-faceted approach, targeting appropriate levels of the socio-ecological model, is required to address procedures for consent and cultural and literacy barriers faced by minority ethnic groups, increase uptake and reduce inequalities. (Source: Journal of Public Health)
Source: Journal of Public Health - October 19, 2016 Category: Health Management Authors: Batista Ferrer, H., Trotter, C. L., Hickman, M., Audrey, S. Tags: Original article Source Type: research

Exploring equity in uptake of the NHS Health Check and a nested physical activity intervention trial
Conclusions Younger patients and those living in areas of greater deprivation may be at risk of non-participation in the NHS Health Check, while younger age also predicted non-participation in a nested research trial. The role that GP-surgery-specific factors play in influencing participation across different socio-demographic groups requires further exploration. (Source: Journal of Public Health)
Source: Journal of Public Health - October 19, 2016 Category: Health Management Authors: Attwood, S., Morton, K., Sutton, S. Tags: Original article Source Type: research

Do health checks improve risk factor detection in primary care? Matched cohort study using electronic health records
Background To evaluate the effect of NHS Health Checks on cardiovascular risk factor detection and inequalities. Methods Matched cohort study in the Clinical Practice Research Datalink, including participants who received a health check in England between 1 April 2010 and 31 March 2013, together with matched control participants, with linked deprivation scores. Results There were 91 618 eligible participants who received a health check, of whom 75 123 (82%) were matched with 182 245 controls. After the health check, 90% of men and 92% of women had complete data for blood pressure, total cholesterol, smoking and body mass...
Source: Journal of Public Health - October 19, 2016 Category: Health Management Authors: Forster, A. S., Burgess, C., Dodhia, H., Fuller, F., Miller, J., McDermott, L., Gulliford, M. C. Tags: Original article Source Type: research

Experiences of patients and healthcare professionals of NHS cardiovascular health checks: a qualitative study
Conclusions To improve the satisfaction of patients attending and improve facilitation of lifestyle change, HCPs conducting the NHS Health Checks require sufficient training to equip them with appropriate skills and knowledge to deliver the service effectively. (Source: Journal of Public Health)
Source: Journal of Public Health - October 19, 2016 Category: Health Management Authors: Riley, R., Coghill, N., Montgomery, A., Feder, G., Horwood, J. Tags: Original article Source Type: research

A retrospective evaluation of the NHS Health Check Programme in a multi-ethnic population
Conclusions A high proportion of new cases of people at risk of cardiovascular disease were identified by the NHS Health Check Programme. Data suggest that this has translated into appropriate preventative measures. (Source: Journal of Public Health)
Source: Journal of Public Health - October 19, 2016 Category: Health Management Authors: Carter, P., Bodicoat, D. H., Davies, M. J., Ashra, N. B., Riley, D., Joshi, N., Farooqi, A., Browne, I., Khunti, K. Tags: Original article Source Type: research

Reducing children's classroom sitting time using sit-to-stand desks: findings from pilot studies in UK and Australian primary schools
Conclusions Irrespective of implementation, incorporating sit-to-stand desks into classrooms appears to be an effective way of reducing classroom sitting in this diverse sample of children. Longer term efficacy trials are needed to determine effects on children's health and learning. (Source: Journal of Public Health)
Source: Journal of Public Health - October 19, 2016 Category: Health Management Authors: Clemes, S. A., Barber, S. E., Bingham, D. D., Ridgers, N. D., Fletcher, E., Pearson, N., Salmon, J., Dunstan, D. W. Tags: Original article Source Type: research

Public health education in UK medical schools--towards consensus
(Source: Journal of Public Health)
Source: Journal of Public Health - October 19, 2016 Category: Health Management Authors: Gillam, S., Rodrigues, V., Myles, P. Tags: Perspectives Source Type: research

The role of public law-based litigation in tobacco companies strategies in high-income, FCTC ratifying countries, 2004-14
Discussion We suggest that, in light of our results, while litigation takes up significant time and incurs legal costs for health ministries, policymakers must robustly fend off suggestions that litigation wastes taxpayers' money, pointing to the good prospects of winning such legal battles. (Source: Journal of Public Health)
Source: Journal of Public Health - October 19, 2016 Category: Health Management Authors: Steele, S. L., Gilmore, A. B., McKee, M., Stuckler, D. Tags: Original article Source Type: research

Enforcement of science--using a Clostridium perfringens outbreak investigation to take legal action
Conclusions An outbreak of C.perfringens occurred in a care home. The likely cause was consumption of mince & vegetable pie and/or gravy. Epidemiological evidence can be used to help prosecute businesses with food safety offences in such circumstances. (Source: Journal of Public Health)
Source: Journal of Public Health - October 19, 2016 Category: Health Management Authors: Acheson, P., Bell, V., Gibson, J., Gorton, R., Inns, T. Tags: Original article Source Type: research

To what extent do community members' personal health beliefs and experiences impact what they consider to be important for their community-at-large?
Background Health assessments are used to prioritize community-level health concerns, but the role of individuals' health concerns and experiences is unknown. We sought to understand to what extent community health assessments reflect health concerns of the community-at-large versus a representation of the participants sampled. Methods We conducted a health assessment survey in 30 rural African American churches (n = 412). Multivariable logistic regression produced odds ratios examining associations between personal health concern (this health concern is important to me), personal health experience (I have been diagnosed ...
Source: Journal of Public Health - October 19, 2016 Category: Health Management Authors: Yeary, K. H.-c. K., Ounpraseuth, S. T., Kuo, D. Z., Harris, K., Stewart, M. K., Bryant, K., Haynes, T., Turner, J., Smith, J., McCoy, S., Sullivan, G. Tags: Original article Source Type: research

Development of a lifestyle intervention using the MRC framework for diabetes prevention in people with impaired glucose regulation
Conclusions Let's Prevent was developed following successful application of MRC framework criteria and the subsequent RCT will determine whether it is feasible, reliable and transferable from research into a real-world NHS primary healthcare setting. Trial Registration ISRCTN80605705. (Source: Journal of Public Health)
Source: Journal of Public Health - October 19, 2016 Category: Health Management Authors: Troughton, J., Chatterjee, S., Hill, S. E., Daly, H., Martin Stacey, L., Stone, M. A., Patel, N., Khunti, K., Yates, T., Gray, L. J., Davies, M. J. Tags: Original article Source Type: research

Patterns of physical activity and sedentary behaviour in the general population in France: cluster analysis with personal and socioeconomic correlates
Conclusions Based on PA and SB, French adults were clustered into groups with socioeconomic differences emphasizing that adapted interventions may be more beneficial for health. (Source: Journal of Public Health)
Source: Journal of Public Health - October 19, 2016 Category: Health Management Authors: Omorou, A. Y., Coste, J., Escalon, H., Vuillemin, A. Tags: Original article Source Type: research

Social inequalities in oral cancer literacy in an adult population in a multicultural deprived area of the UK
Conclusions Oral cancer literacy is poor among adults in Outer North East London, and we have identified particularly vulnerable sub-populations. (Source: Journal of Public Health)
Source: Journal of Public Health - October 19, 2016 Category: Health Management Authors: Al-Kaabi, R., Gamboa, A. B. O., Williams, D., Marcenes, W. Tags: Original article Source Type: research

Impact of homicide and traffic crashes on life expectancy in the largest Latin American country
Conclusions In 2010, homicides and traffic accidents were the principal cause for short life expectancy of men in Brazil. Improving life expectancy in Brazil requires addressing the root causes of inequalities that drive illicit drug trade, violence and accidents. (Source: Journal of Public Health)
Source: Journal of Public Health - October 19, 2016 Category: Health Management Authors: Auger, N., Le Serbon, E., Rasella, D., Aquino, R., Barreto, M. L. Tags: Article Source Type: research

Changes in objectively measured BMI in children aged 4-11 years: data from the National Child Measurement Programme
This study looked at the degree of weight gain between the first (Reception) and last year (Year 6) of primary school and how weight status in Reception predicts becoming overweight/obese by Year 6. Methods A longitudinal sample of 1863 children was created using two time points (2006/7, 2012/13) from the National Child Measurement Programme (NCMP) in South Gloucestershire. T-test and logistic regression were used to test the difference between the BMI z-scores and BMI percentiles, and predict the probability of being overweight (BMI ≥ 85th) or obese (≥95th) at Year 6 based on BMI percentile in Reception. Results O...
Source: Journal of Public Health - October 19, 2016 Category: Health Management Authors: Pearce, M., Webb-Phillips, S., Bray, I. Tags: Original article Source Type: research

Hypertension prevalence, awareness, treatment and control in the over 50s in Ireland: evidence from The Irish Longitudinal Study on Ageing
Conclusions A high prevalence of hypertension was identified in this cohort, with low levels of awareness, treatment and control. Population and primary care interventions are required to reduce prevalence and to improve awareness, detection and management of hypertension. (Source: Journal of Public Health)
Source: Journal of Public Health - October 19, 2016 Category: Health Management Authors: Murphy, C. M., Kearney, P. M., Shelley, E. B., Fahey, T., Dooley, C., Kenny, R. A. Tags: Original article Source Type: research

Contributions of individual acculturation and neighborhood ethnic density to variations in Hispanic children's respiratory health in a US-Mexican border metropolis
Conclusions Results suggest that increasing individual-level acculturation is detrimental for US Hispanic children's respiratory health in this Hispanic majority setting, while high ethnic density neighborhoods are mildly risky and pose more significant threats when other individual-level factors are present. (Source: Journal of Public Health)
Source: Journal of Public Health - October 19, 2016 Category: Health Management Authors: Grineski, S. E., Collins, T. W., Kim, Y.-A. Tags: Original article Source Type: research

Residential mobility and risk of major depressive episode among adolescents in the National Survey on Drug Use and Health
Conclusion Findings suggest that adolescents who move often may be a vulnerable group in need of mental health screening and services. Next steps in research include longitudinal studies with data on preexisting mental health issues and childhood adverse events. (Source: Journal of Public Health)
Source: Journal of Public Health - October 19, 2016 Category: Health Management Authors: Susukida, R., Mojtabai, R., Murcia, G., Mendelson, T. Tags: Original article Source Type: research

Child maltreatment: pathway to chronic and long-term conditions?
The manifesto Start Well, Live Better by the UK Faculty of Public Health (Start Well, Live Better—A Manifesto for the Public's Health. London: UK Faculty of Public Health, 2014) sets out 12 compelling priorities for the protection of people's health. The focus of this document is preventative, calling for a comprehensive strategy to target a wide-ranging set of challenges to public health; however, it fails to mention child maltreatment and its negative impact on long-term health outcomes. In this article, we explore the long-term negative consequences of child maltreatment and how these can be conceptually aligned w...
Source: Journal of Public Health - October 19, 2016 Category: Health Management Authors: Taylor, J., Bradbury-Jones, C., Lazenbatt, A., Soliman, F. Tags: Original article Source Type: research

The impact of economic downturns and budget cuts on homelessness claim rates across 323 local authorities in England, 2004-12
Conclusions Recession and austerity measures are associated with significant increases in rates of homelessness assistance. These findings likely understate the full burden of homelessness as they only capture those who seek aid. Future research is needed to investigate what is happening to vulnerable groups who may not obtain assistance, including those with mental health problems and rough sleepers. (Source: Journal of Public Health)
Source: Journal of Public Health - October 19, 2016 Category: Health Management Authors: Loopstra, R., Reeves, A., Barr, B., Taylor-Robinson, D., McKee, M., Stuckler, D. Tags: Original article Source Type: research

Social movements and public health advocacy in action: the UK people's health movement
There are growing calls within public health for researchers and practitioners working to improve and protect the public's health to become more involved in politics and advocacy. Such a move takes practitioners and researchers beyond the traditional, evidence-based public health paradigm, raising potential dilemmas and risks for those who undertake such work. Drawing on the example of the People's Health Movement, this short paper argues that advocacy and social movements are an essential component of public health's efforts to achieve great health equity. It outlines how the Scottish branch of the People's Health Movemen...
Source: Journal of Public Health - October 19, 2016 Category: Health Management Authors: Kapilashrami, A., Smith, K. E., Fustukian, S., Eltanani, M. K., Laughlin, S., Robertson, T., Muir, J., Gallova, E., Scandrett, E. Tags: Perspectives Source Type: research

Public health policies and politics for uncertain times
(Source: Journal of Public Health)
Source: Journal of Public Health - October 19, 2016 Category: Health Management Authors: Schrecker, T. Tags: Editorial Source Type: research

Methods of defining hypertension in electronic medical records: validation against national survey data
Conclusions Different definitions should be used for different study purposes. The definition of ‘diagnosis code or two abnormal blood pressure records with a 2-year period’ could be used for hypertension surveillance in THIN. (Source: Journal of Public Health)
Source: Journal of Public Health - October 19, 2016 Category: Health Management Authors: Peng, M., Chen, G., Kaplan, G. G., Lix, L. M., Drummond, N., Lucyk, K., Garies, S., Lowerison, M., Weibe, S., Quan, H. Tags: Original article Source Type: research

Public reproductive health and 'unintended pregnancies: introducing the construct 'supportability
In this Perspectives paper, I outline the limitations of the concept of ‘intentionality’ in public reproductive health understandings of pregnancy. ‘Intentionality’, ‘plannedness’, ‘wantedness’ and ‘timing’ place individual cognitions, psychology and/or behaviors at the center of public health conceptualizations of pregnancies, thereby leaving the underlying social and structural dynamics under-examined. I propose a model that places ‘supportability’ at the center of thinking about pregnancies and that allows for an analysis of the intersection of indi...
Source: Journal of Public Health - October 19, 2016 Category: Health Management Authors: Macleod, C. I. Tags: Perspectives Source Type: research

Does the scientific evidence support the advertising claims made for products containing Lactobacillus casei and Bifidobacterium lactis? A systematic review
Conclusions There is insufficient scientific evidence to support the health claims made for these products, especially in the case of product containing Lactobacillus casei. (Source: Journal of Public Health)
Source: Journal of Public Health - October 19, 2016 Category: Health Management Authors: Melendez-Illanes, L., Gonzalez-Diaz, C., Chilet-Rosell, E., Alvarez-Dardet, C. Tags: Original article Source Type: research

Addressing misuse and diversion of opioid substitution medication: guidance based on systematic evidence review and real-world experience
Conclusions Three groups of strategies to address misuse or diversion are defined, depending on impact (effectiveness and ease of implementation). Preferred strategies include the promotion of access to treatment and the use of product formulations less likely to be misused. However, additional data and innovative approaches to address this complex problem are needed. (Source: Journal of Public Health)
Source: Journal of Public Health - October 19, 2016 Category: Health Management Authors: Wright, N., D'Agnone, O., Krajci, P., Littlewood, R., Alho, H., Reimer, J., Roncero, C., Somaini, L., Maremmani, I. Tags: Original article Source Type: research

A multi-perspective service evaluation exploring tuberculosis contact screening attendance among adults at a North London hospital
Conclusion Recommendations related to issues of leadership, outreach services, flexibility of clinic timing and awareness amongst both the local community and GPs were made. (Source: Journal of Public Health)
Source: Journal of Public Health - October 19, 2016 Category: Health Management Authors: MacLellan, J., Wallace, K., Vacchelli, E., Roe, J., Davidson, R., Abubakar, I., Southern, J. Tags: Original article Source Type: research

Use of programme budgeting and marginal analysis as a framework for resource reallocation in respiratory care in North Wales, UK
Conclusions This exercise demonstrates the potential for health boards to use evidence-based approaches to reach potentially controversial disinvestment and investment decisions. Initial progress has begun with communication from the Medical Director in relation to the disinvestment in mucolytics prescribing and possible redirection of funding options being explored. (Source: Journal of Public Health)
Source: Journal of Public Health - October 19, 2016 Category: Health Management Authors: Charles, J. M., Brown, G., Thomas, K., Johnstone, F., Vandenblink, V., Pethers, B., Jones, A., Edwards, R. T. Tags: Original article Source Type: research

Prevalence and factors associated with healthcare service use among Chinese elderly with disabilities
Conclusions Low use of healthcare services indicates an unmet need among Chinese elderly with disabilities especially for the old–old. More effort should be warranted to enhance healthcare service use among the elderly with disabilities. (Source: Journal of Public Health)
Source: Journal of Public Health - October 19, 2016 Category: Health Management Authors: Guo, C., Du, W., Hu, C., Zheng, X. Tags: Original article Source Type: research

A case-control study of the health and well-being benefits of allotment gardening
Background Allotments in the UK are popular and waiting lists long. There is, however, little evidence on the health benefits of allotment gardening. The aims of this study were to determine the impacts of a session of allotment gardening on self-esteem and mood and to compare the mental well-being of allotment gardeners with non-gardeners. Methods Self-esteem, mood and general health were measured in 136 allotment gardeners pre- and post- an allotment session, and 133 non-gardener controls. Allotment gardeners also detailed the time spent on their allotment in the current session and previous 7 days, and their length of ...
Source: Journal of Public Health - October 19, 2016 Category: Health Management Authors: Wood, C. J., Pretty, J., Griffin, M. Tags: Original article Source Type: research

Variations in weight management services in Scotland: a national survey of weight management provision
Conclusions This national survey has illustrated large disparities in the provision of weight management across Scotland, a likely consequence of uncertainty regarding best practice. There is a clear requirement for the evaluation of existing services to identify those that lead to the largest improvements in health outcomes and are cost-effective. (Source: Journal of Public Health)
Source: Journal of Public Health - October 19, 2016 Category: Health Management Authors: Read, S., Logue, J. Tags: Original article Source Type: research

Increasing medical students' engagement in public health: case studies illustrating the potential role of online learning
Conclusions E-learning can be applied in diverse ways that increase medical student engagement with public health teaching. (Source: Journal of Public Health)
Source: Journal of Public Health - October 19, 2016 Category: Health Management Authors: Sheringham, J., Lyon, A., Jones, A., Strobl, J., Barratt, H. Tags: Original article Source Type: research

Teaching public health in UK medical schools: 'things have improved: teaching no longer feels like an expensive hobby
Conclusions There is a need to increase the supply of well-trained and motivated teachers and combine the best traditional teaching methods with more innovative approaches. Suggestions are made as to how undergraduate public health teaching can be strengthened. (Source: Journal of Public Health)
Source: Journal of Public Health - October 19, 2016 Category: Health Management Authors: Lyon, A. K., Hothersall, E. J., Gillam, S. Tags: Original article Source Type: research

Healthcare avoidance by people who inject drugs in Bangkok, Thailand
Background Although people who inject drugs (IDU) often contend with various health-related harms, timely access to health care among this population remains low. We sought to identify specific individual, social and structural factors constraining healthcare access among IDU in Bangkok, Thailand. Methods Data were derived from a community-recruited sample of IDU participating in the Mitsampan Community Research Project between July and October 2011. We assessed the prevalence and correlates of healthcare avoidance due to one's drug use using multivariate logistic regression. Results Among 437 participants, 112 (25.6%) r...
Source: Journal of Public Health - October 19, 2016 Category: Health Management Authors: Heath, A. J., Kerr, T., Ti, L., Kaplan, K., Suwannawong, P., Wood, E., Hayashi, K. Tags: Original article Source Type: research

Promoting lifestyle behaviour change and well-being in hospital patients: a pilot study of an evidence-based psychological intervention
Conclusions Our hospital-based intervention was feasible, acceptable and showed preliminary health and well-being gains. (Source: Journal of Public Health)
Source: Journal of Public Health - October 19, 2016 Category: Health Management Authors: Gate, L., Warren-Gash, C., Clarke, A., Bartley, A., Fowler, E., Semple, G., Strelitz, J., Dutey, P., Tookman, A., Rodger, A. Tags: Original article Source Type: research

Substance use disorder and risk of suicidal ideation, suicide attempt and suicide death: a meta-analysis
Conclusions Based on current evidence, there is a strong association between SUD and suicide outcomes. However, evidence based on long-term prospective cohort studies is limited and needs further investigation. Moreover, further evidence is required to assess and compare the association between suicide outcomes and different types of illicit drugs, dose–response relationship and the way they are used. (Source: Journal of Public Health)
Source: Journal of Public Health - October 19, 2016 Category: Health Management Authors: Poorolajal, J., Haghtalab, T., Farhadi, M., Darvishi, N. Tags: Original article Source Type: research

Prevalence and predictors of anaemia in Romanian infants 6-23 months old
Background Anaemia is a public health problem that can lead to a variety of detrimental effects on physical and neurodevelopment in young children. The present study explored the epidemiology of anaemia among infants in Romania, identified risk factors and created a model for predicting it. Methods Data from 1532 infants aged 6–24 months were selected from a larger nationally representative cross-sectional survey. Demographic predictor variables and haemoglobin concentration were extant variables in the data set. Multiple logistic regression was used to determine the best predictors of anaemia. Results Overall, 46%...
Source: Journal of Public Health - October 19, 2016 Category: Health Management Authors: Stativa, E., Rus, A. V., Stanescu, A., Pennings, J. S., Parris, S. R., Wenyika, R. Tags: Original article Source Type: research

Time-trend analysis of prevalence, incidence and traditional Chinese medicine use among children with asthma: a population-based study
Conclusion This study demonstrated a substantial increase in annual prevalence of asthma among children in Taiwan from 2002 to 2008. The incidence fluctuated. The TCM use showed a decreasing linear trend and was higher in incident than in prevalent cases. (Source: Journal of Public Health)
Source: Journal of Public Health - October 19, 2016 Category: Health Management Authors: Ma, Y.-C., Lin, C.-C., Li, C.-I., Chiang, J.-H., Li, T.-C., Lin, J.-G. Tags: Original article Source Type: research

Educational attainment and health transitions over the life course: testing the potential mechanisms
Conclusions These results suggest that educational attainment is associated with good self-rated health transitions from childhood to adulthood, and multiple processes rather than a single underlying mechanism are likely to drive the educational differences in self-rated health. (Source: Journal of Public Health)
Source: Journal of Public Health - October 19, 2016 Category: Health Management Authors: Elovainio, M., Rosenström, T., Hakulinen, C., Pulkki-Raback, L., Mullola, S., Jokela, M., Josefsson, K., Raitakari, O. T., Keltikangas-Järvinen, L. Tags: Original article Source Type: research

School outbreak of Escherichia coli O157 with high levels of transmission, Staffordshire, England, February 2012
Conclusions Control measures included several interventions, in particular, universal screening of pupils and staff. Screening during school outbreaks is not underpinned by guidance but proved to be a key control measure. Screening of asymptomatic contacts should be considered in similar outbreaks. (Source: Journal of Public Health)
Source: Journal of Public Health - October 19, 2016 Category: Health Management Authors: Bayliss, L., Carr, R., Edeghere, O., Knapper, E., Nye, K., Harvey, G., Adak, G., Duggal, H. Tags: Original article Source Type: research

Exploring overweight and obesity in pre-school children using routinely collected data: a case study of Halton, Northwest England
Conclusions This study may provide evidence that the development of overweight and obesity has its roots in very early life and has highlighted patterns of infant overweight and obesity not previously reported. (Source: Journal of Public Health)
Source: Journal of Public Health - October 19, 2016 Category: Health Management Authors: Perry, C., Thurston, M. N., Arch, B. N. Tags: Original article Source Type: research

Differential associations of cardiovascular disease risk factors with relative wealth in urban-dwelling South Africans
Conclusions Differential distribution of CVDRF by wealth mandates incorporating equity components when developing tailored interventions. (Source: Journal of Public Health)
Source: Journal of Public Health - October 19, 2016 Category: Health Management Authors: Peer, N., Lombard, C., Steyn, K., Levitt, N. Tags: Original article Source Type: research

Maternal obesity in Africa: a systematic review and meta-analysis
Conclusions These results show that Africa's levels of maternal obesity are already having significant adverse effects. Culturally adaptable/sensitive interventions should be developed while monitoring to avoid undesired side effects. (Source: Journal of Public Health)
Source: Journal of Public Health - October 19, 2016 Category: Health Management Authors: Onubi, O. J., Marais, D., Aucott, L., Okonofua, F., Poobalan, A. S. Tags: Original article Source Type: research

Findings from a pilot environmental health intervention at early childhood centers in the District of Columbia
Conclusions The trainings increased knowledge on environmental health hazards among CCPs. Areas of significant risk reduction were under the direct control of the CCPs and corresponded to key items on the knowledge test. (Source: Journal of Public Health)
Source: Journal of Public Health - October 19, 2016 Category: Health Management Authors: Amoah, A. O., Witherspoon, N. O., Perodin, J., Paulson, J. A. Tags: Original article Source Type: research

Integration, influence and change in public health: findings from a survey of Directors of Public Health in England
Conclusions There was a widespread feeling amongst DsPH that they had greater influence since the reforms, and that this went across the local authority and beyond. Public health's influence was most apparent when the transfer of staff to local government had gone well, when collaborative working relationships had developed, and when local partnership groups were seen as being effective. (Source: Journal of Public Health)
Source: Journal of Public Health - October 19, 2016 Category: Health Management Authors: Jenkins, L. M., Bramwell, D., Coleman, A., Gadsby, E. W., Peckham, S., Perkins, N., Segar, J. Tags: Original article Source Type: research