Independent and Combined Effects of Chronic HIV-Infection and Tobacco Smoking on Brain Microstructure
This study aims to evaluate the independent and combined effects of tobacco-smoking and HIV-infection on brain microstructure and cognition using a 2 × 2 design. 21 HIV + Smokers, 25 HIV + Nonsmokers, 25 S eronegative (SN)-Smokers and 23 SN-Nonsmokers were evaluated using diffusion tensor imaging. Fractional anisotropy (FA), mean (MD), radial (RD) and axial (AD) diffusivity were assessed in 8 major cerebral fiber tracts and 5 subcortical regions. Cognitive performance in 7 neurocognitive domains was a lso assessed. Compared to SN, HIV+ had higher AD in genu of corpus callosum...
Source: Journal of NeuroImmune Pharmacology - September 17, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Modulatory Effects of Nicotine on neuroHIV/neuroAIDS
AbstractNicotine, one of the key active ingredients in tobacco smoke, exerts its effects via binding to nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). Although both negative and positive pharmacological effects of nicotine have been shown in numerous animals and human studies, its interaction with human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) have not been fully elucidated. Even though combined anti-retroviral therapy (cART) limits the progression of HIV-1 to acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) remain prevalent. There is thus a compelling need to enhance our understanding of HAN...
Source: Journal of NeuroImmune Pharmacology - September 13, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Macrophages but not Astrocytes Harbor HIV DNA in the Brains of HIV-1-Infected Aviremic Individuals on Suppressive Antiretroviral Therapy
This study demonstrated that HIV reservoirs persist in brain macrophages/microglia during suppressive ART, which cure/treatment strategies will need to focus on targeting. (Source: Journal of NeuroImmune Pharmacology)
Source: Journal of NeuroImmune Pharmacology - September 7, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Executive Dysfunction Early Postnatal Biomarkers among Children Born Extremely Preterm
AbstractWe evaluated the relationship between blood levels of inflammatory and neurotrophic proteins during the first postnatal month in 692 children born before the 28th week of gestation and executive function limitations among those 10-year olds who had an IQ ≥ 70. The measures of dysfunction were Z-scores ≤ -1 on the Differential Ability Scales–II working memory (WM) assessment) (N = 164), the NEPSY-II (A Developmental NEuroPSYchological Assessment-II) Inhibition-Inhibition assessment) (N = 350), the NEPSY-II Inhibition-Switching assessment) (N = 345),...
Source: Journal of NeuroImmune Pharmacology - September 6, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Low-Dose Aspirin Upregulates Tyrosine Hydroxylase and Increases Dopamine Production in Dopaminergic Neurons: Implications for Parkinson ’s Disease
This study underlines the importance of aspirin in stimulating the expression of TH and increasing the level of DA in dopaminergic neurons. At low doses, aspirin increased the expression of TH and the production of DA in mouse MN9D dopaminergic neuronal cells. Accordingly, oral administration of aspirin increased the expression of TH in the nigra and upregulated the level of DA in striatum of normal C57/BL6 mice and aged A53T α-syn transgenic mice. Oral aspirin also improved locomotor activities of normal mice and A53T transgenic mice. While investigating mechanisms, we found the presence of cAMP response element (CR...
Source: Journal of NeuroImmune Pharmacology - September 5, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Dimethyl Fumarate Prevents HIV-Induced Lysosomal Dysfunction and Cathepsin B Release from Macrophages
In conclusion, the improvement in lysosomal function with DMF treatment may represent the possible mechanism to reduce HIV-1 replication and cathepsin B secretion. DMF represents a potential therapeutic strategy agains t HAND. (Source: Journal of NeuroImmune Pharmacology)
Source: Journal of NeuroImmune Pharmacology - September 1, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Methamphetamine Induces Apoptosis of Microglia via the Intrinsic Mitochondrial-Dependent Pathway
We examined the apoptosis-inducing effects of METH on microglial cells using digital holographic microscopy (DHM) to quantify real-time apoptotic volume decrease (AVD) in microglia in a noninvasive manner. METH treatment significantly increased AVD, activated Caspase 3/7, increased the gene expression levels of the pro- apoptosis proteins, APAF-1 and BAX, and decreased mitochondrial DNA content. Using immunofluorescence analysis, we found that METH increased the expression of the mitochondrial proteins cytochrome c and MCL-1, supporting the activation of mitochondrion-dependent (intrinsic) apoptosis pathway. Cellular bio-e...
Source: Journal of NeuroImmune Pharmacology - September 1, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Adenosine Promotes the Recovery of Mice from the Cuprizone-Induced Behavioral and Morphological Changes while Effecting on Microglia and Inflammatory Cytokines in the Brain
AbstractRecent studies have shown that multiple sclerosis (MS) and schizophrenia share similarities in some respects, including white matter damage and neuroinflammation. On the other hand, adenosine was reported to promote oligodendrocyte precursor maturation and remyelinating while influencing microglia activation. The aim of the present study was to examine possible beneficial effects of adenosine on the recovery of cuprizone (CPZ)-exposed mouse which has been used as an animal model of MS and schizophrenia as the CPZ-exposed mouse presents demyelination, oligodendrocyte loss, microglia accumulation, as well as behavior...
Source: Journal of NeuroImmune Pharmacology - September 1, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Role of Exosomes in Human Retroviral Mediated Disorders
AbstractRetroviruses comprise an ancient and varied group of viruses with the unique ability to integrate DNA from an RNA transcript into the genome, a subset of which are able to integrate in humans. The timing of these integrations during human history has dictated whether these viruses have remained exogenous and given rise to various human diseases or have become inseparable from the host genome (endogenous retroviruses). Given the ability of retroviruses to integrate into the host and subsequently co-opt host cellular process for viral propagation, retroviruses have been shown to be closely associated with several cel...
Source: Journal of NeuroImmune Pharmacology - September 1, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Imaging Reporter Strategy to Monitor Gene Activation of Microglia Polarisation States under Stimulation
AbstractMicroglial cells as innate immune key players have a critical and unique role in neurodegenerative disorders. They strongly interact with their microenvironment in a complex manner and react to changes by switching their phenotype and functional activation states. In order to understand the development of brain diseases, it is imperative to elucidate up- or down-regulation of genes involved in microglia polarisation in time-profile by a simple-to-use strategy. Here, we present a new imaging strategy to follow promoter activity of genes involved in microglia polarisation. We lentivirally transduced BV-2 microglia ce...
Source: Journal of NeuroImmune Pharmacology - September 1, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

The Neuro-Immune-Regulators (NIREGs) Promote Tissue Resilience; a Vital Component of the Host ’s Defense Strategy against Neuroinflammation
AbstractAn effective protective inflammatory response in the brain is crucial for the clearance of pathogens (e.g. microbes, amyloid fibrils, prionSC) and should be closely regulated. However, the CNS seems to have limited tissue resilience to withstand the detrimental effects of uncontrolled inflammation compromising functional recovery and tissue repair. Newly described neuro-immune-regulators (NIREGs) are functionally related proteins regulating the severity and duration of the host inflammatory response. NIREGs such as CD200, CD47 and CX3CL1 are vital for increasing tissue resilience and are constitutively expressed by...
Source: Journal of NeuroImmune Pharmacology - September 1, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Extracellular Vesicle Biology in Alzheimer ’s Disease and Related Tauopathy
AbstractExtracellular vesicles (EVs) are physiological vesicles secreted from most eukaryotes and contain cargos of their cell of origin. EVs, and particularly a subset of EV known as exosomes, are emerging as key mediators of cell to cell communication and waste management for cells both during normal organismal function and in disease. In this review, we investigate the rapidly growing field of exosome biology, their biogenesis, cargo loading, and uptake by other cells. We particularly consider the role of exosomes in Alzheimer ’s disease, both as a pathogenic agent and as a disease biomarker. We also explore the e...
Source: Journal of NeuroImmune Pharmacology - September 1, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Physostigmine Restores Impaired Autophagy in the Rat Hippocampus after Surgery Stress and LPS Treatment
In conclusion, activation of autophagy may be essential in physostigmine-induced neuroprotection against surgery stress. (Source: Journal of NeuroImmune Pharmacology)
Source: Journal of NeuroImmune Pharmacology - September 1, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Exosomal miR-9 Released from HIV Tat Stimulated Astrocytes Mediates Microglial Migration
AbstractChronic neuroinflammation still remains a common underlying feature of HIV-infected patients on combined anti-retroviral therapy (cART). Previous studies have reported that despite near complete suppression of virus replication by cART, cytotoxic viral proteins such as HIV trans-activating regulatory protein (Tat) continue to persist in tissues such as the brain and the lymph nodes, thereby contributing, in part, to chronic glial activation observed in HIV-associated neurological disorders (HAND). Understanding how the glial cells cross talk to mediate neuropathology is thus of paramount importance. MicroRNAs (miR)...
Source: Journal of NeuroImmune Pharmacology - September 1, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Critical Role of Beclin1 in HIV Tat and Morphine-Induced Inflammation and Calcium Release in Glial Cells from Autophagy Deficient Mouse
AbstractWe previously showed that autophagy is an important component in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) replication and in the combined morphine-induced neuroinflammation in human astrocytes and microglia. Here we further studied the consequences of autophagy using glial cells of mice partially lacking the essential autophagy gene Atg6 (Beclin1) exposed to HIV  Tat and morphine. Tat is known to cause an inflammatory response, increase calcium release, and possibly interact with autophagy pathway proteins. Following Tat exposure, autophagy-deficient (Becn1+/ −) glial cells had significantly and consistently r...
Source: Journal of NeuroImmune Pharmacology - September 1, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Pneumocystis Pneumonia during Rituximab Treatment in Children with Autoimmune Nerve System Diseases
(Source: Journal of NeuroImmune Pharmacology)
Source: Journal of NeuroImmune Pharmacology - September 1, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

A Quantitative Approach to SIV Functional Latency in Brain Macrophages
AbstractLentiviruses are retroviruses that primarily infect myeloid cells, leading to acute inflammatory infections in many tissues particularly, lung, joints and the central nervous system (CNS). Acute infection by lentiviruses is followed by persistent/latent infections that are not cleared by the host immune system. HIV and SIV are lentiviruses that also infect CD4+ lymphocytes as well as myeloid cells in blood and multiple tissues. HIV infection of myeloid cells in brain, lung and heart cause tissue specific diseases as well as infect cells in gut, lymph nodes and spleen. AIDS dementia and other tissue specific disease...
Source: Journal of NeuroImmune Pharmacology - August 30, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Variants in GABBR1 Gene Are Associated with Methamphetamine Dependence and Two Years ’ Relapse after Drug Rehabilitation
AbstractMethamphetamine (MA) use disorder is a growing global health challenge marked by a steady increase worldwide. GABAergic  system plays an important role in the mechanism of drug dependence, however few studies about the association between methamphetamine use disorder and genes in GABAergic system. Concerning GABBR1 gene which encoding the GABAB receptor subunit 1 is an important regulator in the GABAergic system. The aim of the study is to explore whether GABBR1 gene play a role in methamphetamine dependence and relapse after rehabilitation. Three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs, rs2076483, rs29221, rs71...
Source: Journal of NeuroImmune Pharmacology - August 24, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Correlates of Long-Term Opioid Abstinence After Randomization to Methadone Versus Buprenorphine/Naloxone in a Multi-Site Trial
AbstractOpioid use disorder (OUD) is a chronic, relapsing condition with severe negative health consequences. Previous studies have reported that 5-year opioid abstinence is a good predictor of reduced likelihoods of relapse, but factors that shape long-term opioid abstinence are poorly understood. The present study is based on data from a prospective study of 699 adults with OUD who had been randomized to either methadone or buprenorphine/naloxone and who were followed for at least 5  years. During the 5 years prior to the participants’ last follow-up interview, 232 (33.2%) had achieved 5-year abstinence f...
Source: Journal of NeuroImmune Pharmacology - August 9, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Adenosine Promotes the Recovery of Mice from the Cuprizone-Induced Behavioral and Morphological Changes while Effecting on Microglia and Inflammatory Cytokines in the Brain
AbstractRecent studies have shown that multiple sclerosis (MS) and schizophrenia share similarities in some respects, including white matter damage and neuroinflammation. On the other hand, adenosine was reported to promote oligodendrocyte precursor maturation and remyelinating while influencing microglia activation. The aim of the present study was to examine possible beneficial effects of adenosine on the recovery of cuprizone (CPZ)-exposed mouse which has been used as an animal model of MS and schizophrenia as the CPZ-exposed mouse presents demyelination, oligodendrocyte loss, microglia accumulation, as well as behavior...
Source: Journal of NeuroImmune Pharmacology - August 1, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Pharmacological Effects and Regulatory Mechanisms of Tobacco Smoking Effects on Food Intake and Weight Control
AbstractBeyond promoting smoking initiation and preventing smokers from quitting, nicotine can reduce food intake and body weight and thus is viewed as desirable by some smokers, especially many women. During the last several decades, the molecular mechanisms underlying the inverse correlation between smoking and body weight have been investigated extensively in both animals and humans. Nicotine ’s weight effects appear to result especially from the drug’s stimulation of α3β4 nicotine acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), which are located on pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons in the arcuate nucleus (AR...
Source: Journal of NeuroImmune Pharmacology - July 27, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Psychosocial Correlates of Monocyte Activation and HIV Persistence in Methamphetamine Users
AbstractThis cross-sectional study investigated the associations of psychosocial factors relevant to recovery from substance use disorders with monocyte activation and HIV persistence in a sample of 84 HIV-positive, methamphetamine-using sexual minority men with undetectable HIV viral load (
Source: Journal of NeuroImmune Pharmacology - July 25, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Host and Viral Factors Influencing Interplay between the Macrophage and HIV-1
AbstractHIV-1 persists in cellular reservoirs that cannot be eliminated by antiretroviral therapy (ART). The major reservoir in infected individuals on effective ART is composed of resting memory CD4+ T cells that harbor proviral cDNA, and undergo a state of latency in which viral gene expression is minimal to absent. The CD4+ T cell reservoir has been extensively characterized. However, other HIV-1-permissive cells may contribute to HIV-1 persistence. Lentiviruses have a long recognized association with macrophages. However, the role, if any, played by macrophages in HIV-1 persistence is not well understood. Macrophages a...
Source: Journal of NeuroImmune Pharmacology - July 11, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

The Glucocorticoid Receptor Is a Critical Regulator of HIV Latency in Human Microglial Cells
AbstractWe have developed models of HIV latency using microglia derived from adult human patient brain cortex and transformed with the SV40 T large and hTERT antigens. Latent clones infected by HIV reporter viruses display high levels of spontaneous HIV reactivation in culture. BrainPhys, a medium highly representative of the CNS extracellular environment, containing low glucose and 1% FBS, reduced, but did not prevent, HIV reactivation. We hypothesized that spontaneous HIV reactivation in culture was due to the expression of pro-inflammatory genes, such as TNF- α, taking place in the absence of the natural inhibitor...
Source: Journal of NeuroImmune Pharmacology - July 10, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Dimethyl Fumarate Prevents HIV-Induced Lysosomal Dysfunction and Cathepsin B Release from Macrophages
In conclusion, the improvement in lysosomal function with DMF treatment may represent the possible mechanism to reduce HIV-1 replication and cathepsin B secretion. DMF represents a potential therapeutic strategy agains t HAND. (Source: Journal of NeuroImmune Pharmacology)
Source: Journal of NeuroImmune Pharmacology - July 9, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Ethanol ’s Effects on Transient Receptor Potential Channel Expression in Brain Microvascular Endothelial Cells
We examined the basal expression profiles of all 29 known mammalian TRP channels in mouse BMVECs and determined both EtOH concentration- and time-dependent effects on TRP expression using a PCR array. We also generated an in vitro BBB model to examine the involvement of a chosen TRP channel, TRP melastatin 7 (TRPM7), in EtOH-mediated alteration of BBB permeability. With the exception of theakyrin subfamily, members of five TRP subfamilies were expressed in mouse BMVECs, and their expression levels were modulated by EtOH in a concentration-dependent manner. In the in vitro BBB model, TRPM7 antagonists further enhanced EtOH-...
Source: Journal of NeuroImmune Pharmacology - July 9, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

CCR2 on Peripheral Blood CD14 + CD16 + Monocytes Correlates with Neuronal Damage, HIV-Associated Neurocognitive Disorders, and Peripheral HIV DNA: reseeding of CNS reservoirs?
AbstractHIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) occur in ~50% of HIV infected individuals despite combined antiretroviral therapy. Transmigration into the CNS of CD14+CD16+ monocytes, particularly those that are HIV infected and express increased surface chemokine receptor CCR2, contributes to neuroinflammation and HAND. To examine whether in HIV infected individuals CCR2 on CD14+CD16+ monocytes serves as a potential peripheral blood biomarker of HAND, we examined a cohort of 45 HIV infected people. We correlated CCR2 on CD14+CD16+ monocytes with cognitive status, proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) meas...
Source: Journal of NeuroImmune Pharmacology - July 6, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

The Neuro-Immune-Regulators (NIREGs) Promote Tissue Resilience; a Vital Component of the Host ’s Defense Strategy against Neuroinflammation
AbstractAn effective protective inflammatory response in the brain is crucial for the clearance of pathogens (e.g. microbes, amyloid fibrils, prionSC) and should be closely regulated. However, the CNS seems to have limited tissue resilience to withstand the detrimental effects of uncontrolled inflammation compromising functional recovery and tissue repair. Newly described neuro-immune-regulators (NIREGs) are functionally related proteins regulating the severity and duration of the host inflammatory response. NIREGs such as CD200, CD47 and CX3CL1 are vital for increasing tissue resilience and are constitutively expressed by...
Source: Journal of NeuroImmune Pharmacology - June 16, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Imaging Reporter Strategy to Monitor Gene Activation of Microglia Polarisation States under Stimulation
AbstractMicroglial cells as innate immune key players have a critical and unique role in neurodegenerative disorders. They strongly interact with their microenvironment in a complex manner and react to changes by switching their phenotype and functional activation states. In order to understand the development of brain diseases, it is imperative to elucidate up- or down-regulation of genes involved in microglia polarisation in time-profile by a simple-to-use strategy. Here, we present a new imaging strategy to follow promoter activity of genes involved in microglia polarisation. We lentivirally transduced BV-2 microglia ce...
Source: Journal of NeuroImmune Pharmacology - May 22, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Physostigmine Restores Impaired Autophagy in the Rat Hippocampus after Surgery Stress and LPS Treatment
In conclusion, activation of autophagy may be essential in physostigmine-induced neuroprotection against surgery stress. (Source: Journal of NeuroImmune Pharmacology)
Source: Journal of NeuroImmune Pharmacology - May 22, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Pneumocystis Pneumonia during Rituximab Treatment in Children with Autoimmune Nerve System Diseases
(Source: Journal of NeuroImmune Pharmacology)
Source: Journal of NeuroImmune Pharmacology - May 17, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Critical Role of Beclin1 in HIV Tat and Morphine-Induced Inflammation and Calcium Release in Glial Cells from Autophagy Deficient Mouse
AbstractWe previously showed that autophagy is an important component in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) replication and in the combined morphine-induced neuroinflammation in human astrocytes and microglia. Here we further studied the consequences of autophagy using glial cells of mice partially lacking the essential autophagy gene Atg6 (Beclin1) exposed to HIV  Tat and morphine. Tat is known to cause an inflammatory response, increase calcium release, and possibly interact with autophagy pathway proteins. Following Tat exposure, autophagy-deficient (Becn1+/ −) glial cells had significantly and consistently r...
Source: Journal of NeuroImmune Pharmacology - May 11, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Role of Exosomes in Human Retroviral Mediated Disorders
AbstractRetroviruses comprise an ancient and varied group of viruses with the unique ability to integrate DNA from an RNA transcript into the genome, a subset of which are able to integrate in humans. The timing of these integrations during human history has dictated whether these viruses have remained exogenous and given rise to various human diseases or have become inseparable from the host genome (endogenous retroviruses). Given the ability of retroviruses to integrate into the host and subsequently co-opt host cellular process for viral propagation, retroviruses have been shown to be closely associated with several cel...
Source: Journal of NeuroImmune Pharmacology - April 14, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Methamphetamine Induces Apoptosis of Microglia via the Intrinsic Mitochondrial-Dependent Pathway
We examined the apoptosis-inducing effects of METH on microglial cells using digital holographic microscopy (DHM) to quantify real-time apoptotic volume decrease (AVD) in microglia in a noninvasive manner. METH treatment significantly increased AVD, activated Caspase 3/7, increased the gene expression levels of the pro- apoptosis proteins, APAF-1 and BAX, and decreased mitochondrial DNA content. Using immunofluorescence analysis, we found that METH increased the expression of the mitochondrial proteins cytochrome c and MCL-1, supporting the activation of mitochondrion-dependent (intrinsic) apoptosis pathway. Cellular bio-e...
Source: Journal of NeuroImmune Pharmacology - April 11, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Abstracts from the Joint Meeting of the International Society for NeuroVirology (ISNV) and the Society on NeuroImmune Pharmacology (SNIP) April 10-14, 2018, Chicago, Illinois, USA
(Source: Journal of NeuroImmune Pharmacology)
Source: Journal of NeuroImmune Pharmacology - March 27, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

HIV and the Macrophage: From Cell Reservoirs to Drug Delivery to Viral Eradication
AbstractMacrophages serve as host cells, inflammatory disease drivers and drug runners for human immunodeficiency virus infection and treatments. Low-level viral persistence continues in these cells in the absence of macrophage death. However, the cellular microenvironment changes as a consequence of viral infection with aberrant production of pro-inflammatory factors and promotion of oxidative stress. These herald viral spread from macrophages to neighboring CD4+ T cells and end organ damage. Virus replicates in tissue reservoir sites that include the nervous, pulmonary, cardiovascular, gut, and renal organs. However, eac...
Source: Journal of NeuroImmune Pharmacology - March 23, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Cannabis Addiction and the Brain: a Review
AbstractCannabis is the most commonly used substance of abuse in the United States after alcohol and tobacco. With a recent increase in the rates of cannabis use disorder (CUD) and a decrease in the perceived risk of cannabis use, it is imperative to assess the addictive potential of cannabis. Here we evaluate cannabis use through the neurobiological model of addiction proposed by Koob and Volkow. The model proposes that repeated substance abuse drives neurobiological changes in the brain that can be separated into three distinct stages, each of which perpetuates the cycle of addiction. Here we review previous research on ...
Source: Journal of NeuroImmune Pharmacology - March 19, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

A Role for the Non-Receptor Tyrosine Kinase Abl2/Arg in Experimental Neuroinflammation
AbstractMultiple sclerosis is a neuroinflammatory degenerative disease, caused by activated immune cells infiltrating the CNS. The disease etiology involves both genetic and environmental factors. The mouse genetic locus,Eae27, linked to disease development in the experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) model for multiple sclerosis, was studied in order to identify contributing disease susceptibility factors and potential drug targets for multiple sclerosis. Studies of anEae27 congenic mouse strain, revealed that genetic variation withinEae27 influences EAE development. TheAbl2 gene, encoding the non-receptor tyros...
Source: Journal of NeuroImmune Pharmacology - March 17, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Tau Phosphorylation is Impacted by Rare AKAP9 Mutations Associated with Alzheimer Disease in African Americans
This study shows the impact of rare functionalAKAP9 mutations on Tau, a central mechanism of AD pathogenesis, in LCLs derived from AD and control subjects. (Source: Journal of NeuroImmune Pharmacology)
Source: Journal of NeuroImmune Pharmacology - March 7, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Exosomal miR-9 Released from HIV Tat Stimulated Astrocytes Mediates Microglial Migration
AbstractChronic neuroinflammation still remains a common underlying feature of HIV-infected patients on combined anti-retroviral therapy (cART). Previous studies have reported that despite near complete suppression of virus replication by cART, cytotoxic viral proteins such as HIV trans-activating regulatory protein (Tat) continue to persist in tissues such as the brain and the lymph nodes, thereby contributing, in part, to chronic glial activation observed in HIV-associated neurological disorders (HAND). Understanding how the glial cells cross talk to mediate neuropathology is thus of paramount importance. MicroRNAs (miR)...
Source: Journal of NeuroImmune Pharmacology - March 1, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Inflammasome Activation by Methamphetamine Potentiates Lipopolysaccharide Stimulation of IL-1 β Production in Microglia
AbstractMethamphetamine (Meth) is an addictive psychostimulant abused worldwide. Ample evidence indicate that chronic abuse of Meth induces neurotoxicity via microglia-associated neuroinflammation and the activated microglia present in both Meth-administered animals and human abusers. The development of anti-neuroinflammation as a therapeutic strategy against Meth dependence promotes research to identify inflammatory pathways that are specifically tied to Meth-induced neurotoxicity. Currently, the exact mechanisms for Meth-induced microglia activation are largely unknown. NLRP3 is a well-studied cytosolic pattern recogniti...
Source: Journal of NeuroImmune Pharmacology - February 28, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Functional Meningeal Lymphatics and Cerebrospinal Fluid Outflow
AbstractFunctional meningeal lymphatic system plays a crucial role in outflow of cerebrospinal fluid. Metabolites and neurotoxins in the cerebrospinal fluid may be excreted via this system and accumulate in the cervical lymph nodes. In this letter, we highlighted the role of functional meningeal lymphatics and cerebrospinal fluid outflow. (Source: Journal of NeuroImmune Pharmacology)
Source: Journal of NeuroImmune Pharmacology - February 20, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors (NRTIs) Induce Pathological Pain through Wnt5a-Mediated Neuroinflammation in Aging Mice
In this study, we determined the effect of nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) on the development of mechanical allodynia and the potential underlying mechanism in aging mice (15.5 months). We found that systemic administration of individual NRTIs, including ddC (2′-3′-dideoxycytidine) , ddI (didanosine), AZT (3′-azido-3′-deoxythymidine) and d4T (2′, 3′-didehydro-2′, 3′-dideoxythymidine), induced allodynia in similar magnitudes and temporal profiles. We used ddC as a representative to investigate cellular and molecular processes induced by NRTIs in the sp...
Source: Journal of NeuroImmune Pharmacology - February 10, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

A Prospective Study of Humoral and Cellular Immune Responses to Hepatitis B Vaccination in Habitual Marijuana Smokers
AbstractExposure to Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) in vitro and in animal models can significantly impair the differentiation, activation and function of dendritic cells, T cells and B cells. However, studies directly assessing the impact of marijuana smoking on human immunity are lacking. A prospective study of immune responses to a standard hepatitis B vaccination was therefore carried out in a matched cohort of 9 marijuana smokers (MS) and 9 nonsmokers (NS). In addition to their regular marijuana use, MS smoked four marijuana cigarettes in a monitored setting on the day of each vaccination. Blood samples were colle...
Source: Journal of NeuroImmune Pharmacology - January 16, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

FDC:TFH Interactions within Cervical Lymph Nodes of SIV-Infected Rhesus Macaques
AbstractCerebrospinal fluid (CSF) drains via the lymphatic drainage pathway. This lymphatic pathway connects the central nervous system (CNS) to the cervical lymph node (CLN). As the CSF drains to CLN via the dural and nasal lymphatics, T cells and antigen presenting cells pass along the channels from the subarachnoid space through the cribriform plate. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) may also egress from the CNS along this pathway. As a result, HIV egressing from the CNS may accumulate within the CLN. Towards this objective, we analyzed CLNs isolated from rhesus macaques that were chronically-infected with simian immun...
Source: Journal of NeuroImmune Pharmacology - December 29, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research